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  1. 1. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS N.P.R. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY N.P.R. Nagar, Natham - 624 401, Tamil Nadu, India. AN ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Affiliated to Anna University, Tiruchirappalli) No. : 04544 - 291333, 291334, 245422, 245423 & Fax No.: 04544-245392, 93 Website: www.nprcet.org, www.nprcolleges.org E-Mail: nprgc@nprcolleges.org ISO 9001:2008BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T Miss. VMS.Sumathy, B.Sc., M.B.A., Lecturer Department of Management Studies, N.P.R. College of Engineering and Technology, Natham Tk, Dindigul Dt. 1
  2. 2. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS COMMUNICATION SKILLS LT P C 3003UNIT – I COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS 9Importance and Benefits – Components – Concepts & Problems – 7C‘s – Barriers to Communication –Interpersonal Perception – Johari Window – Transactional AnalysisUNIT – II NON-VERBAL AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION 9Importance of non-verbal communication - personal appearance - facial expressions movement posture–gestures - eye contact –voice - beliefs and customs- worldview and attitude.UNIT – III ORAL COMMUNICATION 9Listening - types and barriers to listening - speaking - planning and audience awareness - persuasion-goals - motivation and hierarchy of needs - attending and conducting interviews participating indiscussions, debates - and conferences - presentation skillsUNIT – IV BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE 9Business letter - principles of business writing- memos -e-mails – agendas- minutes- sales letter-enquiries- orders- letters of complaint- claims and adjustments- notice and tenders – circulars letters ofapplication and résumé.UNIT – V BUSINESS PROPOSALS AND REPORTS 9Project proposals- characteristics and structure- Project reports – types- characteristics- structure - Processand mechanics of report writing- visual aids- abstract - executive summary recommendation writing-definition of terms. TOTAL: 45 PERIODSTEXTBOOKS1. Murphy, Herta, Herbert W Hildebrandt, and Jane P Thomas, Effective Business Communication.7th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.REFERENCES1. Raman, Meenakhshi, and Prakash Singh, Business Communication. O U P, New Delhi,2008.2. Guffey, Mary Ellen., Business Communication: Process and Product. 3rd ed. Thomson andSouth-western, 2004.3. Lesikar, Raymond V., John D Pettit, and Mary E FlatlyLesikar‘s, Basic BusinessCommunication, 10th ed. Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007.4. Bovee, Courtland and John V Thill, Business Communication Today, 8th ed. Pearson Education,New Delhi, 2008. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 2
  4. 4. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSUNIT – I COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESSImportance and Benefits – Components – Concepts & Problems – 7C‘s – Barriers to Communication –Interpersonal Perception – Johari Window – Transactional AnalysisINTRODUCTION “To analyze, optimize and automate business communication process” -Nicole Wang Communication is the process by which we exchange meanings, facts, ideas, opinions oremotions with other people. The word ‗communicate‘ has been derived from the Latin word‗communicare‘ that means to ‗share‘ or ‗participate‘.BUSINESS COMMUNICATION According to Scott, ―administrative communication is a process which involves the transmissionand accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions which willaccomplish organizational goals‖.FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Control  Motivation  Emotional Expression  InformationIMPORTANCE TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Growth in the size of organizations  The people working in these organizations may be spread over different states of a country or over different countries. 4
  5. 5. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS Growth of trade unions  No management can be successful without taking the trade unions into confidence Growing importance of human relations  Workers have their own hopes and aspirations. Management has to recognize them above all as sensitive human being and work towards a spirit of integration with them Public relations  Every organization has a social responsibility, specially towards customers, government, suppliers and the public at large. Advances in behavioral sciences  Modern management is deeply influenced by exciting discoveries made in behavioral sciences like psychology, sociology, Transactional Analysis etc. Technological advancements  The world is changing very fast, owing to scientific and technological advancements. Motivation and morale  Communication plays and important role in inspiring people to work hard and in fostering positive attitudes. Corporate image  Communication is indispensable for every organization to develop and maintain reputation or goodwill in society.ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 5
  6. 6. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSFUNDAMENTALS TO COMMUNICATIONDirection: BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Downward  Upward  CrosswiseNetworks:  Formal vs. InformalPROBLEMS TO COMMUNICATION • Communication problems happen when: – Communication fails to happen (purposefully or accidentally) – Communication is misinterpreted – Communication is unclear 6
  7. 7. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS – Communication contains incorrect data, information, or knowledge – Communication leads to incorrect action • Unethical behavior on the part of sender or recipient • Wrong channel(s) is chosen for communication • Environmental pressure to not communicate or to communicate only in certain waysREASONS TO PROBLEMS • Information is presented in confusing or misleading ways – Bad visuals – Poor document design – Obfuscator language • Action is taken on incomplete or missing information • Information is ―leaked‖ outside of its contextDEALING WITH PROBLEMS • Fix the immediate problem that has been caused by poor communication • Take steps to get correct information to all parties • Issue appropriate statements (as necessary) • Identify the source of the problem • Identify the causes of the problem • Create or revise communication protocols to avoid a repeat of this problemHOW TO PREVENT PROBLEMS TO COMMUNICATION • Have clear protocols for communication • Practice reflective listening and feedback • Create an open communication climate • Design visuals that clearly represent data • Design documents that are easy to read • Use clear and unambiguous languageBARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION  Noise  Lack of planning  Semantic problems  Cultural barriers BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Wrong assumptions  Poor listening  Goal conflicts  Offensive style  Socio-psychological  Emotions  Selective perception  Filtering  Information overload  Poor retention 7
  8. 8. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Insufficient period for adjustment  Loss by transmissionHOW TO OVERCOME BARRIERS?  Overcoming perceptional barriers  Effective Listening  Create synergistic environment  Convey emotional contents of the message  Use appropriate language  Use proper channel  Encourage open communication  Ensure two-way communication  Make best use of body languageINTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONCommunication occurring within the mind of a personTWO IMPORTANT FACTORS  Internal stimuli  Person‘s motives  Attitudes  Self concept  External stimuli  Events, objects, persons outside the individuals  Perceptions, feelings and meaningsFour state of consciousness  Walking state  No control  Self-remembering or self-consciousness  EnlightenmentINTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Communication among two or more personTheories of interpersonal communication  Transactional analysis BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Johari windowTRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS  TA synthesis the interpersonal behavior by looking at both the internal states of an individual and his external behavior towards others  Eric Berne developed it as a method of examining transactions or social intercourse and determining which part of the multiple natured individual is activated as parent, adult and child 8
  9. 9. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSEgo states  Parent  A person acts and speaks like elders (parents) setting norms, making moral judgments, controlling and nurturing others.  Adult  A person gives factual information in logical, calculated, quiet and dispassionate way. Here his behavior is like an adult solving problem or making decision in a rational way.  Child  The person acts in impulsive and emotional way. His behavior  Natural child may be expression of joy, excitement, anger or rebellion  Little professor may be intuitive or creative  The adapted child may be in compliance with the demands of authority BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 9
