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ANATOMY OF TEMPORAL BONE
BY Dr. VIJAY KUMAR
 The paired
temporal bones
contribute to both
the base and the
lateral wall of the
skull.
 For cranial cavity
each forms...
 Each bone is divisible
into the following four
parts:
1.Squamous
2.Mastoid
3.Petrous
4.Tympanic
When the pores of the
ex...
The temporal bone articulates with :
 Sphenoid bone
 Parietal bone
 Occipital bone
 Zygomatic bone.
The Squamous Part
The squama is
a vertical
plate,the
semicircular
free border of
which is serrate
on
anterosuperior
portio...
 The Lateral Surface:
It is smooth and gives
attachment to
temporalis muscle.
zygomatic process
projects from the lower
p...
 The medial
surface: is
directed towards
the middle
cranial fossa
presents with
impressions for
the cerebral sulci
and gy...
The Mastoid Part
 This is a thick
conical projection
from the
squamous and
petrous parts of
the temporal bone
and it come...
 The lateral
surface: is
rough and
gives
attachment
to posterior
auricular
and
occipital
muscles.
 It has one or more foramina(Mastoid foramen) for
transmission of the mastoid branch of occipital
artery and the mastoid ...
 The medial
surface:
presents a
deep groove
,the sigmoid
sulcus for
lodgement of
the sigmoid
venous sinus
of the dura
mat...
 Within the
process are
numerous
cavities,the
mastoid air
cells lined by
mucous
membrane that
is continuous
with that of
...
The petrous part
 This part of the temporal bone is like a
three sided pyramid.
 The base united with the mastoid part
i...
The foramen lacerum intervenes between the
apex and the sphenoid bone .
Structure passing whole length:
 Meningeal branch...
The petrous part…
The Petrous part has got three surfaces:
Anterior
Posterior
Inferior.
 The anterior surface:
It is smooth , forms part of the middle
cranial fossa and inclines forward and
downward.
 Lateral...
The petrous part…
 The anterior margin(termed the anterior
angle) is free & roughened , with the
greater wing of the sphe...
 Near the middle of the anterior surface is
the Arcuate eminence ,caused by
underlying superior semicircular canal.
 Ant...
 In the anterior direction near the apex is
a medial opening, hiatus of the facial
canal
(it transmits the superficial pe...
The posterior surface:
 It lies in an almost vertical plane and it
faces the posterior cranial fossa.
 It is bounded abo...
 Midway between the base and apex is the
opening of internal acoustic meatus(short
canal for acoustic and facial nerves a...
The inferior surface :
 The inferior surface of pyramid lies in horizontal
plane.
 With occipital bone this surface form...
 The lateral
part of the
foramen
contains the
junction of
sigmoid sinus
and the
internal
jugular vein
 Medial part
conta...
 In front of the lateral compartment of the
foramen is jugular fossa (for the bulb of
jugular vein).
 Medial to fossa is...
 Near the external carotid foramen small
openings ,the caroticotympanic canaliculi
are present which transmit the
carotic...
 Rough jugular surface behind the jugular
fossa articulates with the jugular process of
the occipital bone.
 Lateral to ...
 Mastoid
incisure/notch (for
the attachment of
the digastric
muscle) and the
temoral/occipital
groove(for the
occipital a...
The Tympanic Part
 The tympanic bone is thin and roughly
quadrilateral bone.
 It is hollow above and concave in front
an...
 The middle of anteroinferior surface is thin &
sometimes presenting a small Foramen of
Huschke.
 It represents a nonoss...
Sutures and Articulations
Articulations:
The temporal bone articulates with:
 occipital
 parietal
 Sphenoid
 zygomatic...
Embryology and Ossification
 The skull is developed from the
mesenchyme surrounding the
developing brain.
 Some of the b...
 The tympanic portion has three ossification
centers which appear by ninth to tenth fetal
week.
 The tympanic and squamo...
Applied anatomy and important
relations
 Glossopharyngeal nerve lies in close relation to
styloid process and Elongated s...
 The anterior relation of temporomandibular joint to
external acoustic meatus is important as over
enthusiastic attempts ...
THANK YOU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU
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Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU

Anatomy of temporal bone , Its Embryology & Development

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Anatomy of temporal bone By Dr.Vijay kumar , AMU

  1. 1. ANATOMY OF TEMPORAL BONE BY Dr. VIJAY KUMAR
  2. 2.  The paired temporal bones contribute to both the base and the lateral wall of the skull.  For cranial cavity each forms part of the middle and posterior cranial fossae.
