Data Manipulation Language
A DML statement is executed when you:
– Add new rows to a table
– Modify existing rows in a table
– Remove existing rows from a table
A collection of DML statements that form a logical unit of work is called a Transaction.
Consider a banking database. When a bank customer transfers money from a savings
account to a checking account, the transaction might consist of three separate
- decrease the savings account,
- increase the checking account,
- and record the transaction in the transaction journal.
The Oracle server must guarantee that all three SQL statements are performed to
maintain the accounts in proper balance. When something prevents one of the statements
in the transaction from executing, the other statements of the transaction must be undone.
Add new rows to a table by using the INSERT statement.
Only one row is inserted at a time with this syntax.
Enclose character and date values within single quotation marks.
Inserting Rows with Null Values
Implicit method: Omit the column from the column list.
Explicit method: Specify the NULL keyword in the VALUES clause. specify
the empty string (’’) in the VALUES list for character strings and dates.
Common errors that can occur during user input:
Mandatory value missing for a NOT NULL column
Duplicate value violates uniqueness constraint
Foreign key constraint violated
CHECK constraint violated
Data type mismatch
Value too wide to fit in column
Inserting Special Values
The SYSDATE function records the current date and time.
Inserting Specific Date Values
Add a new employee.
If a date must be entered in a format other than the default format (DDMON-RR), for example, with another century, or a specific time, you must
use the TO_DATE function.
Creating a Script
Use & substitution in a SQL statement to prompt for values.
& is a placeholder for the variable value.
Run the script file and you are prompted for input for the & substitution
The values you input are then substituted into the statement. This allows you to
run the same script file over and over, but supply a different set of values each
time you run it.
Copying Rows from Another Table
Write your INSERT statement with a subquery.
Do not use the VALUES clause.
Match the number of columns in the INSERT clause to those in the subquery.
The number of columns and their data types in the column list of the INSERT clause
must match the number of values and their data types in the subquery.
Modify existing rows with the UPDATE statement.
Update more than one row at a time, if required.
Specific row or rows are modified if you specify the WHERE clause.
All rows in the table are modified if you omit the WHERE clause.
Updating Two Columns with a Subquery
Update employee 114’s job and salary to match that of employee 205.
Updating Rows Based on Another Table
Use subqueries in UPDATE statements to update rows in a table based on values
from another table.
The example on the slide updates the COPY_EMP table based on the values from the
It changes the department number of all employees with employee 200’s job ID to
employee 100’s current department number.
Integrity Constraint Error
In the example on the slide, department number 55 does not exist in the parent table,
DEPARTMENTS, and so you receive the parent key violation ORA-02291.
Removing a Row from a Table – DELETE statement
After all the rows have been eliminated with the DELETE statement, only the
data structure of the table remains. A more efficient method of emptying a table
is with the TRUNCATE statement.
You can use the TRUNCATE statement to quickly remove all rows from a table
Removing rows with the TRUNCATE statement is faster than removing them
with the DELETE statement for the following reasons:
The TRUNCATE statement is a data definition language (DDL) statement and
generates no rollback information.
Truncating a table does not fire the delete triggers of the table.
If the table is the parent of a referential integrity constraint, you cannot truncate
Disable the constraint before issuing the TRUNCATE statement.
The DELETE Statement
You can remove existing rows from a table by using the DELETE statement.
Specific rows are deleted if you specify the WHERE clause.
All rows in the table are deleted if you omit the WHERE clause.
Deleting Rows Based on Another Table
Use subqueries in DELETE statements to remove rows from a table based on values
from another table.
The subquery searches the DEPARTMENTS table to find the department number based
on the department name containing the string “Public.”
The subquery then feeds the department number to the main query, which deletes rows of
data from the EMPLOYEES table based on this department number.
Integrity Constraint Error
If the parent record that you attempt to delete has child records, then you receive the child
record found violation ORA-02292.
However, if the referential integrity constraint contains the ON DELETE CASCADE option,
then the selected row and its children are deleted from their respective tables.
