Born in Lambeth, London, the son of a Welsh millwright, got trained
by the architect Sir Robert Taylor.
Initially he seems to have pursued a career as a surveyor, builder
and carpenter. This gave him an income of around £300 a year.. He
established his own architectural practice in 1777.
John Nash helped define the style of an era. Through his friendship
with the Prince Regent, his influence on Regency art and
architecture cannot be overstated.
John nash’s contributions to the face of London is immense. Every
part of the city was touched by the hand of Nash’s neo-classical
style so admired by the Prince Regent, later George IV.
He was a city planner best known for his development of Regent’s
Park and Regent Street, a royal estate in northern London that he
partly converted into a varied residential area, which still provides
some of London’s most charming features.
He remodeled the Royal Pavilion (1815–1822)
He also redesigned St. James’s Park (1827–29), London, and
began to reconstruct Buckingham House, London, as a royal
palace (from 1821).
Buckingham Palace was a commission which he was still engaged
upon when George IV died, and the work was taken off him and
completed by Edward Blore. He also took away Nash's entrance to
the palace forecourt, which survives as Marble Arch.
The West Facade Of Buckingham Palace :
Outside London, Nash's best-known work is the rebuilding
of Brighton Pavilion. He built himself a mansion, East Cowes
Castle, where he died in 1835.
'Regent’s Park or Mary Le Bone Park, is a spacious enclosure on the
North side of the Metropolis.
It is nearly of a circular form, and comprises about 450 acres, laid out
in groundcovers , combined with various pieces of water and
intersected by several roads.
In the center are 8 villas, and around the park are noble ranges of
buildings in various styles of architecture.
The plan of the Park is formed upon such a scale of grandeur as to
hide all other modern improvements. The objects proposed to be
obtained are –
The beauty of that part of the Metropolis, by the formation of a
spacious area for exercise.
The erection of noble mansions for the residence of the higher
To go in to the Park, we go around the projecting corner and garden of the
earliest of the Nash Terraces (started 1820), which is Cornwall Terrace.
The architect was actually Decimus Burton, though supervised by John Nash
and worked to his overall design for the Park.
Its characterized by its regularity and beauty
The ground story is rusticated, and the principal stories are of the Corinthian
order, with fluted shafts, well proportioned capitals, and an entablature of equal
The other embellishments of Cornwall Terrace are in writer taste, and the
whole presents a facade of great architectural beauty and elegance.
The next Nash terrace is the smaller, plainer Ulster Terrace, from 18241825.
And beyond this are Park Square and Park Crescent.
Park Crescent, with its perfect Ionic colonnade of doubled pillars all the
way round, was originally conceived by Nash as the half of a complete
circus, of extraordinary size, but in the event, the two facing terraces of
Park Square complete the composition (1823-25).
In the park, The formal Avenue Gardens opposite Park Crescent and
Square contains some ornamental features.
To the corner of the Park, is Nash's rather short Cambridge Terrace
Then we pass Chester Terrace, an incredibly long and grand facade in
Corinthian, by Nash.
Later we come across, Cumberland Terrace, with the central block
bearing 10 huge Corinthian pillars, with a very long pediment on top.
And the park includes other large and short terraces, gardens and
structures like Gloucester Gate, with the accompanying Gloucester
Lodge, modern London Central Mosque, St John's Lodge
Gardens, Sussex Place, Clarence Terrace etc.
Carlton House was the town
house of the Prince Regent for
several decades from 1783 until it
was demolished forty years later.
It faced the south side of Pall Mall,
and its gardens touched St.
James’s Park .
In 1783 George III handed the
house over, with £60,000 to
renovate it, to George, Prince of
Wales on his coming of age.
During the following years the
interiors were remodeled and
refurnished on a splendid scale.
Construction at Carlton House
came to a halt because of the
Prince of Wales’ mounting debts.
