Kenzo Tange was a Japanese architect &
LIFE PERIOD:4 September 1913- 22 march
He was one of the most significant
architects of 20th century ,combining
traditional Japanese styles with
He designed major building on five
Tange was also an influential protagonist
of the structuralist movement.
He was influenced by Le Corbusier ,was a master in the use
of reinforced concrete.
Kenzo Tange’s work marked a revived awareness of
japanese architectural traditions expressed through
contemporary interpretation of architectural form.
Tange demonstrated that a unique regionalism could be
Developed,and recognized,within the circumstance of
He was pioneer of movement known as “METABOLISM”.
METABOLISM arose in Japan after world war 2 ,and much
of work produced by the movement is concerned with
In his view, the traditional laws of fixed forms and function
His vision for cities of future inhabited by a mass society
were characterized by a large scale, flexible and expandable
structures that evoked the process of the organic growth.
Hiroshima peace memerial museum ,Hiroshima 1955.
Yoyogi national gymnasium for the 1964 summer
St. Mary’s Cathedral (Tokyo Cathedral), Tokyo in 1964.
Nanyang technological university, Singapore 1986
UOB plaza in Singapore in 1992.
Fuji television HQ building, Odaiba, Tokyo in 1996.
Tokyo metropolitan government building in 1991.
Hiroshima peace memorial
museumThe rhythmical facade
elements that repeat
outward from centre.
• Kenzo tange’s own houseit is fused with a more
traditional japanese design
that uses timber and paper.
The house is based on the
• The most famous work by kenzo tange.
• Built for the Olympics in 1964.
• It is comprised of two buildings.
• Inspired by the skyline of the Colosseum in Rome
• The gymnasium has a capacity of approximately 16,000
& smaller building can accommodate up 5,300 people
• Its aerodynamic monumental and suggestive design
became an icon of the japanese capital and a benchmark
in the metabolist movement distancing himself from the
The two gym are placed in a landscape platform.
Infact ,despite their monumental size,they give the
impression that the park itself,emphasizing its
relationship with the surrounding environment.
• Inluenced by Le Corbusier’s Philip’s Pavilion and Eero
Saarinen’s hockey stadium at Yale University, Tange
became intrigued with structure and its tensile and
• Tange employs a central structural spine(two large steel
cables) from where the structure and roof originates.
• Both axes are arrranged in an east-west ,which is also the
predominant direction of plot
THE MAIN GYM
The main gym accommodate swimming events,but
also basketball and hocky games.
It can accommodate about 10,000 people.
The space is organised symetrically,distributing the
stands to the north to south, emphasizing the eastwest direction in both the roof and the location of
The structure concept is based on a main spine that
consists of two steel cables of 13” in diameter,anchored to
two slabs of concrete on either end of the building and
two structural towers.
Cables describe a parabolic curve (catenary) from which
smaller wires are placed perpendicularly ,to form a tent –
The roof over stands ,having different curvature from
that of the cables,generates an elegant and graceful
roofing structure ,whose surface,concave and convex at
the same time ( a mix of parabola and hyperbola) is
called a hyperbolic paraboloid.
Kenzo tange takes advantage of the gap between the
two curves to propose an imposing triangular
access,which despite having a monumental scale,seem
to be born of earth,giving the building a feeling of
Both accesses are preceded by
concourses or squares, which
are distinguished from the rest
of the park by small atrium.
Another detail that provides visual lightness to the
structure is graceful cantilevers containing the stands
that give the impression that the building would
These stands also accommodate the rhythmically
The rhythm is also applied at the entrance,where the V
shaped metal structure of different size is displayed in
a dynamic way.
MATERIAL & EXTERIOR
Tange used concrete, metel and steel , favourite
material of the mid-60’s, and exploited the versatility
of these to achieve dynamic and sculptural forms.
Tange used the space between the two catenary arched
to allocate a large skylight ,which adds a dramatic effect
within the space .
He used a similar system in his St Mary Cathedral in
THE MINOR GYM
It has a capacity for 5,300 spectators and used for
The space is organized around two non- concentric
circles, and therefore some stands are larger than
opposite,unlike the main gym, this has one structural
column and one single entry.
A small square precedes the gym, landscaped with a
small Japanese - style pond. As in the other gym, the
roof also seems to be rising from the park.
For the smaller gym ,the Japanese master used the
same principal, only instead of using two slabs, using a
single like a gigantic mast.
Tadao ando is a Japanese architect
Ando has led a storied life,
working as a truck driver and
boxer prior to settling on
the profession of architecture,
despite never having taken
formal training in the field.
Alvar Aalto Medal, 1985
Pritzker Prize, 1995
RIBA Royal Gold Medal, 1997
AIA Gold Medal, 2002
Neutra Medal for Professional Excellence, 2012
Row House, Sumiyoshi, 1979
Church of the Light, Osaka, 1989
Water Temple, Awaji, 1991
Rokko Housing I, II, III, Kobe, 1983-1999
Practice : Tadao Ando Architects & Associates
Ando's architectural style is said to create a
"HAIKU" effect, emphasizing nothingness and
empty space to represent the beauty of simplicity.
He favors designing complex spatial circulation
while maintaining the appearance of simplicity. As
a self-taught architect, he keeps his Japanese
culture and language tightly in his mind while he
travels around Europe for learning experience.
He has used simple geometric shapes in his design.
Tadao Ando's body of work is known for the
creative use of natural light and for architecture
that follow the natural forms of the landscape.
Ando’s buildings are often characterized by
complex three dimensional circulation paths.
These paths interweave between interior and
exterior spaces formed both inside large scale
geometric shapes and in the spaces between them.
Row House in Sumiyoshi , also called Azuma
Azuma House, a small two-story, cast-in-place
concrete house completed in 1976, is an early work
that begins to show elements of his characteristic
It consists of three
volumes of interior
by an open court-yard.
Building type: Christian church
Built : in 1989
Building area : 113 sq meters.
Structure: reinforced concrete
The Church of the Light is a small structure about size
of a house.
This building is one of the most famous designs of
The church is seen as a place of retreat where the
outside world is forgotten and the natural world is
emphasized in a rather abstract manner vis-a-vis
Ando’s control of light.
use light in a way that would strengthen the power of
This church beckons the fundamental simplicity of
Christianity with its low tech, yet powerful design.
Church of light(sometimes called “Church with
Light") was an annex to an existing minister house &
wooden church later on a Sunday school was built on
that site .
The chapel is consists of a rectangular volume of three
cubes (5.9m wide x 17.7m long x 5.9m high) that are
punctured by a wall at a fifteen degree angle that never
actually touches the other wall or ceiling of the chapel.
circulation into space
is controlled by the
Reinforced concrete and wood are the main elements of
construction in the chapel. while the space is primarily
defined by the concrete volume, wood is used for all of the
elements that one engages such as tables, pews and floor.
The one element carried through Tadao Ando's structures
is his idolization of the reinforced concrete wall. The
importance given to walls is a distinct departure from
Modernist architecture. They are usually made of 'in-situ'
poured in place concrete. These walls are thick, solid,
massive, and permanent . The main reinforced concrete
shell of the Church of the Light is 15 inches thick.