  10. 10. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSJOHARI WINDOW The Johari Window is model of interpersonal interaction. Each of us can be represented by a window. Known to Self Not Known to Self Known to Others Open Blind Not Known to Others Hidden Unknown  The "open" window represents things I know about myself and that you also know about me. This corresponds to the win-win situation in game theory, because when we have certain knowledge in common, our friendship is more valuable.  The "hidden" window represents things that I know, but that you dont know about me. When I reveal information about myself, it goes into the open window, potentially increasing the value of our relationship. But there is a risk, depending on the kinds of information revealed.  The "blind" window are things that you know about me, that I dont know about myself. By my taking the risk to reveal a personal problem, you may be able to provide insights that I am not aware of myself, thereby helping me.  The "unknown" window represents things I dont know about myself and you dont either. Initially, in a relationship, this is the large window, because we dont know anything about each BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T otherPART A 1. Define the term ―Communication‖? 2. Define the term ‗Business communication‘? 3. Explain the process of communication, giving examples? 4. Explain the components of communication? 5. Effective communication has always been essential for success in business. Explain the statement in detail? 10
  11. 11. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS 6. Why is communication so important to an organization? How does it relate the organization to the outside world? 7. Explain the barriers to communication? 8. How to overcome the barriers to communication? 9. What is transactional analysis? 10. Define intrapersonal communication? 11. Define interpersonal communication? 12. Explain fundamentals to communication? 13. Explain the importance to communication? 14. What do you mean by Johari Window? 15. Differentiate between Interpersonal and Intrapersonal communication?PART B 1. Explain in detail the components of communication? 2. Effective communication has always been essential for success in business. Explain the statement in detail? 3. Why is communication so important to an organization? How does it relate the organization to the outside world? 4. Explain the barriers to communication? 5. How to overcome the barriers to communication? BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 11
  13. 13. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSUNIT – II NON-VERBAL AND INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATIONImportance of non-verbal communication - personal appearance - facial expressions movement posture–gestures - eye contact –voice - beliefs and customs- worldview and attitude.INTRODUCTIONAs it has been said in the very beginning communication is a process in which people exchangemessages/meanings through mutually understood signs/ symbols. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TVERBAL COMMUNICATION  The word ‗verbal‘ means ―connected with words and the use of words‖.  Human beings are the only species gifted with the use of words that makes language  Words are the most accurate and powerful set of symbols.  That is why it is observed that all serious or formal communication is in words.  Spoken communication or the communication employing speech is known as oral communication 13
  14. 14. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSORAL COMMUNICATION  As speech comes before writing it is worthwhile to take up oral communication before written communication.  Man learns to speak much before writing  In the same way, in an organization people speak much more, before writing.  In fact speech, or oral use of language, acts as the first binding factor between one person and another.  That is also the reason why communication becomes conversational in nature.ADVANTAGES  It provides immediate feedback to the participants in the communication event.  It is time-saving.  Builds up a healthy climate in the organization.  Becomes an effective tool of persuasion.  It is also very economical.  Opportunity for the speaker to correct himself.  The speaker enjoys the advantages of understanding the group he is addressing.LIMITATION  May not always be time-saving.  Cannot always be retrained in the listener‘s memory.  Do not have legal validity.  May lead to misunderstanding. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  The length of the new message may pose a problem.LISTENING AS A COMMUNICATION TOOL  Any discussion of oral communication is incomplete without considering listening as a communication tool.  Speaking and listening, listening and speaking go hand in hand.  No oral communication can be effective without proper listening. 14
  15. 15. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSEFFECTIVE LISTENING  All listening is not of the same type, it varies depending upon the context, the purpose, the speaker and the listener.  While listening we must discriminate, evaluate, appreciate, and react. o Discriminative listening o Evaluative listening o Appreciative listening o Empathic listening.IMPORTANCE OF LISTENING  Frequent activity of the human being as well as an important event in the communication process.  Listening skill plays a vital role in the career success, whether as a general manager, sales person, personnel manager etc.  The misunderstandings are a rule rather than exception mostly because of poor listening, neutral words, attempting to communicate positive message can convey negative and opposite message, if the listener possess wrong perceptions and prejudices.  Proper listening assures the speaker that the listener is sincere and can be trusted.  Listening is so intimately related to listening that one may almost say: No listening No learning.TYPES OF LISTENING  Pretending listening o Pretending through facial expression that communicated message is listened.  Selective listening o Selecting the desired part and ignoring the ‗undesired part of the message.  Attentive listening o Paying attention on the words that are being spoken rather than understanding the head and heart of the person speaking.  Emphatic listening o Listening not only through ears but also through eyes and heart.  Listening for mutual creativity o Listening for creativity not only smoothes but accelerates the understanding process through communication of hearts and minds.  Intuitive listening BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T o Intuitive listening like listening for mutual creativity is higher form of listening. o It means listening through intuitive mind by silencing the other internal dialogues goes simultaneouslyBARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING  Hearing problem o Hearing deficiency interrupts in the way of listening  Rapid thought 15
  16. 16. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS o The speaker talks about 125 words per minute leave ample idle time for the mind to wander to other matters than concentrating on the speaker‘s message.  Overload of message o Difficult for the brain to digest the overloaded message.  Egotism o Is self-centered attitude eg: ―myself is always right‖  Perceptions o Perceptions are selective and limited. We do not listen to what the other is saying but what we want to listen.  Faculty assumptions o Only sender‘s responsibility to communicate effectively. o Listening is basically a passive activity in which the receiver is a sponge quietly absorbing the speaker‘s thoughts.  Cultural differences o Employ people from different countries, creeds and communities with different cultural background.  Lack of training o Listening seems natural like eating, breathing or sleeping. o But effective listening requires great hard work, patience of sitting passively-alert and absorbing other persons‘ words with suspension of judgment for time- being.HOW TO MAKE LISTENING EFFECTIVE  Stop talking as you cannot listen during effective.  Watch and witness your body and mind to ensure that you are free from negative emotions, which may interrupt the listening process, and you are feeling released and revitalized.  Free your mind from presumptions and preconceived ideas by being aware of them.  Avoid any external distraction if there is any like playing of T.V or radio, noise in the near by place, attending somebody else, etc.  Be patient and allow the talker sufficient time to clarify his point. Do not interrupt him  Suspend the judgment for the time being to avoid premature evaluation and judgment.  Be careful that your listening is not selective and partial, but total and deep.  Put the talker at ease with smiling face and sweet words, so that he can communicate frankly and BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T fearlessly. 16