Costs continued to soar and more
money had to be found by the
The spectacular oval staircase and a suite of rooms that led Horace
Walpole to claim that when completed, Carlton House would be ―the
most perfect in Europe‖.
Carlton House was approximately 202′ long, and 130′ deep when completed.
Visitors entered the house through a hexa style portico of Corinthian columns
that led to a foyer that was flanked on either side by anterooms.
Carlton House was unusual in that the visitor entered the house on the main
floor. (Most London mansions and palaces of the time followed the Palladian
architectural concept of a low ground floor (or rustic) with the principal floor
From the foyer, the visitor entered the two storey top lit entrance hall that was
decorated with Ionic columns of yellow marble . Beyond the hall was an
octagonal room that was also top lit.
On becoming King George IV in 1820 the Prince Regent felt that his own
residence; the official royal residence of St. James’s Palace and his father’s
Buckingham House were all inadequate for his needs. Some consideration
was given to rebuilding Carlton House on a far larger scale, but in the end
Buckingham House was rebuilt as Buckingham Palace instead. Carlton
House was demolished in 1826-27 and replaced with two grand white
terraces of houses known as Carlton House Terrace.
The interiors were sumptuous and splendid.
The entrance hall gave no real hint of the magnificence to come
Some other works:
Trafalgar Square (first version)
The Royal Mews
The Brighton Royal Pavilion
Guildhall, Newport, Isle of
Whitson Court, near Newport
Caerhays Castle, Cornwall
He was an English architect who specialised in the
He was son of a bricklayer, rose to the top of his
profession, becoming professor of architecture at
the Royal Academy, an official architect to the
Office of Works and received a knighthood in 1831.
His architectural works are distinguished by their
clean lines, massing of simple form, decisive
detailing, careful proportions and skillful use of light
It was not until the late 19th century that the
influence of Sir John's architecture was widely felt.
His best-known work was the Bank of England (his
work there is largely destroyed), a building which
had widespread effect on commercial architecture.
He also design Dulwich Picture Gallery, with its top
lit galleries it was a major influence on the planning
of subsequent art galleries and museums.
His major legacy is Sir John Soane's Museum, in
Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, formed from his
former home and office that he designed to display
art works and architectural artifacts that he
collected during his lifetime.
SOANE MUSEUM, LONDON
Sir John Soane's Museum was formerly the home
of the neo-classical architect Sir John Soane.
It holds many drawings and models of his projects
and the collections of paintings, drawings and
antiquities that he assembled.
The Museum is in the Holborn district of central
London, England, on Lincoln's Inn Fields.
It is a non-departmental public body sponsored by
the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
The picture on left hand shows
the facade of Sir John Soane's
House (No. 12) around 1812,
before it was purchased him. It
is just a normal house with
conventional plain brick in that
period. And the picture on right
hand shows the facade of it
today. It is constructed in stone
and brick, the stone having
been subsequently painted for
Before the rebuilding, the house had 4 floors (including the basement) but
it is 5 floors nowadays. Those original balconies on ground floor, first floor
and second floor were replaced by windows after the rebuilding.
How it came into existence?
Soane demolished and
rebuilt three houses in
succession on the north
side of Lincoln's Inn
He began with No. 12
(between 1792 and
1794), externally a plain
brick house. After
becoming Professor of
Architecture at the Royal
Academy in 1806,
Soane purchased No.
13, the house next door,
today the Museum, and
rebuilt it in two phases in
1808-09 and 1812.
In 1808-09 he constructed his drawing office and
"museum" on the site of the former stable block at the
back, using primarily top lighting.
In 1812 he rebuilt the front part of the site, adding a
projecting Portland Stone facade to the basement,
ground and first floor levels and the centre bay of the
second floor. Originally this formed three open loggias,
but Soane glazed the arches during his lifetime.
In 1823, when he was over 70, he purchased a third
house, No. 14, which he rebuilt in 1823-24.
