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geograhical indication by vikas n friends


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Intellectual Property Rights : Geographial indications

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geograhical indication by vikas n friends

  1. 1. Geographical Indications Submitted By- Abhishek Dixit Kunal Sammi Mehul Nitin Vikas Kumar Vipul Wadhwa
  2. 2. Scope of Presentation <ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications – Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current International debate on Geographical Indications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overview of the Indian GI registration system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications as a tool for developing countries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Intellectual Property <ul><li>Outcome of one’s intellectual efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Different from other forms of property </li></ul><ul><li>Incentive to create – reward </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage in Competition - creates Monopoly right </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of IP Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 38 – ICJ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customary International Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precedents and Doctrines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General principles of law </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. TRIPS Agreement <ul><ul><li>Copyright and related rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade marks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications (GIs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout designs of integrated circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of undisclosed information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of anti-competitive practices in contractual licences </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. GIs – the concept <ul><li>GIs are essentially the DNA of Nature impregnated into the Mother Earth – difficult to clone and beyond scientific calculation. </li></ul><ul><li>GIs are about culture, geography, traditions, heritage and traditional practices of people and countries. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Geographical Indications <ul><li>Any noun or adjective (need not necessarily be a geographical name) that designates geographical location and would tend to be regarded by buyers as descriptive of the geographical location of origin of goods. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Geographical Indications Protection Given To : indications which identify goods as originating from/manufactured in a particular territory where a given quality, reputation or other characteristics of the goods is essentially attributable to that region
  8. 8. Objective : Customers must not be misled Marking must not mislead No Dilution Economic prosperity
  9. 9. Features Of A G I Statute : No individual ownership Ownership by association of persons Registration Validity : 10 years No assignment , licensing or mortgage Unauthorised use has Civil / Criminal liab. Currently no specific Law in Force
  10. 10. GIs and Developing Countries <ul><li>Instrument of Rural Development - promotion of products having certain characteristics could be of considerable benefit to the rural economy, in particular to less-favored or remote areas, by improving the incomes of farmers and by retaining the rural population in these areas (EC Regulation 2081/92) – e.g. Italian Tuscan Olive Oil sold at premium ever since its registration in 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation of products can lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in prices of the protected products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows genuine producers to capture the rents, entry barriers for “fakes” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Antiguan Coffee and Darjeeling Tea sold than produced - shows large market for genuine products . </li></ul><ul><li>Issue is whether the framework is appropriate for developing countries. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What is the GI extension issue? <ul><ul><li>Article 22 deals with GIs at a general level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 23 offers an additional level of protection to wine and spirit GIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional level means that member states are to protect against incorrect usage of the relevant GI even without the requirement of deception and confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under Article 22 they are to protect against misleading and incorrect usage . </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. To illustrate…. <ul><li>Article 22 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The expression “Indian Gruyere cheese” actionable only on proving that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gruyere as a cheese is well known in India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The said expression would be misleading as to geographical origin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Article 23 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The expression “Indian Champagne” actionable: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merely on the ground that such usage is incorrect (despite the de-localizing factor ‘Indian’) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessary to prove that it is well-known in India. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What is so unfair about Art. 23? <ul><li>In the same provision dealing with one type of product, there are two levels of protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to only wine producing countries – most of them are developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Most developing countries do not have wines as a major revenue earning product – mostly their products are handicrafts, rice, tea coffee, spices etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Their economies are heavily dependant on such products </li></ul><ul><li>Given the disparities, these products might find it difficult to compete in international markets </li></ul><ul><li>Take the case of India which has a diversity in every area – be it culture, traditions, food, art forms, crafts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ground realities of Article 23 <ul><li>Scope of Article 23 protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wine and spirit GIs are protected against qualifiers such as ‘kind’, ‘type’, ‘style’, ‘imitation’ etc., as well as de-localizing elements. There is no need to prove deception and confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, these GIs are spared from varying and subjective interpretations of ‘unfair competition’ by various national courts thereby leading to an equal and even legal status of the GI. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consequently, the GI never becomes generic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is not under the purview of Article 23? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects only identical GIs - Champagne v. Champagne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not protect expressions deceptively similar to a GI - Cognac v. Calognac </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Practical effects of protection under Article 23 <ul><li>Wine and spirit GIs get an additional level of protection and will never become generic once protected </li></ul><ul><li>Other GI owners have to invest huge resources to defend their GIs in foreign markets </li></ul><ul><li>WTO members can also enter into negotiations for increased level of protection of wine and spirit GIs with other members without letting the exceptions in Article 24 affecting them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For instance, if France wants to hold negotiations with US for Champagne, US can’t use Art. 24.4 exception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas if India wants to hold negotiations with the US for Darjeeling or Basmati misuse, US can use the 24.4 and 24.5 exceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The protection offered to GIs under TRIPS amounts to having double standards </li></ul>