  17. 17. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSNON-VERBAL COMMUNICATIONSign language There are vast range visual and audio signs outside the gamut of words.Regarding the use of visual elements a Chinese proverb says “ A picture is worth a thousand words”.VISUAL SIGNS  An organization can, often does, make a very profitable use of visual signs like posters, drawings, photographs, cartoons, caricatures, statues etc., to convey message for general information/ educational purposes.  Maps and diagrams are indispensable in books of geography, science, economics, and history and very often in presentations.  A larger number of visual, signs/symbols speak a universal language understood by people all over the world. For example, anybody anywhere can recognize the sign for a telephone booth, or a ‗gents/ladies‘ toilet, no smoking, or a factory.ADVANTAGES Easily convey the message in visual terms. Communication interesting and motivate viewer. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T Useful for illiterate workers Effective way of advertising.AUDIO/SOUND SIGNALS 17
  18. 18. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  The modern world of business has conveniently adopted them. In olden times drum beating are used by people living in jungles to sound an alarm or to tell the people to gather at some place still used in modern times to mark different occasions like an important announcement or to tell the people to assemble at some place.  There are various kinds of alarms like fire alarm, accident alarm, air raid or assault alarms, VIP motorcade alarm, and machine breakdown alarm and so on.  Different kinds of sirens, hooters, buzzers, whistlers etc, are used for these purposes. The main idea is to caution the listeners and make him to take the right step.  A clock or watch alarm makes us aware of our time and programme our schedule.ADVANTAGES Very quick in conveying the intended message. Useful in time management. Streamline the working of the organizations.BODY LANGUAGE  Body plays the most important role a serious study the way body communicates  This branch of study is known as ‗Kinesics‘ which means ‗body movement‘.EXPRESSION OF OUR FEELINGS AND STATUS Human body and its various parts play an important role in communication. It must be noted, though it is known to almost all, that all our body movements, gestures, postures etc., guided by our feelings and thought processes. The nodding of our head, blinking of our eyes, waving of our hands, shrugging of our shoulders etc., are expressions of our thought and feelings. Regarding the importance of ‗body language‘ it has been observed that we may play fast or loose with words, but our body speaks out the truth.HEAD  In any face-to-face communication or meeting or interview the way we hold our head is very important.  There is an old saying ‗hold your head high’. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  It is a sign of honor and self respect, confidence and our interest in the person before us  A head bent low shows drawn too far backwards or stiffly held modesty, politeness or diffidence and head drawn too far backward or stiffly held straighten up indicates pride.  Head jerks indicate rejection or agreements, depending upon the context and the personality of the person. 18
  19. 19. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSFACE  It has been said that ‗the face is the index of the mind’. Whatever we feel deep inside is reflected on our face. Every facial muscle is an instrument of communication and plays an important role in face-to-face communication.  The lines of our forehead, the eyebrows, the muscles of our cheeks, our lips-in a smile or in surprise all these speak louder than words.EYE CONTACT Eye contact is of paramount importance in face-to-face communication. The eyes, along with the eyebrows, eyelids and the size of pupils communicate our deepest feelings.GESTURES  Movements of our arms, legs, hands, torso and head are called gestures. And gestures also communicate very meaningfully.  A forefinger and a thumb touching to form a circle stand for ‗OK‘.BODY SHAPE AND POSTURE Our body shape and posture affect the way we think about ourselves, how we relate to others and others relate to us. Body shapes may be thin and tall, athletic and muscular or fat and round. We cannot do much about our body, but whenever needed we can try to make the best possible impression. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TINTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION A situated communication between individuals or groups of different linguistic and culturalorigins. – content – competenceCONTENT – Autonomous courses – theoretical, not necessarily linked to languages – Cases of courses with: 19
  20. 20. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS • theory, practice, relationships between language-related aspects and language- independent aspectsCOMPETENCE – Knowledge of language(s) and of the context – Skills to express oneself in language appropriate to rhe context concerned – Attitudes to deploy these skillsFOCUS The acquisition of skills and human attributes likely to enhance intercultural communication isreviewed exclusively as a component of language programmes.INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE – knowledge – skills – attitudes7 SIGNIFICANT ISSUES 1. IC‘s relationship with language itself, 2. Its integration into language teaching pedagogy 3. Its identification or otherwise with nationhood, BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 4. Its link with personal identity, 5. The psychological principles underpinning the formation of attitudes and stereotypes, 6. The disciplinary structure of higher education (HE) in different countries and institutions, 7. More general economic and cultural aspects of academic environments, internal and external, in which learning takes place.PART A 1. Write the importance on Non-verbal communication? 2. What is non-verbal communication? 3. Define the term sign language with its example? 20
  21. 21. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS4. Differentiate between audio and visual sign in non-verbal communication?5. What is meant by Inter-cultural communication?6. What are the significant issues to Inter-cultural communication?7. Look around in your institution and make a list of visual and audio signs there. Write a short note on each of them?8. What do you mean by body language? Discuss its various aspects in detail?9. Write a note on the saying, ―The face is the index of the mind‖.10. Write short notes on eye contact11. Write short note on grapevine12. What do you mean by stiff standing body position13. Write a note on ―Time is Money‖.14. Differentiate posture and gesture?15. Write on note on the use of sound signals clearly distinguishing the different kinds and uses?16. Discuss the use of at least two examples of sign language?17. What do you mean by nodding?18. Differentiate Verbal and Non-verbal communication?19. How Non-verbal communication is effective?20. Determine the factors influencing non-verbal communication?PART B1. Write short notes on a. Eye contact b. Nodding c. Stiff standing body position d. Constant gaze2. Write a note on the saying, ―The face is the index of the mind‘.3. Explain inter cultural communication with examples?4. Write the importance of verbal and non- verbal communication?5. Write a note on the use of sound signals clearly distinguishing the different kinds and uses? BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 21
  23. 23. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSUNIT – III ORAL COMMUNICATIONListening - types and barriers to listening - speaking - planning and audience awareness - persuasion-goals - motivation and hierarchy of needs - attending and conducting interviews participating indiscussions, debates - and conferences - presentation skillsART OF SPEAKING“Talking and Eloquence are not the same; to speak and to speak well are twothings.” -Ben JonsonPURPOSE OF THE SPEECH • Informative Speech – The purpose of an informative speech is to teach the audience a small but useful tidbit of information – E.g. Mount Kinabalu was designated as the world heritage sight. • Persuasive Speech – The purpose is a persuasive speech is to change peoples minds or behavior about something. – E.g. Don‘t Drink and Drive • Special Occasion Speech – is an emotional speech that marks a major event or rite of passage BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T – Sample of SOS are; • Welcoming speech, • Introductory speech, • Inauguration Speech, and • Entertainment SpeechCHARACTERISTICS OF SPEECH • CLARITY • LENGTH • INFORMATIVE 23