This project allowed him to construct a picture gallery,
linked to No.13, on the former stable block of No. 14.
Ground floor plan for Sir
John Soane's Museum.
g.New Court h.New
i .Central dome
l .Small Study room
n .Recessed room
The most famous spaces in the house are those
at the rear of the Museum - the Dome Area,
Colonnade and Museum Corridor.
View of picture room and
Monks parlour (below)
These are mostly toplit that provide idea of ingenious
The ingeniously designed Picture Gallery has walls
composed of large 'moveable planes' (like large
cupboard doors)that allow it to house three times as
many items as a space of this size could normally
When visiting, it is necessary to request the planes to be
opened and wait for a group to gather before this is
The more domestic rooms of No. 13 are at the front of
the house, many of them highly unusual, but often in
•The picture on left shows the
basement plan of the No.13 and
extension behind No.14. The front
part of the drawing ( bottom the
drawing) is conventional domestic
offices. On the left top corner ,it is
the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I.
It is named Sepulchral chamber by
Sir John Soane.
•The Soane's first house, No.12 is
to the left, and where the Museum's
temporary exhibition space is today
located, is not shown on this plan.
The half part in the front of the
house are rooms for living.
• Those rooms were build by wood.
•Walls, floors and staricases are all
Breakfast room has a
domed ceiling , has a
round window in the
center and is surrounded
by convex mirrors.
Although it is a breakfast
room, drawings are hung
on walls , sculptures are
on tables and on top of
•Drawings are hung on the flat celling in the library
room, the constructive design bookcase form, a big
mirror in the center of the room and two big windows
face to street.Windows in the house have big size, and
celling windows also provide natural light from sky.
•Those detail design reflects the architect's features
again, simple form, and skillful use of light sources.
The Library-Dining Room
reflects the influence of
Etruscan tombs and perhaps
even gothic design in its list of
small pendants like those in fan
vaulting. It is decorated in a rich
Picture above shows the section of the museum, the space
is fully used to its maximum. Every detail is a artwork, such
as a lamp, a chair, window's frame , staircases, patterns on
the window and so on.
On 16 October 1788, he succeeded Sir Robert
Taylor as architect and surveyor to the Bank of
His appointment to the Bank was the most
important of his distinguished career.
He extended the Bank's site and eventually
enclosed it in 1828 with a windowless wall.
The structure of 'Soane's Bank of England'
remained more or less untouched until it was
demolished and a new building erected by the
architect Herbert Baker between the two World
Extension of the Bank to the northwest, the exterior wall was extended
around the junction of Lothbury and
Princes Street, forming the 'Tivoli
Corner' which is based on the Temple
of Vesta, Tivoli that Soane had visited
and much admired.
The Colonial office, Consols office and
great rotunda were large public halls
,dignified, spacious and remarkably
imaginative in design.
He used arch forms, windowed drum
clerestories, and domes to create
spaces that are intricate in form but
simple in detail.
Perspective of Lothbury
Court, the back entrance
to the Bank
Its triumphal architecture was not lost,
however, as it was glorified in many popular
guidebooks and Soane exhibited his design
for it at the Royal Academy. The Court's
architecture resembled an imperial Roman
forum, suggesting the Bank of England as a
self-contained city. Lothbury Court
represented the Bank's own glories.
Despite its grandeur,
Lothbury Court was
merely a service
entrance to the Bank,
for bullion vans to
enter and unload their
valuable goods. For
security purposes, its
never used, and so the
remained quite remote.
Rotunda is a major
Feature of the museum
and dates from 1930’s
when bank was rebuilt in
its present from. Large
showcases around the
perimeter of rotunda, each
focusing on an important
theme or period, complete
the chronological history of
The draped female figures supporting the ends of the
showcases and columns in the lantern are Soane
originals, rescued from demolition in 1920’s and re-used
Henri was a French architect. After spending six years at Rome , he
opened an architectural training workshop, which quickly became the
center of the Rationalist view.