  16. 16. Indian GI Act Framework <ul><li>GIs can be granted to a corporation, a voluntary association etc or any organization or authority established by or under any law for the time being in force representing the interest of the producers of the concerned goods. </li></ul><ul><li>GIs protect and reward traditions while allowing for products to evolve over time </li></ul><ul><li>GIs can be protected over long periods as long as the collective tradition is maintained – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Act protects GIs for an initial period of 10 years, which can be renewed after the expiry of the initial period of protection for another 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIs would cease to be on the register if not renewed six months after the expiration of the last registration </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. India’s famous GIs <ul><li>Banarasi silks </li></ul><ul><li>Paschmina shawls </li></ul><ul><li>Kashmir carpets </li></ul><ul><li>Basmati rice </li></ul><ul><li>Darjeeling tea </li></ul><ul><li>Assam tea </li></ul><ul><li>Bengal Cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Alphonso Mangoes </li></ul><ul><li>Pochampalli silk </li></ul><ul><li>Chanderi silk </li></ul><ul><li>Hyderabad pearls </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala Nendran bananas </li></ul><ul><li>Jaipur silver jewellery </li></ul><ul><li>Nilgiri tea </li></ul><ul><li>Coorg coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Mysore sandal products </li></ul><ul><li>Mysore silk </li></ul><ul><li>Malabar pepper </li></ul><ul><li>Kancheepuram silks </li></ul><ul><li>Lonawala chikis (food stuff) </li></ul><ul><li>Nilgiri tea </li></ul><ul><li>Coir products from Kerala </li></ul><ul><li>Cardamom from Kerala </li></ul><ul><li>Aranmula mirrors </li></ul><ul><li>Nagpur oranges </li></ul><ul><li>Phulkari embroidery work </li></ul>
  18. 18. 12.12.05 Himachal Pradesh Tea Kangra Tea 12.12.05 Tamil Nadu Textiles Madurai Sungudi 12.12.05 Himachal Pradesh Textiles Kullu Shawl 28.11.05 Karnataka Textiles Mysore Silk 19.09.05 Maharashtra Textiles Solapur Terry Towel 19.09.05 Maharashtra Textiles Solapur Chaddar 19.09.05 Tamil Nadu Textiles Salem Fabric 19.09.05 Kerala Metal Mirror Aranmula Kannadi 02.06.05 Mysore, Karnataka Incense sticks Mysore Agarbathi 05.07.05 Erode,Tamil Nadu Textile, carpets Bhavani Jamakkalam 02.06.05 Tamil Nadu Textiles Kancheepuram silk 05.07.05 Kota, Rajasthan Textiles Kota Doria 02.06.05 Koraput, Orissa Textile Kotpad Handloom fabric Madhya Pradesh 28.01.05 Guna, Textile Chanderi saree 31.12.04 Andhra Pradesh Textile Pochampally Ikat 29.10.04 West Bengal Tea Darjeeling Tea Date of Registration State     Product     Geographical Indication    
  19. 19. 30.01.2006 Karnataka Paintings Mysore Traditional Paintings 30.01.2006 Karnataka Embroidery (Textiles) Kasuti Embroidery 30.01.2006 Karnataka Handicrafts Mysore Rosewood Inlay 30.01.2006 Tamil Nadu Wet Grinder Coimbatore Wet Grinder 30.01.2006 Karnataka Handicrafts Channapatna Toys and Dolls 30.01.2006 Karnataka Handicrafts Bidriware 30.01.2006 Karnataka Soap Mysore Sandal Soap 30.01.2006 Karnataka Essential Oil Mysore Sandalwood Oil 30.01.2006 Karnataka Horticulture Product Nanjanagud Banana 30.01.2006 Karnataka Horticulture Product Mysore Betel Leaf 30.01.2006 Karnataka Horticulture Product Coorg Orange Date of Registration State     Product     Geographical Indication    
  20. 20. Aranmula mirrors
  21. 21. Basmati rice
  22. 22. Alphonso Mangoes
  23. 23. Case of Basmati Rice <ul><li>Bas – Aroma, Basmati – Aromatic Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Production area – belt on Northern India and adjacent part of Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Unique Characteristics – long grain (increases substantially on cooking), distinctive aroma and taste. </li></ul><ul><li>Case for joint registration – India and Pakistan. </li></ul>
  24. 24. GI Registration in SAARC <ul><li>Economic potential untapped </li></ul><ul><li>Products similarity - distinctive signs for distinct products </li></ul><ul><li>Need to address territoriality - SAARC cooperation needed </li></ul><ul><li>Need to protect at home – essential clause of TRIPS Agreement - GI registration not in itself can protect valuable reputation. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to take this as a development issue </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Governments </li></ul>
  25. 25. Registry <ul><li>At Chennai having all India jurisdiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Registry maintains a Register of GI which is divided in to two parts, Part A and Part B. Part A contains details of distinguishing characteristics of the goods and of the registered proprietor which would be an association of persons or producers or a body representing interest of such producers like for instance the Tea Board, Coffee Board, Spices Board etc. To include all producers a collective reference may be made in the application. </li></ul><ul><li>Part B contains particulars of ‘authorised users’ of GI such as those producers (traders and dealers) who have not been included in the original application for registration. (this provision included due to socio economic factors) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Prohibitions <ul><li>The use of which would be likely to deceive or cause confusion; or </li></ul><ul><li>The use of which would be contrary to any law for the time being in force;or </li></ul><ul><li>which comprises or contains scandalous or obscene matter; or </li></ul><ul><li>which comprises or contains any matter likely to hurt the religious susceptibilities of any class or section of the citizens of India; or </li></ul><ul><li>which would otherwise be disentitled to protection in a court; or </li></ul><ul><li>which are determined to generic names or indications of goods and are, therefore, not or ceases to be protected in their country of origin, or which have fallen in to disuse in that country; or </li></ul><ul><li>which, although literally true as to the territory, region or locality in which the goods originate, but falsely represent to the persons that the goods originate in another territory, region or locality, as the case may be. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Effect <ul><li>The Act provides that once the GI is registered, an infringement action can be initiated both by the registered proprietor and by authorised users whose names have been entered on the Register. </li></ul><ul><li>A registered GI is infringed by a person who not being an authorised user, uses such GI by any means in the designation or presentation that indicates or suggests that such goods originates in a geographical area other than the true place of origin of such goods in a misleading manner or uses a GI which constitutes an act of Unfair competition (Act explains it as dishonest practices). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Thank You COGNAC