Delhi is the capital of India. The state is
spread over an area of 1483 square
kilometer. According to the Indian
geography the state is located at the
center of the Indian subcontinent,
amidst the ranges of Himalaya and the
Aravalli. Delhi geography encompasses
the location, climatic conditions,
topography and so on.
The latitudinal and longitudinal
location of Delhi are 23.38 degree
north and 77.13 degree east. The
state stands at the northern part of
Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the other states, which share their borders with
Delhi in the west and east respectively. Delhi geography divides the state into
three parts- the Delhi ridge, the Yamuna flood plain and the plains.
The topography of Delhi can be
divided into three different
parts, the plains, the Yamuna
flood plain, and the ridge.
As per the topography, Delhi is
located on the western fringes of
the Gangetic Plains.
The other topographical feature
is the Ridge, which reaches the
height of 1043 ft above sea level,
and is the highest point in Delhi.
There are three canals crossing
it, namely the Yamuna Canal, the
Agra Canal, and the Hindu
The city of Delhi lies in the fertile Northern Plains of India. The main features of
Delhi are the Aravalli hill ranges and the Yamuna river. The Aravalli hill ranges are
covered with forest called the Ridges. The Yamuna is the main source of drinking
water for the citizens of Delhi. There is a forest cover of nearly 11.5% of the total
area in Delhi. Delhi’s mineral sources are primarily sand and stone which are used
for construction activities.
Delhi has a semi arid climate, with hot summers, average rainfall and moderate
winters. Mean monthly temperatures range from 14.3° C in January to 34.5° C in
June. However, the temperatures go upto 40-45° C in summers and 4-5° C in
winters. The annual precipitation is about 711 mm
Wind directions vary with season. In the summers, the predominant wind
directions are from the west in the morning and either west or northwest in the
evening. In the monsoons, the predominant wind directions are from the
southeast or west in the morning and from east (in July and August) or north-west
(in September) in the evenings.
Delhi’s sources of water consist of surface and ground water.
Delhi, considered as a historic city of potential World Heritage significance due to
the unparalleled richness and diversity of its natural and cultural heritage, is also
one of the most prominent tourist destinations in North India, and is perceived as
the ‘Gateway to North India’. Due to its location as an important node of both
the Agra-Jaipur and Varanasi-Khajuraho circuits, Delhi received over 3.2 million
domestic and international tourists in 2010-11.
HERITAGE & TOURISM SECTOR
Delhi’s rich, multi-layered heritage needs to be considered as an economic
resource or ‘heritage capital’, capable of enriching the quality of life of Delhi’s
inhabitants & stimulating development through growth of heritage tourism.
Innovative management strategies for the heritage assets of Delhi are required to
ensure creation of employment opportunities linked to cultural tourism and
provision of facilities for mid-range tourists in heritage areas.
Benefits That Can Be Drawn
Delhi is one of the major hubs for this sector along with Bangalore, Hyderabad,
Chennai, and Mumbai-Pune. The city, with its large population of well educated
work force, is ideally positioned to attain the pre-eminent position for providing
workers for this fast growth sector. However, there is need for undertaking major
capacity building exercise in consonance with the requirements of this sector.
THE IT & ITES SECTOR
1. Delhi is the largest metropolis of India and eighth largest of the World.
2. Historically, developments in Delhi took place in a triangular patch of
land with river Yamuna on one side and the northern range of Aravalli
hills on the other two sides.
3. It started as Indraprastha, a small settlement by Pandavas within the
Khandva Forest near Yamuna around 2500 BC.
4. Later in 736 AD, Tomar kings established a new city named Lal Kot and
the Chauhans replaced the Tomars in the mid-12th C and extended Lal
Kot to form Qila Rai Pithora.
5. Delhi grew to be capital of an empire in the time of the Delhi
Sultanate, with the establishment of Siri.
6. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the first of the Tughlaq kings who established
Tughlaqabad, In AD 1327, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq linked the older
cities of Lal Kot and Siri with two walls to build, Jahanpanah.