He was noted for his use of iron frame construction, and was one of
the first to realize the importance of its use.
Henri Labrouste, born in Paris under the Consulate comes from a
family of lawyers favorable to revolutionary ideas but moderate.
Labrouste entered Collège Sainte-Barbe as a student in 1809.
In 1823 he won the departmental prize, and worked as a lieutenantinspector (sous-inspecteur).
1824 was a turning point in Labrouste's life, as he won the
competition with a design of a Supreme Court of Appeals. In
November he left Paris for Italy.
Henri Labrouste is one of the few 19th-century architects who still
inspires admiration, both in France and abroad. The rationality of the
solutions he found to complex building programs, the powerful quality
of his projects and creations, the strange singularity of their ornament,
and the importance of iron and cast iron in their construction make his
work an essential milestone in the evolution of architecture.
As recipient of the Prix de Rome in architecture, Henri Labrouste lived
in Italy from 1825 to 1830. During his stay, he executed, a series of
yearly projects, as well as making numerous studies of ancient
Already in Italy, Labrouste showed a distinct interest in complex
building programs:, charterhouses, slaughterhouses. The first
competitions that he won, for a cantonal asylum in Lausanne (1837)
and a prison in Alessandria (1840), brought him his first professional
The Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve is a French National Library in Paris,
The current structure, built by architect Henri Labrouste in 1851, was built on
the original site of the College de Montaigu.
The Library is built on a narrow piece of land 85 meters long and 21 meters
wide on top of the Montagne Sainte-Genevieve.
Scholar E. Stuart Saunders describes the Bibliotheque Sainte-Genevieve as,
"Born as an abbey library, reconstituted in the 17th century as a scholarly library,
it has evolved into an encyclopedic library for scholars, students, and the
general public. In the 18th century it had one of the largest collections in France;
for much of the 19th and 20th centuries it attracted perhaps more patrons than
any other library in France.
The driving factors behind the new construction are twofold :
The previous structure had fallen on disrepair.
The number of patrons were increasing so rapidly that the space become
overcrowded. To accommodate the needs of patrons, the library added evening
hours in 1831. On peak days, the library would receive around 1000 visitors.
Upon consultation by the Parisian
government, architect Henri
Labrouste suggested a demolition
and new construction on the
historic site. Labrouste's project
was approved in July 1843 and
completed in 1851.
Henri's design and "outstandingly
sympathetic" handling of iron as a
building material is considered
Henri described his task in his
journal stating, "I first considered
for the central axis of the first floor
reading room a row of stone or
marble columns carrying arches,
but I had to acknowledge that the
end arcades would not be
sufficiently strong. I had therefore
to rely upon very thin columns for
the bearing points in the middle of
the room, letting air and light
circulate in all directions; I was
thus led to propose an iron
Slender cast-iron columns that run down the center of the room, and the
pierced leaf-patterned cast-iron arches that support the twin barrel vaults,
allowed Henri to dispense with massive masonry and give the room a floating
verve not usually associated with products of the industrial age.
Lined the reading room with two tiers of books, one along the floor and the
other on a level backed up against the exterior walls. On the outside of these
walls, Henri inscribed the stone with the names of the great thinkers to show
the chain of human thought.
A copy of Raphael's School of Athens was painted on the wall of the ceremonial
stairwell that leads to the main-floor reading room.
The ground floor consists primarily of storage areas to house the three
collections: the General Fund collection of over one million volumes, The
Reserve collection of 4300 manuscripts, 160,000 rare books, 50,000 drawings,
prints, photographs and other works of art, and, The Nordic Library of 160,000
volumes, including serials and musical scores.
The main floor houses the famous reading room. This large, central hall is the
length of 18 fine fluted iron columns supporting the roof.
•He was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed
furniture and stage sets.
•He was one of the most prominent architects of Germany and designed both
neoclassical and neogothic buildings.