WITH CHECK OPTION on DML Statements
A subquery is used to identify the table and columns of the DML statement.
The WITH CHECK OPTION keyword prohibits you from changing rows that are not
in the subquery.
Specify DEFAULT to set the column to the value previously specified
default value for the column.
If no default value for the corresponding column has been specified, Oracle
sets the column to null.
The MERGE Statement
Provides the ability to conditionally update or insert data into a database table
Performs an UPDATE if the row exists, and an INSERT if it is a new row:
– Avoids separate updates
– Increases performance and ease of use
– Is useful in data warehousing applications
The decision whether to update or insert into the target table is based on a condition in the
The MERGE statement is deterministic. You cannot update the same row of the target
table multiple times in the same MERGE statement.
An alternative approach is to use PL/SQL loops and multiple DML statements.
The MERGE statement, however, is easy to use and more simply expressed as a single
The Oracle server ensures data consistency based on transactions.
Transactions give you more flexibility and control when changing data, and they
ensure data consistency in the event of user process failure or system failure.
Transactions consist of DML statements that make up one consistent change to
For example, a transfer of funds between two accounts should include the debit
to one account and the credit to another account in the same amount.
Both actions should either fail or succeed together; the credit should not be
committed without the debit.
COMMIT and ROLLBACK Statements
Ensure data consistency
Preview data changes before making
Group logically related operations
Implicit Transaction Processing
An automatic commit occurs under the following circumstances:
– DDL statement is issued
– DCL statement is issued
– Normal exit from iSQL*Plus, without explicitly issuing COMMIT or
An automatic rollback occurs under an abnormal termination of iSQL*Plus or a
Every data change made during the transaction is temporary until the transaction is
State of the data before COMMIT or ROLLBACK statements are issued:
Data manipulation operations primarily affect the database buffer; therefore, the previous
state of the data can be recovered.
The current user can review the results of the data manipulation operations by querying
Other users cannot view the results of the data manipulation operations made by the
current user. The Oracle server institutes read consistency to ensure that each user sees
data as it existed at the last commit.
The affected rows are locked; other users cannot change the data in the affected rows.
State of the Data after
Data changes are made permanent in the database.
The previous state of the data is permanently lost.
All users can view the results.
Locks on the affected rows are released; those rows are
available for other users to manipulate.
All save points are erased.
State of the Data After
Discard all pending changes by using the ROLLBACK
Data changes are undone.
Previous state of the data is restored.
Locks on the affected rows are released.
Part of a transaction can be discarded by an implicit rollback if a statement
execution error is detected.
If a single DML statement fails during execution of a transaction, its effect is
undone by a statement level rollback, but the changes made by the previous
DML statements in the transaction are not discarded.
They can be committed or rolled back explicitly by the user.
Oracle issues an implicit commit before and after any data definition language
(DDL) statement. So, even if your DDL statement does not execute
successfully, you cannot roll back the previous statement because the server
issued a commit.
Terminate your transactions explicitly by executing a COMMIT or ROLLBACK
In an Oracle database, locks:
Prevent destructive interaction between concurrent
Require no user action
Automatically use the lowest level of restrictiveness
Are held for the duration of the transaction
Are of two types: explicit locking and implicit locking
What Are Locks?
Locks are mechanisms that prevent destructive interaction between
transactions accessing the same resource, either a user object (such as tables
or rows) or a system object not visible to users (such as shared data structures
and data dictionary rows).
How the Oracle Database Locks Data
Oracle locking is performed automatically and requires no user action.
Implicit locking occurs for SQL statements as necessary, depending on the
action requested. Implicit locking occurs for all SQL statements except
The users can also lock data manually, which is called explicit locking.
Two lock modes:
– Exclusive: Locks out other users
– Share: Allows other users to access
High level of data concurrency:
– DML: Table share, row exclusive
– Queries: No locks required
– DDL: Protects object definitions
Locks held until commit or rollback