Edwin Landseer Lutyens (1869-1944) born in
He established his own office at the age of 20.
Lutyens embarked on a long career included every
kind of commission, from secular buildings to town
Architectural styles: Romantic Vernacular, NeoGeorgian, and Neo-Classical.
Working style: Sense of proportion and organizational
principles and symmetry with use of available local
Houses for the English nouveau riche(vernacular style).
Deanery Gardens house, Sonning, Berkshire.
Middlefield, Great Helford, Cambridge.
Heathcoate, Ilkley, Yorkshire(Neo-classical).
Viceroy's House or rashtrapati bhavan,New Delhi (Neo
Amesbury Prep School in Hindhead, Surrey.
India gate (1931).
Free Church, Hampstead Garden Suburb(1920).
Hampton Court Bridge(1930).
Deanery Gardens house,
Hampton Court Bridge
Knighthood award in 1918.
Royal Academician in 1920.
Royal Gold Medal for Architecture in 1921.
AIA Gold Medal in 1925.
Architect : Edwin Landseer Lutyens
Time period : 1913-1930
Architectural style : The Mughal architectural
designs, Persian art forms, Indian designs and the
European architectural styles.
Floor area :200,000 sq ft
Made for : Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official residence
of the Rashtrapati or the President of India.
No steel was used to construct Rashtrapati
In 1916 the Imperial Delhi committee dismissed
Lutyens's proposal to alter the gradient. Lutyens
thought Baker was more concerned with making
money and pleasing the government, rather than
making a good architectural design.
The Rashtrapati Bhavan is the biggest residence of the
Head of the State in the world.
The structure is built using 700 million bricks and
three million cubic feet of stone.
Rashtrapati Bhavan has Buddhist
railings, chhajjas, chhatris ,jaalis and Indian temple
bells in its pillars.
Dome of the building is said to have been influenced
by Roman architecture, it indicates an influence of the
famous Sanchi Stupa.
The layout of the palace is designed around a massive
square with many courtyards and open inner areas
There are separate wings for the Viceroy and another
wing for guests. The Viceroy’s wing is a separate fourstorey house in itself, with its own court areas within.
At the centre of the main part of the
palace, underneath the main dome, is the Durbar Hall.
Jaipur column placed in the front of the main building
in east side.
Mughal gardens located in the backside of the façade
on west side.
In the hall, the columns are made in Delhi order which
combines vertical lines with the motif of a bell.
The vertical lines from the column were also used in
the frieze around the room, which could not have been
done with one of the traditional Greek orders of
The hall has a 2-ton chandelier which hangs from a 33metre height. The two state drawing rooms, the state
supper room and the state library are each on the four
corners of the hall.
There are also other rooms such as many loggias
(galleries with open air on one side) which face out
into the courtyards, a large dining hall with an
extremely long table, sitting rooms, billiards
rooms, and a large ball room, and staircases.
The ancillary dome-like structure on top of the
building is known as a CHUTTRI, an integral part of
Indian architectural design.
The dome in the middle involved a mixture of Indian
and British styles. In the center surmounted on top of
a drum, which stands out from the rest of the
building, due to its height.
The dome is exactly in the middle of the diagonals
between the four corners of the building.
The dome is more than twice the height of the rest of
There is also an open area in one room to the
sky, which lets in much of the natural light.
Chhajjas are stone slabs which are fixed below the roof of a
building and are designed for the purposes of preventing
the sunrays from falling on the windows and protecting the
walls from the rains in the monsoon.
Chhatris adorn the rooftops of the building and make an
exception to the horizontal line through their elevated
Jaalis, like chhajjas and chhatris, are also of typical Indian
designs which add beauty to the architecture of the
Rashtrapati Bhavan. Jaalis are the stone slabs containing
lots of perforations which are designed with delicate floral
and geometric patterns.
Lutyens very carefully used chhajjas, chhatris and jaalis and
skillfully harnessed the utility of these designs by
deploying them at appropriate places.
In few of the jaalis that are installed in the Rashtrapati
Bhavan, Lutyens also blended European styles to further
enhance their aesthetics and utility.
The Jaipur Column, 145 feet
topped by a bronze lotus
from which rises a sixpointed glass star.
An interesting details about
the column is that inside the
stone shaft runs a steel tube
which attached the lotus and
the star, which weigh a little
more than five tones, to a
concrete block in the
Yellow Drawing Room.
North Drawing Room.
Marble Hall (Left, center and right).