•Schinkel's style, in his most productive period, is defined by a turn to Greek
rather than Imperial Roman architecture, an attempt to turn away from the style
that was linked to the recent French occupiers.
•His most famous buildings include Neue Wache (1816–1818), National
Monument for the Liberation Wars (1818–1821), the Schauspielhaus (1819–
1821), and the Altes Museum (old museum)on Museum Island (1823–1830).
He also carried out improvements to the Crown Prince's Palace.
•Schinkel, however, is noted as much for his theoretical work and his
architectural drafts as for the relatively few buildings that were actually
executed to his designs.
•The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum) is one of several
internationally renowned museums on Museum Island in Berlin,
•Since restoration work in 1966, it houses the Antikensammlung
(antique collection) of the Berlin State Museums.
• The museum was built between 1823 and 1830 by the
architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to
house the Prussian royal family's art collection.
•The historic, protected building counts among the most
distinguished in neoclassicism and is a high point of Schinkel's
•The design of the building follows the pattern of an antique
temple and reminds the Roman Pantheon.
•The Altes Museum is the eldest museum building in Berlin.
The Altes Museum was commissioned by
King Friedrich Wilhelm III as the first
public museum of Berlin and the nucleus
of the Museum Island which was
intended to symbolize the cultural and
middle of Prussia.
Schinkel's plans incorporated the Museum into an
ensemble of buildings, which surround the Berliner
Lustgarten (pleasure garden). The Stadtschloss in the
south was a symbol of worldly power, the Zeughaus in
the west represented military might, and the Berliner
Dom in the east was the embodiment of divine authority.
The museum to the north of the garden, which was to
provide for the education of the people, stood as a
symbol for science and art—and not least for their
torchbearer: the self-aware bourgeoisie(range of socio-
Statues along the portico of the
The Altes Museum takes the Greek
Stoa in Athens as a model, borrowing
heavily from Greek antiquity and
classical architecture. The museum
employs the Ionic order to articulate
the 87 m (285 ft.) face of the building,
which is the only part of the exterior
with any visual sign of the Orders; the
other three remaining facades are of
brick and stone banding.
Eighteen Ionic columns grace the front of this
grand museum. The rectangular shaped
building encloses two generous courtyards and
a two-story centrally-located rotunda, based on
the design on the Pantheon in Rome.
After the broad staircase and Ionic
columns, the portico leads through a
bronze portal to a double staircase
ending in an upper hall. The staircase
and hall are separated by a colonnade
providing a panorama of Berlin
The exhibition rooms of the museum
are grouped around two inner
courtyards; the center of the building is
the two-story (23 m), skylit rotunda,
which is surrounded by a gallery
supported by twenty Corinthian
columns. Like the Pantheon in Rome,
its interior surface is adorned with
coffering (rectangular, sunken panels).
A portion of the museum's statue
collection is displayed between the
rotunda's twenty columns.
•From behind the entrance lobby rises a two-winged,
grand stairway, which is at once inside and outside,
enclosed only with columns.
•Schinkel illustrated his idea of the purpose of the building
with decorative figures on the walls of the stairway: it
should provide material for direct observation and
instruction (illustrated by a father and son) but also be able
to encourage further thought and discussion (illustrated by
two men in the ceilings were built as vaults. After
the destructions of Second World War the ceilings
were rebuilt as reinforced concrete constructions.
•The walls are built by quite regular limestone in the
basement and brick for the upper storeys.
The Antique Collection
The Altes Museum was originally constructed to house all of
the city's collections of fine arts. However, since 1904, the
museum has housed the Collection of Classical Antiquities.
Since 1998 the Collection of Classical Antiquities has
displayed its Greek collection, including the treasury, on the
ground floor of the Altes Museum. Special exhibitions are
displayed on the second floor of the museum.
The permanent collection here includes a vast variety of
ancient Greek and Roman decorative art including vases
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