  3. 3.  Each bone is divisible into the following four parts: 1.Squamous 2.Mastoid 3.Petrous 4.Tympanic When the pores of the external acoustic meatus is taken as a point of topographical referrence,the squamous part is directed upward the mastoid part backward the tympanic forward and downward the petrous portion medially.
  4. 4. The temporal bone articulates with :  Sphenoid bone  Parietal bone  Occipital bone  Zygomatic bone.
  5. 5. The Squamous Part The squama is a vertical plate,the semicircular free border of which is serrate on anterosuperior portion and bevelled from within.
  6. 6.  The Lateral Surface: It is smooth and gives attachment to temporalis muscle. zygomatic process projects from the lower part of the surface for attachment of masseter muscle. Mandibular fossa is situated below the root of the zygomatic process. The sulcus for middle temporal artery passes upward on the posterior part of the squama.
  7. 7.  The medial surface: is directed towards the middle cranial fossa presents with impressions for the cerebral sulci and gyri and a deep sulcus for the middle meningeal
  8. 8. The Mastoid Part  This is a thick conical projection from the squamous and petrous parts of the temporal bone and it comes into appostion with occipital and parietal bones
  9. 9.  The lateral surface: is rough and gives attachment to posterior auricular and occipital muscles.
  10. 10.  It has one or more foramina(Mastoid foramen) for transmission of the mastoid branch of occipital artery and the mastoid emissary veins to sigmoid sinus.  A small spur ,the suprameatal spine of Henle , projects laterally from the posterosuperior margin of the external acoustic meatus.  The slightly depressed surface behind the spine is mastoid fossa,it is perforated by numerous blood vessels.  A thick downward directed portion,the mastoid process,gives attachment to the musculature of shoulder girdle and of the back.
  11. 11.  The medial surface: presents a deep groove ,the sigmoid sulcus for lodgement of the sigmoid venous sinus of the dura mater.
  12. 12.  Within the process are numerous cavities,the mastoid air cells lined by mucous membrane that is continuous with that of tymanic cavity.
  13. 13. The petrous part  This part of the temporal bone is like a three sided pyramid.  The base united with the mastoid part is inserted into the angle between occipital and sphenoid bones.  The apex is directed medially and forward.
  14. 14. The foramen lacerum intervenes between the apex and the sphenoid bone . Structure passing whole length:  Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery Emissary veins Other structure partialy traversing is :  Internal carotid artery with venous and sympathetic plexus around it. Greater petrosal nerve unite with dep petrosal nerve to form nerve to pterygoid canal
  15. 15. The petrous part…
  16. 16. The Petrous part has got three surfaces: Anterior Posterior Inferior.
  17. 17.  The anterior surface: It is smooth , forms part of the middle cranial fossa and inclines forward and downward.  Laterally it is fused with squama at the petrosquamous suture. The petrous part…
  18. 18. The petrous part…  The anterior margin(termed the anterior angle) is free & roughened , with the greater wing of the sphenoid bone bounds an opening : the musculotubal canal  Canal is subdivided by leaflet of bone into smaller upper part - the semicanal for the tensor tympani muscle and a large lower portion the semicanal of auditory(eustachian ) tube
  19. 19.  Near the middle of the anterior surface is the Arcuate eminence ,caused by underlying superior semicircular canal.  Anterior and lateral to this eminence is the tympanic tegmen,which forms the roof of the tympanic cavity.
  20. 20.  In the anterior direction near the apex is a medial opening, hiatus of the facial canal (it transmits the superficial petrosal branch of the middle meningeal artery and the greater superficial petrosal nerve) and a lateral smaller opening, superior aperture of the tympanic canaliculus(it transmits the superior tympanic artery and the lesser superficial petrosal nerve)
  21. 21. The posterior surface:  It lies in an almost vertical plane and it faces the posterior cranial fossa.  It is bounded above at the superior angle by the sulcus for superior petrosal sinus,  below at the posterior angle ,the pyramid unites with the occipital bone ,along the line of fusion accommodating the sulcus for inferior petrosal sinus.
  22. 22.  Midway between the base and apex is the opening of internal acoustic meatus(short canal for acoustic and facial nerves and the internal auditory blood vessels)  Behind and above this is the subarcuate fossa (it carries blood vessels to otic capsule during fetal life.) it is of pin point caliber in adults and may transmit small veins to dura mater.  Further laterally and downward is the vestibular aqueduct (for transmission of endolymphatic duct and sac)
  23. 23. The inferior surface :  The inferior surface of pyramid lies in horizontal plane.  With occipital bone this surface forms the jugular foramen
  24. 24.  The lateral part of the foramen contains the junction of sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein  Medial part contains inferior petrosal sinus and middle portion contains cranial nerves IX,X and XI.
