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Basic principles of WAP , working and use in mobile technology

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  • Wap

    1. 1. WAP By:- VIKAS MAHAJAN 7140811389
    2. 2. WHAT IS WAP? <ul><li>WAP is Wireless Application Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is an open international standard for application layer network communications in a wireless communication environment. Its main use is to enable access to the Internet (HTTP) from a mobile phone or PDA . </li></ul>
    3. 3. WHAT IS PROTOCOL? <ul><li>A Protocol is a set of guidelines or rules. </li></ul><ul><li>In computing and internet </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol, a set of rules governing communication between electronic devices </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol (computing) , a set of rules governing communication within and between computing endpoints </li></ul>
    4. 4. FEATURES OF WAP <ul><li>WAP stands for W ireless A pplication P rotocol </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is an application communication protocol </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is used to access services and information </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is inherited from Internet standards </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is for handheld devices such as mobile phones </li></ul><ul><li>WAP is a protocol designed for micro browsers </li></ul><ul><li>WAP enables the creating of web applications for mobile devices. </li></ul><ul><li>WAP uses the mark-up language WML (not HTML) </li></ul><ul><li>WML is defined as an XML 1.0 application </li></ul>
    5. 5. WAP Micro Browsers <ul><li>To fit into a small wireless terminal, WAP uses a Micro Browser. </li></ul><ul><li>A Micro Browser is a small piece of software that makes minimal demands on hardware, memory and CPU. It can display information written in a restricted mark-up language called WML. </li></ul><ul><li>The Micro Browser can also interpret a reduced version of JavaScript called WMLScript. </li></ul>
    6. 6. COMPONENTS OF WAP WML <ul><li>WML stands for W ireless M arkup L anguage. It is a mark-up language inherited from HTML, but WML is based on XML, so it is much stricter than HTML. </li></ul><ul><li>Differs from HTML in the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WML was specifically designed for wireless terminals with a target screen that is only a few lines long and about an inch wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WML is case sensitive , and all tags and attributes should be in lowercase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WML doesn't assume that a keyboard or a mouse is available for user input </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. WAP Components (contd)… <ul><li>WAP Gateway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoder : converts WML to binarized WML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptor : provides additional information through HTTP header </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translate HTTP requests to WSP. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert between SSL and WTLS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convert transport protocols (TCP and WDP </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. WML Script <ul><li>WML uses WML Script to run simple code on the client. WML Script is a light JavaScript language. However, WML scripts are not embedded in the WML pages. WML pages only contains references to script URLs. WML scripts need to be compiled into byte code on a server before they can run in a WAP browser. </li></ul>
    9. 9. WAP Homepages <ul><li>WAP homepages are not very different from HTML homepages. The markup language used for WAP is WML (Wireless Markup Language). WML uses tags - just like HTML - but the syntax is stricter and conforms to the XML 1.0 standard. </li></ul><ul><li>WML pages have the extension *.WML, just like HTML pages have the extension *.HTML. </li></ul>
    10. 10. WML Tags <ul><li>WML is mostly about text. Tags that would slow down the communication with handheld devices are not a part of the WML standard. The use of tables and images is strongly restricted.  </li></ul><ul><li>Since WML is an XML application, all tags are case sensitive (<wml> is not the same as <WML>), and all tags must be properly closed. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Example of WML … <ul><li>. </li></ul>Card Input Elements Navigation Variables <WML> <CARD> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“#eCard”/> </DO Welcome! </CARD> <CARD NAME=“eCard”> <DO TYPE=“ACCEPT”> <GO URL=“/submit?N=$(N)&S=$(S)”/> </DO> Enter name: <INPUT KEY=“N”/> Choose speed: <SELECT KEY=“S”> <OPTION VALUE=“0”>Fast</OPTION> <OPTION VALUE=“1”>Slow</OPTION> <SELECT> </CARD> </WML>
    12. 12. WML Decks and Cards <ul><li>WML pages are called DECKS. They are constructed as a set of CARDS, related to each other with links. When a WML page is accessed from a mobile phone, all the cards in the page are downloaded from the WAP server. Navigation between the cards is done by the phone computer - inside the phone - without any extra access trips to the server. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Limitations of Internet for Wireless Applications <ul><li>Traditional Internet applications cannot run on mobile devices because of the following limitations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low bandwidth network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Latency network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited connection stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small display size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited input facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited processing power </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. WAP brings Internet to Hand- held Devices <ul><li>WAP handles limited bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes traffic over wireless interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WSP layer, too, is binary encoded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTP is not only designed to minimize amount of data but also number of transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAP handles high latency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WAE uses scripting to avoid round trip delays, e.g. by validating user input locally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTAI environment introduces a repository to hold services that should be started in response to an event in mobile network, e.g. incoming call. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. WAP brings (contd)… <ul><li>WAP handles less stable connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sessions supported by WSP are assumed to be long-lived. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTP layer has been kept very simple compared to TCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WTP supports selective retransmission of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAP handles small displays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WML structures its documents in ‘Decks & Cards’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When an application is executed, user navigates through a series of cards </li></ul></ul>
    16. 17. WAP brings (contd)… <ul><li>WAP handles limited input facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The WML elements can be easily be implemented without much input required from the key-board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deck & Cards model requires minimal navigation between pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft buttons or user-definable keys are also supported by WML </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAP handles limited memory and CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining a light weight protocol stack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited functionality provided by WML & WMLScript </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary encoding of WML & WMLScript </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Some WAP applications <ul><li>Location-based services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time traffic reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event/restaurant recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly customized ads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant messaging-type “buddy” location </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enterprise solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “global intranet” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information updates “pushed” to WAP devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financial services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill-paying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock trading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds transfers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travel services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules and rescheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservations   </li></ul></ul>