  24. 24. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS • APPEAL • WAVELENGTH • INFORMAL • CONCRETE FACTSHOW TO MAKE SPEECH EFFECTIVE?IN THE BEGINNING OF THE SPEECH • Raising a Question • Narrating a related interesting story • Opening with a striking quotation • Telling how the topic affects the vital interests of the audience • Highlighting the shocking factsDURING SPEECH • Put one‘s heart into the talk • Stress the important words • Vary the pitch of voice • Maintain eye contact • Speak loudlyAT THE END OF THE SPEECH • Summarize BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T • Appeal for action • Pay compliment • Raising a laugh • Quoting a verse of poetry • Using a biblical quotation • Building up a climax 24
  25. 25. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSPLANNING AND AUDIENCE AWARENESSTHE AUDIENCE • An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. • Audience members participate in different ways in different kinds of art; some events invite overt audience participation and others allowing only modest clapping and criticism and reception. • Age, gender, race • Academic or Non-academic • Hostile, Neutral, Un-uniform or supportive • Large group or small groupTHE SENSE OF AUDIENCE  There‘s no excuse for boring your audience. Try to put then first and always keep them in your mind when you prepare your speech.  Ask friends for feedback. Try to see yourselves as others see you. (Watch or listen to yourself in video/ audio recording)  Show enthusiasm. Don‘t look and sound dull. Practice helps to overcome nervousness  Look confident by standing straight and being well prepared; it‘s natural to feel a bit nervous, but work on mastering/ controlling the feeling.LOGISTICS • Sound System • Visual Aids System • Climate Control • The Stage • Seat Arrangement • Exits and Entrance • Rest Rooms • Drinks, Snack BarCHARACTERISTICS THAT MAKE AND EXCELLENT SPEAKER – Confidence – Use Your Voice and Body Effectively – Art of Storytelling BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TCONFIDENCE ◦ Content ◦ Organization ◦ Newness ◦ Friendliness ◦ Impression ◦ Dedication ◦ Empathy ◦ Notes ◦ Conviction 25
  26. 26. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS ◦ EnthusiasmINTRAPERSONAL COMMUNICATION • Positive Self Talk – Be your biggest cheerleader – Believe in yourself – Think of yourself in a positive lightUSING YOUR VOICE AND BODY LANGUAGEThe speed at which we speak • What is wrong with speaking . . . – Too slowly? • Bores the audience – Too fast? • Hard to understand, run out of breathPITCH • The vocal notes that you hit while speaking—the highs and lows of your voice • Do not speak in a monotone—it bores your audienceVOICE INFLECTION • Altering your pitch to help bring attention and emphasis to what you are speaking – I think that you are the best. – I think that you are the best. – I think that you are the best. – I think that you are the best. – I think that you are the best. – I think that you are the best.PROJECTION AND VOLUME • The loudness or softness of your voice • Be sure to adapt your volume level to the situation or environment • Alter your volume level when telling a story to add dramaARTICULATION BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T – The crispness, the distinctness, with which we say the syllables in a wordPRONOUNCIATION – Saying the sounds of a word properly and stressing the correct syllable.BODY LANGUAGE • Eye Contact – Establish eye contact with the audience frequently • Poise 26
  27. 27. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS – Show your audience how confident you are • Hand Gestures – Use to enhance your speech, not as a way to calm your nerves!SPEECHES TO MOTIVATEWhat is motivation of employees?MASLOW’S HIERARCHY NEED FOR MOTIVATIONALBERT EINSTEIN‘S EQUATION E = mc²Ken Blanchard advocates“Enthusiasm equals mission times cash and congratulation”.DO’S AND DON’TSDO‘s  Maintain god eye contact with ALL of the audience – move your head to include everyone  Use small index cards as cue cards/ prompts  Pause appropriately; give the audience time to digest your points; emphasize key words and BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T phrases; aim for stress timed delivery, not syllable-timed  Pay attention to diction ; remember to articulate final consonant soundsDONT‘s  Read direct from your notes all the time  Use excessive gestures, fidget, play with your hair/ tie etc. as this can be very distractingPRESENTATION SKILLS 27
  28. 28. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS“Most people are more deeply influenced by one clear, vivid, personalexample than by an abundance of statistical data.” Eliot Aronson, Social PsychologistKINDS OF PRESENTATION • Monologue Presentations Speaker speaks without interruption. • Guided Discussions speaker presents the questions or issues • Sales Presentations convince the audience for buying the products or service oraccepting the new idea.PURPOSEOral presentations have the following three basic purposes • To inform. • To persuade. • To build goodwill.Key to presentation excellence  Planning think the whole process through  Objectives  Occasion  Audience  Preparation  Draw up an outline  Decide on visual aids, handouts  Actual presentation content(central theme, straightforward, Anticipate questions)  Practice and more practice: perfecting the delivery, well-timed, comprehensible, convincing BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Be prepared:  plan for back-up  do a go-see  Show enthusiasmGiving effective presentation  Strategy  Specific purpose  Audience expectation  Analyzing audience  Deciding time, location, manner 28
  29. 29. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Structure  What is to be told  Then it is told  What has been told  Support  White boards  Handouts  Flip charts  Overhead projector  35mm slider  LCD projector  Video tapes  Speech  Manuscript  Memorized  Extemporaneous  Impromptu  Visual elements  Verbal elements  Vocal elementsStructuring Your PresentationEvery presentation has the following:  Introduction  Main Points  ConclusionThe Introduction consists of three objectives:  Get the attention and interest of the audience  Reveal the topic of the presentation  Establish the credibility of the speakerGet Their Attention  State the importance of the topic  Question the audience  Begin with a quotation  Tell a story BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Structuring Main Points Order is extremely important for both clarity and persuasiveness  There are different kinds of order: o Chronological: time pattern o Spatial: directional pattern o Causal: cause-effect relationship o Topical: divided into subtopics  Order is extremely important for both clarity and persuasiveness  There are different kinds of order: o Chronological: time pattern 29
  30. 30. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS o Spatial: directional pattern o Causal: cause-effect relationship o Topical: divided into subtopicsCONCLUSION  Closing remarks reinforce the Main Points  The conclusion always has two major functions: o Lets the audience know the presentation is ending o Reinforces the understanding of the central idea  Do not be abruptReinforce the Central Idea  Summarize by restating the Main Points  End with a quotation  Make a dramatic statement  Refer back to the introductionMethods to Signal the End  Simple statements o ―In conclusion . . .‖ or ―Before we wrap up…‖  Ask for questions o ―Is there anything that I haven‘t covered?‖  Thank your audience o ―You‘ve been great‖  Leave o Don‘t have multiple conclusions!Creating Supporting Materials  Alone, main points are only assertions  Supporting materials give meaning  Supporting materials relate to critical thinking  Research to find supporting materialsWhat makes a talk poor? • Little/no eye contact – No engagement with the audience • Mumbling – Often because not engaging with audience BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T • Reading from a paper – Too fast, monotone • Little/no structure – Lack of clarity • Too much information • Bad visual aids 30