  25. 25.  In front of the lateral compartment of the foramen is jugular fossa (for the bulb of jugular vein).  Medial to fossa is the funnel-shaped external aperture of the cochlear canaliculus (containing perilymphatic duct).  In front of the fossa is the external carotid foramen(entrance to the canal for the internal carotid artery and its plexus of veins and sympathetic nerves.)
  26. 26.  Near the external carotid foramen small openings ,the caroticotympanic canaliculi are present which transmit the caroticotympanic artery and nerves into the middle ear.  The external carotid foramen is separated from the jugular fossa by the carotid ridge. On the edge of the carotid ridge is petrosal fossula for lodgement of petrosal ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. At the bottom of this fossula ,tympanic canaliculus is situated ,which transmits tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacbson’s nerve) and tympanic branch of ascending pharyngeal artery.
  27. 27.  Rough jugular surface behind the jugular fossa articulates with the jugular process of the occipital bone.  Lateral to this surface,a downward directed cylindrical spur ,the styloid process is present.  The stylomastoid foramen is present at its base on the posterior aspect.  This is the external orifice of the facial canal and transmits the facial nerve ,the stylomastoid artery and in some cases the auricular branch of the vagus nerve.
  28. 28.  Mastoid incisure/notch (for the attachment of the digastric muscle) and the temoral/occipital groove(for the occipital artery) is present in the posterior direction.
  29. 29. The Tympanic Part  The tympanic bone is thin and roughly quadrilateral bone.  It is hollow above and concave in front and below.  It forms all the anterior and inferior wall and part of posterior wall of the external acoustic meatus.  The posterosuperior surface faces the external acoustic meatus and the tympanic cavity.
  30. 30.  The middle of anteroinferior surface is thin & sometimes presenting a small Foramen of Huschke.  It represents a nonossified portion of the plate.  At the medial end a groove called tympanic sulcus is present whichh is deficient superiorly ,the tympanic membrane is present in this sulcus.  The inferior surface is prolonged into a vaginal process,which encircles the lateral aspect of the base of the styloid process.
  31. 31. Sutures and Articulations Articulations: The temporal bone articulates with:  occipital  parietal  Sphenoid  zygomatic bones and – by a movable joint- with the mandible.  Articulations are formed also with the auditory ossicles and the hyoid bone through the ligaments.
  32. 32. Embryology and Ossification  The skull is developed from the mesenchyme surrounding the developing brain.  Some of the bones of skull are formed in membrane, some in cartilage and some partly in membrane and partly in cartilage.  The squamous and tympanic parts of the temporal bone develop in membrane while the petrous part in the cartilage.  The squamous portion of the subsequent temporal bone is formed from one(or two) ossification centers which arise in membrane in the second month of
  33. 33.  The tympanic portion has three ossification centers which appear by ninth to tenth fetal week.  The tympanic and squamous part unite by ninth month of fetal life.  The petrous bone by the fifth month is represented by the otic capsule. This bone later ossifies in 14 centers. (petrous part is formed in cartilage.)  squamous and petrous part fuse immediately after birth.  The styloid process (formed in cartilage) ossifies from six months onwards.  Zygomatic bone arises as a thin bony plate by ossification in membrane at the end of second month of embryonic life.
  34. 34. Applied anatomy and important relations  Glossopharyngeal nerve lies in close relation to styloid process and Elongated styloid process or calcified stylohoid ligament may lead to Eagle’s syndrome or styalgia.(characterised by pain in tonsillar fossa and upper neck , radiating to ipsilateral ear and aggravated on swallowing)  Mac Ewen’s triangle is a landmark for mastoid antrum and is formed by posterosuperior wall of external acoustic meatus ,the posterior extension of the root of zygomatic arch and a tangent to it joining external auditory canal.  The position of sigmoid sinus in the sigmoid sulcus just behind and deep to the mastoid antrum makes it vulnerable to damage in mastoid surgeries.
  35. 35.  The anterior relation of temporomandibular joint to external acoustic meatus is important as over enthusiastic attempts at straightening the anterior canal wall can lead to sagging of head of mandible in external auditory canal.  And for the same reason a backward directed force on the mandible can cause trauma and bleeding in external auditory canal(either unilateral or bilateral)  The intratemporal course of the facial nerve from the entrance of facial canal at the fundus of internal acoustic meatus to the stylomastoid foramen is extremely important in ear surgeries.  The horizontal semicircular canal ,the processus cochleariformis , the oval window , the pyramid , the aditus , digastric ridge and the short process of incus are few important landmarks which help to identify the position and course of facial nerve in the temporal bone.
  36. 36. THANK YOU

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