7. Firoz Shah Tughlaq built Firozabad, on the banks of River Yamuna.
8. Delhi was then intermittently the capital of the Mughal Empire,
Emperor Humayun, in AD 1538, built shergarh.
NEW DELHI designed by Sir Edward Lutyens and Herbert Baker,
redefined the architecture and urbanism of Delhi in the process of
addressing contemporary imperatives.
OLD DELHI, walled city was founded as Shahjahanabad by Mughal
Emperor Shahjahan in 1639. It remained the capital of the
Mughals until the end of the Mughal dynasty. It was once filled
with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along
with elegant mosques and gardens.
HISTORIC PLACES IN OLD DELHI
Ghalib Ki Haveli Razia Sultanas’ tomb Khari Baoli, Asia's biggest
cremation site memorial
Old Delhi Railway Station
Delhi is most populated and the fastest growing city in the
country. Since it is the national capital, the biggest Trading
centre and the largest centre for small industries in India. A
large part of is rapid growth has been due to high level of
the annual average growth rate of population of Delhi is
3.85 as per census 2001. it was highest during 1941 to 1951 due
to large scale migration of people from Pakistan to India after
MIGRATION INTO DELHI
•The rural population, which was 47.24% of Delhi’s population
in 1901 continued to decline to 7.27% in 1981, but increased
to 10.07% in 1991. This reversal of the long term trend during
1981-1991 was due to mushrooming of unauthorised colonies
in rural areas.
• The family size in urban areas is 4.99 persons in comparison
with rural family size of 5.90 persons.
• Economic Survey found that literacy in Delhi during 1997
was 85% compared to the national literacy level of 62%.
According to this survey, the male literacy rate in Delhi
during 1997 was 91% and the female rate was 76%, compared
to the national literacy rates of 73% for males and 50% for
• Based on birth and death rates, the natural growth in
Delhi’s population has declined from 2.21% in 1991 to 1.85%
DISTRIC WISE DENSITY OF POPULATION IN
DELHI [YEAR 2011]
ACORDING TO CENSUS 2001, AVERAGE DENSITY OF POPULATION OF DELHI IS 9340
PERSONS PER SQ. KM AGAINST THE DENSITY OF POPULATION OF COUNTRY IS
334PERSONS PER SQ. KM. DELHI HAS THE HIGHEST POPULATION DENSITY AMONG
THE UNION TERITORIES
CITY ECONOMIC PROFILE
•DELHI WITH MILLION PLUS
POPULATION HAS ONE OF THE
FASTEST GROWING ECONOMIES IN
• WITH 15% AVERAGE COMPOUND
GROWTH RATE DELHI'S ECONOMY
IS DRIVEN BY THE SERVICE
•ITS 78% OF GSDP IS BECAUSE OF
SERVICE SECTOR WHICH PROVIDE
EMPLOYMENT TO 58% OF LABOUR
•PER CAPITAL INCOME FOR THE
YEAR 2011-12 AT CURRENT PRICES
IS ESTIMATED AS RS 175812.
•MONTHLY PER CAPITAL
EXPENDITURE OF DELHI IS RS.
2905 IN URBAN AND RS. 1761 IN
INVESTMENT PLAN OF NINTH
FIVE YEAR PLAN [DATA RS.
•Between 1981 and 1991 the population of Delhi increased rapidly but the
proportion of workers in Delhi’s population declined marginally. Workers
constituted 32.19% of Delhi’s population in 1981 which declined to 31.63%
in 1991. In contrast, the percentage of workers in the total population
increased from 35.70% in 1981 to 37.46% in 1991 at the National level.
• The rate of increase of the Delhi workforce during 1981-91 was 48.85%
compared to only 28.42% at the National level. The increase in Delhi was
primarily due to migration of unemployed people from neighbouring
Public sector Growth rate
Central govt. -1.41%
Govt. of Delhi 1.82%
(central + Delhi govt.)