  31. 31. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSDEALING WITH NERVES Be prepared – Plan and rehearse – See ‗dealing with nerves‘ box – See handy check list • Deep breathing! – May sound naff, but it works • Engage with your audience – Makes you feel more relaxed – See ‗engage with your audience‘ boxPRESENTING AS A PART OF ATEAM • Plan talk together • Set responsibilities • Structure talk – Intro – sections - conclusion – Ensure everyone will speak • Smooth links between speakers – Someone to introduce talk and – Introduce next topic & speaker – Someone to conclude • Your talk must HANG TOGEGTHERThe MessageA presenter is sending multiple messages:  Presentation  Body language  Appearance  Tone of voice  Gestures  Facial expression  Eye contactThe Channel BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  The channel is the means by which a message is communicated.  One-on-one conversation is the most direct channel for an individual.Public speaking is the most direct channel for groups of individualsThe Situation  The situation is the time and place in which the presentation occurs  Certain occasions require certain kinds of presentations  Physical setting is very important  Adjusting the situation of a presentation is simply doing conversation on a larger scale. 31
  32. 32. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSFACTORS AFFECTING PRESENTATIONS  Audience analysis  Communication environment  Personal appearance  Use of visuals  Opening and closing of presentation  Language and words  Quality of voice  Body language  Answering questionsGROUP DISCUSSION • Group Discussion is a modern method of assessing student personality. • It is both a technique and an art and a comprehensive tool to judge the worthiness of the student and his appropriateness for the job. • The term suggests a discussion among a group of persons. • The group will have 8 & 12 members who will express their views freely, frankly in a friendly manner, on a topic of current issue. • Within a time limit of 20 to 30 minutes, the ability of the members of the group is measured.PREREQUISITES OF A GROUP DISCUSSION • Topics given by panelists • Planning and preparation • Knowledge with self-confidence • Communication skills/ power of speech • Presentation • Body Language and personal appearance BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T • Being calm and cool • Extensive knowledge base related to state, country and globe. • Areas are politics, sports, science &trade commerce, Industry and Technology, MNC, etc. • Analyze the social, economical issues logistically. • Listening skills • Co-operation.TYPES OF GROUP DISCUSSION • Factual Topics – The education policy in India 32
  33. 33. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS •Controversial Topics – Women make better managers • Abstract Topics – Children are ……., • Case based TopicsBENEFITS OF GROUP DISCUSSION • Stimulation of thinking in a new way. • Expansion of knowledge • Understanding of your strength and weakness. • Your true personality is revealed and qualities of leadership crystallize • provides chance to Expose • Language skills • Academic knowledge • Leadership skills • people handling skills • Team work • General knowledgeESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF GROUP DISCUSSION • Initiating a discussion • Possessing requisite knowledge • Communicate effectively • Role of body language • Maturity and mutual respect • Making an impact • Technique of interruption • Reaching consensusSALIENT FEATUES OF GD • Topic may be given to judge your public speaking talent. • Discussion revolves around a specific subject. • The examiner does not interfere once he announced the topic. • Maintain cordiality and free expression of thought and opinion. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TDO’S IN GROUP DISCUSSION • Appropriate to the issue. • Make original points & support them by substantial reasoning. • Listen to the other participants actively &carefully. • Whatever you say must be with a logical flow, & validate it with an example as far as possible. • Make only accurate statements. • Modulate the volume, pitch and tone. • Be considerate to the feelings of the others. • Try to get your turn. 33
  34. 34. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS • Be an active and dynamic participant by listening. • Talk with confidence and self-assurance.DON’T’S IN GROUP DISCUSSION • Being shy /nervous / keeping isolated from G.D • Interrupting another participant before his arguments are over • Speak in favor ; example: Establish your position and stand by it stubbornly • Changed opinions • Don‘t make fun of any participant even if his arguments are funny • Don‘t engage yourself in sub-group conversation. • Don‘t repeat and use irrelevant materials. • Addressing you to the examiner. • Worrying about making some grammatical mistakes, for your interest the matter you put across are important.IMPORTANT POINTS IN GD • Be assertive: An assertive person is directing, honest careful about not hurting others ‗self-respect‘. • A patient listener: listening to another person is one way of showing appreciation. • Right language: Words can make friends & right words at the right time make the best results. • Be analytical and fact-oriented: It is necessary to make relevant points which can be supported with facts and analyzed logically.SUGGESTION FOR EFFECTIVE GD • Never try to bluff. • Practice group discussion with friends on different subjects. • Remember! Speech is a powerful weapon.TOPICS OF IMPORTANCE FREQUENTLY ASKED BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T • Is India Shining • Mobile phones / Internet – a boon or nuisance • Students focusing on software industry-good or bad • Child marriage • India 2020 • Daughters are more caring than sons • Influence of western culture in Indian Universities • Influence of computers in medical sciences 34
  35. 35. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSDEBATES Always remember “Speakers are not born, they are made”BENEFITS OF DEBATING • Cultivates quick and multi-dimensional, logical thinking. • Enhances the ability to develop reasoned opinions. • Gives a better understanding of the current events and the world around us. • Improves self-confidence, speaking style and command of language. • Enriches your overall leadership qualities.GOOD DEBATERS POSSESS • Good knowledge of current issues. • Ability to generate ideas. • Ability to think critically and logically. • Ability to present the ideas systematically. • Ability to handle culturally diverse and challenging situations with great ease and to one‘s their (own) enjoyment.IFFERENT FORMATS OF DEBATES • Good knowledge of current issues. • Ability to generate ideas. • Ability to think critically and logically. • Ability to present the ideas systematically. • Ability to handle culturally diverse and challenging situations with great ease and to one‘s their (own) enjoyment. • Royal Malaysian/ Asian BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T • 3 members to a team • POIS are allowed. • British Parliamentary (World Debates) • 2 member to team and 4 teams in a debate • POIs are allowedA DEBATE IS DISCUSSED ON THE BASIS OF 1. Matter: What you present (i.e. the content) 2. Manner: How you present (i.e. the style) 3. Method: Organisation/ structure of your presentation. 35
  36. 36. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSINTERVIEW SKILLSInterview is a social process, which involves interactions between two persons- the interviewer and theinterviewee. It gives a chance to the interviewer to have a glimpse of the inner traits and qualities of theinterviewee.BEFORE THE INTERVIEW  Research the company  Determine location of interview – or prepare for a phone interview  Prepare your attire  Make sure your resume is ready for further inspection (same applies to your ePortfolio)THE THREE P’S - PREPARATION  Know Your Product (a.k.a. YOU)  Complete a Self-Assessment – Strengths, weaknesses, academic performance, career interests, personal goals, work experiences, and special skills  Know your Resume  Know how your qualifications can benefit the employer (match them to the job description)  Be able to articulate this information and back it up with specific examples  Know your customer, services, etc.  Read employer literature & visit the organization‘s website  Speak with recent graduates or second year MSI‘s who have recently been through the interview process Preparation is everything! Understand the job, the organization, and where you fit Review the job description BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T Anticipate the questions Research and set your salary range Prepare questions to ask the interviewer Practice, practice, practicePRACTICE  Be concise 36
  37. 37. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Strive for poise  Be clear  Be specific – Use examples – Tell storiesAT THE INTERVIEW  The Introduction  The Interviewer Background  The Discussion  Ask Questions  The ClosePERFORM  Be alert, friendly, and courteous  Maintain good eye contact  Be positive about yourself  Be confident, but not cocky  Act natural and be yourself  Be honest  Send the right behavioral signals  Communicate carefully  Participate, don‘t dominate  Be enthusiastic  Sell yourself and your strengths  Be conscious of your personal grooming  Your goal is to look professional!  Your goal is not to look trendy or hip  Business Attire vs. Business Casual  Know the organization‘s culture  Arrive on time – or ten minutes early  Bring two copies of your resume and other applicable information  Make a good first impression BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Make a good last impression  Don‘t let them doubt your interest in the positionDECISIONS ARE MADE EASILY Usually within the first 5 minutes! You must IMMEDIATELY convey confidence (attire, handshake, eye contact, body language isimportant!) START STRONG, END STRONG!AFTER THE INTERVIEW 37
  38. 38. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Relax, but learn from the experience  Keep a log  Send a Thank You note – E-mail is acceptable – Written note stands out! – Professional vs. personality  Stay in pursuit - follow up with the recruiter  Be patient  Don‘t wait too longINTERVIEW QUESTIONS – The questions are about you, so don‘t get caught up with stories about other people or extraneous details – You are the expert on yourself – Open-ended beginnings are your opportunity – There is a perfect answer to the salary question – Be ready for inappropriate questions – Technical questions might arise – Know your resources for determining these ahead of time – Prepare a few questions of your ownTYPES OF INTERVIEWS  Employment interview  Orientation interview  Counseling interview  Performance appraisal interview  Grievance interview  Correctional interviews  Exit interviews  Information gathering interviewsTYPES OF INTERVIEW QUESTIONS BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T o Tell Me About Yourself (a.k.a. Resume Screen) o Why haven‘t you…? (a.k.a. ―High Stress‖) o What have you done..? (a.k.a. Behavioral Interviewing) o What would you do? (a.k.a. Case/Simulation) o What the #@!*& ….? (a.k.a. Abstract)TYPICAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  Tell me about yourself  Why are interested in this position/ organization? 38
  39. 39. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  What attracted you to this field?  Tell me about your work experience  What qualifies you for this position?  What are you strengths? What is your greatest weakness?  Where do you see yourself in five, ten years?PART A 1. What do you mean by the word ‗verbal‘? 2. Why verbal communication is regarded as serious? 3. Write a note on the importance of oral communication? 4. What are the limitations of oral communication? 5. Write short notes on the following a. Listening as a communication tool. b. Evaluative listening c. Empathic listening d. Appreciative listening 6. What are the various barriers in effective listening? How can they be overcome? 7. Explain the characteristics of a good speech? 8. Explain how presentation differ from speeches? 9. Which factor affect the presentation? 10. Design various speech? 11. What is interview? What are the various types of interviews? 12. How information gathering interview is conducted? What are the points that interview or an interviewee should consider for information gathering interview? PART B 1. Every successful and effective presentation requires 4-s. explain this statement? 2. Discuss various types of presentations? 3. What are the factors for interviews? 4. What is a letter of appointment? What precautions are taken while drafting it? 5. What should be the behavior of interview during interview? BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 39
  41. 41. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSBusiness letter - principles of business writing- memos -e-mails – agendas- minutes- sales letter-enquiries- orders- letters of complaint- claims and adjustments- notice and tenders – circulars letters ofapplication and résumé.INTRODUCTION Correspondence means communication by letters on matters of personal, official and businessinterest.TYPES OF CORRESPONDENCE  Personal correspondence  Business correspondence  Official correspondencePURPOSE AND USES OF BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCEIdeas can be put more clearly in writing  It becomes a record  It becomes a legal document  It can be used for future reference.  It cut short distance between partiesIMPORTANCE OF BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE  Correspondence in business activity is an important function  It is only through correspondence the parties in a business come into contact with each other and conduct a business activity of their choice.  The correspondence helps to bridge the distance and bring people close together as it is also a cheap and reliable method  It may avoid disputes and quarrels and eliminate litigation.  Development of business further leads to development of a nation, since through better trade, and more and more commercial and industrial activities, the financial position of a country is strengthened  It brings people together, businessmen and nations together.  The business will be reduced to nothing if it is unable to do correspondence in an effective and purposeful manner. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  That is why that correspondence is the ―backbone of any business‖. 41
  42. 42. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSBUSINESS LETTERSBusiness letters are formal messages following specific formats. They may be addressed to a particular person or organization. Most of the time business letters are sent outside of your company. SO WHEN SHOULD WE WRITE most formal Usually sent to someone from a different company than yours, or a different school, etc.MEMOS A memo is a document sent within a company. It is presented in short form, highlighting certainaspects.SO WHEN SHOULD WE WRITE  less formal than letters, yet more formal than e-mails  often filed as business correspondence  use short sentences, less formal language, and bullet points to convey important information  Contains a header that tells who it is from, who it is to, the date, and the subject.E MAIL An e-mail is a communication sent from one computer to another, usually via a network. It is theleast formal method of written communication within a company. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TSO WHEN SHOULD WE WRITE  less formal - written in a conversational style  Sent to your work colleagues or fellow students/professors from the same school. 42
  43. 43. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSLAYOUT OF A BUSINESS LETTERTelephone : _______________ Telegr: ―_______________‖Post Box No : _______________ Telex : ________________ 1. Name of Sender (Details of Business) Address ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________2. Ref : __________________ 3. Date: _____________4. Inside Address________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Sub: ___________________________ Ref:_________________ (Receiver‘s reference) ______________________ __________________________________________________6.Salutation _______________________7.Introductory Para_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________MainBody_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ClosingPara________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Complimentary close Sd/- (Name)9.Designation For: _________________10. Encl. 1._________________ 2._________________11.Initials of Dictator and Typist BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T12. Copy to: 1._________________ 2._________________AGENDAMeaning Agenda is a document that outlines the contents of a forthcoming meeting. It is usually sent alongwith the notice of the meeting. Sometimes agenda is prepared after the circulation of the notice in order toenable the members to get included in the agenda any item that they would like to be discussed at themeeting. 43