Local bodies -3.09%
Private sector 1.83%
•In Delhi, the period 1994-97 shows a downward trend in total public
sector employment (-1.74%) but an increase of 1.83% in the private
sector. Overall, employment in the public and private sectors together
has fallen by 0.82%.
•On June 30, 1998, 11.08 lakh persons
were registered on the Live Register of
Employment Exchanges in Delhi, out of
which 8.47 lakh (76.44%) had a
diploma, a matriculation, degree or
higher educational qualification and
the remaining 2.61 lakh (23.56%) were
below this educational level.
• Several rounds of NSSO surveys show
that the labour force, which consists of
both employed and unemployed
persons increased from 19.08 lakh in
1977-78 to 34.57 lakh in 1992. At the
same time, the number of unemployed
persons in Delhi decreased from 2.08
lakh in 1977-78 to 1.96 lakh in 1992.
The proportion of unemployed persons
to the total labour force declined
significantly from 10.90% to 5.67%
during this period.
Percentage of population working in different
In the planning of New Delhi in 1916, the Central Vista was conceived as a
landscaped stretch to form continuity between the ridge and the river Yamuna. The
stretch with the Rashtrapati Bhawan and the India Gate at two ends has tremendous
visual quality and is one of the finest examples of Urban Design and monumentality in
planning in the world.
The following aspects need to be considered to arrive at the basis for policies affecting
the urban fabric
i) Areas of significance in built environment.
ii) Visual integration of the city.
iii) Policy for tall buildings.
iv) Policy on unhindered access movement, parking and pedestrian realm.
v) Policy on Hoardings, Street furniture and Signage.
vi) Urban Design Scheme.
vii) Policy for design of pedestrian realm.
viii) City structure plan and Urban Design objective.
ix) Policy for conservation of Heritage precincts Buildings and Zones.
A redevelopment strategy for accommodating more population in a planned
is to be taken up on priority in all use zones for efficient and optimum
the existing urban land, both in planned and unplanned areas. This would have
based on provision of infrastructure viz. water supply, sewerage, road network,
spaces and the essential social infrastructure.
To encourage the growth impulse for regeneration in the target redevelopment
the possible incentives and modalities recommended include grant of planning
permission at the scheme level with permission to reorganize / pool properties
planning purposes, provision of social infrastructure through Transferable
Rights or Accommodation Reservation and reduced space standards for
unplanned areas, enhanced FAR for specified redevelopment areas and
application of flexible concept of mix-use zones in Special Area & Villages on
• NCT of Delhi.
• Central National Capital Region - Central NCR
• Highway Corridor Zone
• Rest of NCR.
Policy Zones of Delhi
Land use Distribution
• Nehru Place
• Rajendra Place
• Bhikaji Cama Place
• Laxmi Nagar
• Shivaji Place (Raja Garden)
• Netaji Subhash Place (Wazirpur)
• Manglam Place (Rohini)
a. Central Vista and the areas in its North and South,
Lutyen's Bungalow Zone.
b. Ancient settlements.
c. Historical Monuments and Gardens.
d. Exhibition grounds, Zoo etc.
e. Areas along entry routes and other important routes in
f. Republic day parade route.
g. Road and Rail, MRTS corridors, entries, and terminals.
h. City as a whole for aerial view
HOUSING CONDITION IN DELHI
Housing condition is one of the important indicators of the socio-
economic development of the country. Statistical information relating to
housing condition in quantitative terms is essential for an assessment of
the overall housing needs of the people and also for the formulation of
housing policies and programmes.
Housing of any place include type of structure, type of dwelling,
ventilation, bathing, latrine and electricity facilities etc. It also gives an
account of the civic amenities at the reach of the families living in the
dwellings such as availability of drainage, garbage disposal arrangement,
approach road/lane/constructed path etc.