  44. 44. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSExample: - The next quarterly meeting of the Board of Directors will take place on Monday, 21 st October, 20…. At 5pm, in the conference roomSimco India Limited, Chennai AGENDA 1. Minutes of the last meeting. 2. Matters arising from the minutes. 3. Financial irregularities in Arichuur branch. 4. Reorganization of work in Chennai branch. 5. Any other business 6. Date of next meeting.MINUTESMeaningMinutes are the official record of the proceedings of a meeting. All organizations, whether commercial orsocial, attach great importance to maintaining a proper record of the business transacted at their variousmeeting. Once minutes are approved and signed, even a court of law accepts them as evidence of theproceedings.OBJECTIVES AND IMPORTANCE OF MINUTESThe main uses of minutes are as follows: 1. Minutes contain a record of the business transacted and decisions taken at a meeting. They serve as a permanent record for future reference. 2. Minutes serve as a reminder of the actions to be taken to implement the decisions arrived at a meeting. 3. In case of joint stock companies, law requires maintenance of minutes. The interested parties are allowed to inspect the minutes. 4. Minutes can be produced as evidence of the proceedings in a court of Law. 5. Minutes help in the efficient conduct of business. If proper minutes are not kept, the decisions arrived at meeting may be questioned by any member or Auditor and these cannot be proved in a Court of Law.DISTINCTION BETWEEN MINUTES AND REPORTS MINUTES REPORTSA minute begins with the word ‘resolved’. The word ‗resolved‘ is not written while writing a reportMinutes are general not written in a narrative Reports are always written in a narrative form BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.Tform. They record date, time and place of the giving, a historical account of all that wasmeetings and resolutions passed. discussedMinutes are summarized record of the Reports may be verbatim or summarized.proceedings of a meeting.Approved and signed minutes are accepted by Reports are not accepted by the courts as evidence.the courts as evidenceMinutes can be prepared within a reasonable Reports are prepared just after the meetingtime after the meeting.Separated minutes have to prepare for each A report may include summarize of more than onmeeting. one meeting.The exact wording of resolutions adopted at the A report need not contain exact wording of the 44
  45. 45. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSmeeting must be recorded in minutes. decisions arrived at the meeting.TYPES OF MINUTES 1. Minutes of resolution a. In this type of minutes only the resolutions passed at the meeting are recorded b. It always begin with the words ―Resolved that‖ followed by the exact resolution 2. Minutes of narration a. In this type of minutes, the resolutions passed at the meeting are recorded. b. In addition, a brief account of the business discussed and transacted and the voting pattern are also recorded c. Minutes of narration are somewhat similar to a report.CONTENTS OF MINUTES 1. The kind of meeting 2. Date, time and place of the meeting 3. The name of the person in the chair. 4. Name of directors, secretary and persons in attendance 5. Reading and confirmation of the minutes of the last meeting and their signing by the Chairman, together with any matters arising from the minutes 6. Brief subject heading of each minute with the resolutions adopted 7. Financial statements and reports presented and approved in the meeting. These may be put in the form of ‗Appendix‘ 8. Appointment made, if any. 9. In the case of special resolution, the number of votes for and against. 10. Names of persons dissenting with any resolution passed at the meeting 11. Instructions given by the meeting to the secretary or other officers. 12. Chairman‘s signature and date of verification of minutes as correct.SALES LETTER or SALES PROMOTION LETTERA sales promotion letter may be otherwise called a trade circular which is important type of a circularletter.A sales promotion letter is written with the following objectives and purposes:  To stimulate sales when it is selling or it is not increasing as per expectations. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  When it is intended to convey a change in product or quality or programme.  To offer of new varieties of a product to the present customer or prospective one.  To open-up new markets for an old product or a new product.The qualities of a sales letter should conform to the AIDA formula. 45
  46. 46. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSENQUIRY LETTER A letter of enquiry is written by a prospective buyer to a prospective seller for the purpose ofmaking enquiry into the terms and conditions for buying a product.An enquiry letter is primarily of two types: BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TSOLICITED ENQUIRY  Due to competition, every seller tries to reach prospective buyers directly or even indirectly  Direct contact includes contacts through travelling salesmen and medical representatives, sending price lists and catalogues etcUNSOLICITED ENQUIRY  The buyer takes the initiative and contacts the seller 46
  47. 47. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSTo make the enquiry, they may collect the names or addresses of the various sellers selling the sameproduct from the advertisements issues by the various sellers.QUOTATION LETTER It is a letter written by a prospective seller to the prospective buyer quoting his various terms andconditions for the sale of the products with which he deals.It may contain the following pointsSometimes the quotation may be sent by the seller without an enquiry. In such a situation, it may becalled an offer letter. In government offices, it is called a ‗Tender‘.ORDER LETTER After selecting the best seller through the comparative statement, a buyer moves on the next stepnamely to buy the product. An order is to be places with the selected seller. A letter containing the orderis prepared and sent to the seller. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TAn order letter invariably should contain the following terms 1. The name and address of the buyer 2. The order number and date 3. The seller‘s name and address 4. Other specific terms and conditions regarding the transaction which is to take place are a. Name and quality specification of the products which he wants to buy. b. Quantity to be bought in each of the product and in each quality c. Unit price very clearly mentioned along with other terms like FOR, FOB, CIF, etc, if any. 47
  48. 48. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS d. Date of delivery of the goods. e. The discount rates for both quantity and cash purchases, if any f. Packing, transportation and delivery charges, if any and by whom to be paid.LETTER OF ACCEPTANCE OF ORDER A seller will examine the terms and conditions of the order carefully and find out whether it isprofitable for him to accept the order or not.Acceptance can be studied in the following aspects: 1. Importance of acceptance 2. Consequence of acceptance 3. The act of conveying or not to the buyer of acceptance 4. Methods of acceptance.REFUSAL OF ORDER (REJECTION OF ORDER) A supplier always tries to execute the order placed with him but due to compelling situationwhich may be beyond his control, they may refuse the order. Refusal of order may be done by the selleron the basis of several reasons which are as follows 1. Terms and conditions are not acceptable 2. The quality and quantity demanded by the buyer may not be available with the seller at that time. 3. There may be a strike or lockout going on in the factory due to which the supplier may not be in a position to accept the order 4. The supplier is compelled by the government to divert a major portion of his production to essential government departments like defense, civil supplies, hospitals etc 5. Difficulty in getting the railway wagons in the case of bulky material like coal, iron, steel, timber, cement etc.COMPLIANCE LETTER  It is written by the supplier to the buyer for the purpose of informing the buyer about the dispatch of the goods.  It is normally written immediately after sending the goods. This letter takes the name compliance because the seller. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TPARCEL WAY BILLThe receipt given by the parcel office after taking charge of the parcel or packet from the consignor forsending it to the consignee is called the Railway Receipt or Parcel Way Bill.COMPLIANTS AND CLAIMS LETTER A complaints letter, it should be remembered, is written ―only for the purposes of getting thewrong righted and not to pick-up a quarrel with the seller‖. So a buyer should be careful enough to seethat a compliant letter is written only when it is essential, that is, if the complaints are causingconsiderable financial loss 48
  49. 49. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS Before writing a complaint letter, the following points should be taken into considerations. 1. There should be solid and real complaint existing in the delivery of the goods. 2. A complaint letter should be written not on the basis of guess work. 3. A complaint letter should be written as far as possible avoiding the word ‗complaint‘. 4. It should be written in a convincing, tactful, polite and forceful manner. 5. Every effort should be made to see that the complaint letter does not affect the interest of the buyer and the seller.Complaint letter may contain anyone or more than one of the following points: 1. Wrong quality of material received. 2. Wrong quantity delivered. 3. Late delivery of consignment. 4. Goods received in a damaged condition due to defective packing. 5. Wrong mode of transport used causing late delivery or damage. 6. Difference in charges due to over pricing. 7. Any violation of any other term and conditions of the order.ADJUSTMENT LETTERSAn adjustment letter deals mainly with a proposal for adjustment by the buyer. In other words it dealswith a claim for adjustment. Hence before adjustment letters are written, a decision should be taken to fixresponsibilities of the claim and the manner in which it can be settled. 1. Something is wrong with the execution of the order somewhere. 2. Who is the person, who has committed the mistake, the seller or the buyer or the third party like a manufacture or a transporter? 3. How to deal with the complaint.CIRCULAR LETTER The letter is known as circular letter because it is circulated to a large number of customers.Necessary number of copies may be cyclostyled, printed or electrostated and one copy addressed to oneindividual by post. The copies can also be distributed at random.Circulars may be of various types namely BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 49
  50. 50. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSA circular letter is different from the other types in its layout, content and matter.FEATURES OF A CIRCULAR LETTER BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 50
  55. 55. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS Unit vBusiness proposal BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 55
  56. 56. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSUNIT – V BUSINESS PROPOSALS AND REPORTSProject proposals- characteristics and structure- Project reports – types- characteristics- structure - Processand mechanics of report writing- visual aids- abstract - executive summary recommendation writing-definition of terms.INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT A project may be defined as a complex of non-routine activities that must be completed within a settime period and with a given amount of resources. A Project may be • Establishment of new factory • Modernization of plant and machinery • Undertaking of a research study • Development of a new productCHARACTERISTICS OF A PROJECT – Focus • Set of objectives for achievement – Life span • Always time-bound, time limits are well defined – Separate set-up • Temporary organization structure or team is assigned the responsibility of completing the project. – Life cycle • Several stage – conceptual phase, definition phase, planning phase, operational phase, post-accomplishment and divestment phase – Uniqueness • Fingerprint of individuals – Budget • Specific budget and expected to complete within assigned funds.OBECTIVES FOR PREPARING A PROJECT  Represents the results of technical, economical, and financial feasibility studies of the project.  Serves as the basis on the basis of which the concerned government agency gives clearance  Serves as the guide for the starting and implementation of the project.  Helpful in achieving the time and cost limits. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T  Helpful in obtaining financial assistance from banks.  Reflects commitment of the project.CONTENTS OF A PROJECT General information about the project Background of the promoters. Particulars of the business concern undertaking the project. Details of the project  Capacity 56
  57. 57. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Process  Technical arrangement  Management  Location and land  Buildings  Plant and machinery  Raw material  Utilities  Effluents  Labor  Labor housing  Schedule of implementation  Other projects of the concern Cost of the project Means of financing Marketing and selling arrangements Profitability and cash flow details. Economic considerations Government clearanceGUIDELINES FOR WRITING A PROJECT  General information  The feasibility report should include an analysis of a industry to which the project belongs.  It should deal with the past performance of the industry.  The description of the type of industry should also be given, i.e., priority of the industry, increase in production, role of the public sector, allocation of investment of funds, choice of technique, etc.  Preliminary analysis of alternatives  It should contain present data on the gap between the demand and supply for the outputs which are to be produced, data on the capacity that would be available from projects that are in production or under implementation at the time of the report is prepared.  Project description  The report should provide a brief description of the technology or process chosen for the BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T project.  Marketing plan - It should contain  Data on the marketing plan. Demand and prospective supply in each of the areas to be served.  The methods and the data used for making estimates of domestic supply and selection of the market areas should be presented.  Estimates of the degree of price sensitivity should be presented  It should contain an analysis of past trends in prices.  Capital requirements and costs  The estimates should be reasonably complete and properly estimated. 57
  58. 58. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLS  Operating requirements and costs  Operating costs are essentially those costs which are incurred after the commencement of commercial production.  Cost of raw materials, intermediaries, fuel, utilities, labor, repair and maintenance, selling expenses and other expense.  Financial analysis  The purpose of this analysis is to present some measures to assess the financial viability of the project.  A proforma balance sheet for the project data should be presented.  Economic analysis  Social profitability analysis need some adjustments in the data relating to the costs and return to the enterprise.MEANING OF REPORT A report may be defined as a formal statement describing a state of affairs or what has happened.The main features of a report are as follows:  A statement containing some information  Orderly presentation of facts about some activity or event or programme  An objective and unbiased presentation of facts.  Is written for a specific audience  Contains conclusions drawn by the writer together with the procedure  Often includes recommendations  Written for some specific purpose  Is submitted by a lower authority to a higher authority.IMPORTANCE OF A REPORT  Reports provide valuable information for planning and decision-making.  Reports help to measure employee performance and thereby assisting managerial control.  Aim at analyzing the impact of changing business conditions on the performance and growth of an enterprise.  Means of keeping in touch, and maintaining contacts with customers, shareholders, creditors and the government. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.TTYPES OF A REPORT 58
  59. 59. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSCHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD REPORT  Simplicity  Clarity  Precision  Completeness  Irrelevant  Cross-reference  Objectivity  Brevity  Reader-orientedSTEPS IN REPORT WRITINGThe process of preparing a report consists of the following stages. BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 59
  60. 60. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION SKILLSPRINCIPLES OF DRAFTING A REPORT  Principle of purpose  Principle of organization  Principle of clarity  Principle of brevity  Principle of scheduling  Principle of costPART A 1. Define a project and describe the characteristics of a project? 2. What is a project report? Why it is prepared? 3. Enumerate the major elements of a project report? 4. What guidelines should be followed while writing a project report? 5. Explain the meaning and nature of a report? 6. Explain the importance of reports? 7. Discuss the different types of reports in details. 8. How to summarize annual report? 9. Steps in report writing? 10. What are the principles of the report?PART B 1. Explain the different types of report? 2. Explain the steps in report writing? 3. Enumerate the major elements of a project report? 4. Discuss the different types of reports in detail? 5. What are the contents of a report? Explain in detail?MODEL QUESTION PAPER #110x2=20 marks 1. Define Communication? 2. Mention the factors that lead to problems in communication? 3. Identify the elements involved in communication process? 4. What are the advantages of listening? BCS/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T 5. Mention the seven steps that are essential for effective oral presentation? 6. Differentiate a short report from long report? 7. What do you mean by memo? 8. What is a proposal? What are the common types? 9. What is Bibliography? 10. Define Pictograms?5x16=80 marks11 a) Explain the 7C‘s of effective communication? 60