DDA commenced its housing activities in 1967 and has played a
crucial role in providing more than a million houses to the people of
TYPE OF STRUCTURES
The structure of the dwelling can be classified on the basis of material
used for its construction. Four type of structures are –
Semi pucca structure
In Delhi 91.50% families live in pucca, 5.01% in semi-pucca, and
3.49% in kutcha type of structure as against the All India average of
66.1% in pucca, 21.3% in semi-pucca and 12.6% in kutcha type of
56.62% households were residing in owned dwellings, 4.22%
employer provided, 32.51% in rented dwelling and remaining 6.64% having
other arrangement in Delhi. The national average in this respect was 85.2%
owned, 1.8% employer provided accommodation, 10.9% in rented dwelling
and 2.1% had other arrangement.
In Delhi 51.13% stay in independent, 18.29% in flat type dwellings as
against the national average of 74.9% in independent houses, 9.7% in flats .
In the urban areas 88.96% of families are living in the buildings which
are used strictly for residential purpose, 10.13% were found to be used
for residence-cum commercial purposes and 0.91% for residence-cum-
About 95.05% of the households were having burnt brick / stone
/lime stone type of wall followed by 2.99% of canvass/cloth.
About 75.53% of the households were having cement type of floors
followed by 13.01% of mosaic/tiles type.
About 64.33% of the households were in houses with a plinth area
up to 50 sq.m. in the rural areas whereas the corresponding percentage
was about 66.95% in the urban area.
STATUS OF AMENITIES
84% of the households draw drinking water from tap, about 10.03% from
tube well/ hand pump.
60% of the households have exclusive use of the water source,
20.86% were uses share as the same source and 17.26% depends on the
source provided by the government.
99.10% of households were having electricity connections for domestic
66.24% of households were having separate kitchen with or without
In urban 78.77% households were having either attached/detached
Based on the record of preceding 5 years flood risk was experienced
by only 0.66% of the households in Delhi due to excessive rain/river
A Slum is a compact area with a collection of poorly built
tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with
inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic
conditions. The slums are commonly known as jhuggi jhopri in Delhi.
TRANSPORTATION IN DELHI
Delhi is predominantly dependent on road transport, with the railways
catering to only about 1% of the local traffic. The ring rail network in
Delhi is grossly underutilized. Buses cater to 62% of the total traffic
while personal vehicles account for the balance 37%. Although, buses
constitute only 1.1% of the total number of vehicles. Among personalized
vehicles, motor cycles and scooters comprise about two third of the
total number of vehicles in Delhi, while cars and jeeps account for one
fourth of the total vehicles.
Five National Highways pass through the National Capital Territory of
Delhi (NH-1, NH-2, NH-10, NH-8, NH-24).
The Grand Trunk Road built by Sher Shah Suri from Karnal to Calcutta
having been the precursor of NH-1 and NH-24.
Delhi is a major junction on the rail map of India linked with almost all
Metropolitan cities directly. There are four major railway stations at
New Delhi, Old Delhi, Hazrat Nizamuddin and Sarai Rohilla besides a
Container Depot at Tuglakabad. There are 8 rail corridors in the
National Capital Territory which bring in more than 350 passenger trains
and 40 goods trains each day.
The Ring road, Outer Ring road and the radial roads constitute a
distinct feature of the road network in Delhi. Ring road has a length
of 48 km, out of which 16 km is common with Outer Ring road and
With the development of two new ISBTs at Sarai Kale Khan and
Anand Vihar and the existing ISBT at Kashmere Gate, three ISBTs
are functioning at present. These three ISBTs care to an average
1.54 lakh passengers and 3300 buses/trips per day. Two more
ISBTs are proposed to be constructed.
INTERSTATE BUS TERMINALS
FLYOVERS AND BRIDGES
A special programme for construction of 15 flyovers on
Ring Road and outer Ring Road was started in 1998-99.
Construction work on flyovers at Punjabi Bagh and Raja
Garden, started prior to 1998-99, is in full swing