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Control of Malaria
in India
Dr.M.Vijay Kumar
M.D.(Community Medicine)
• Introduction
• Burden of Malaria at State, National and
International level.
• Historical aspect of Malaria Control in I...
• Intermittent fever, with high incidence during the
rainy season, coinciding with agriculture, sowing
and harvesting, was...
- Malaria is one of the major public health
problems of the country.
-Around 1.5 million confirmed cases are
reported annu...
• In 2010 there were an estimated 216 million
cases of malaria of which 91% were due to
P.falciparum.
• The vast majority ...
SEARO website:
http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section21/Section340_4018.htm
SEARO (South East Asia Regional Office) website:
http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section21/Section340_4018.htm
National Vector Borne Disease Control Project (NVBDCP) official website:
http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/malaria9.html
Blood Slide Examination 9368740
Total Malaria Cases 34949
Plasmodium
falciparum(Pf) cases
24089
P.f. % 69%
Slide Positivit...
- No organized National Malaria Control Programme
1945 -Insecticide properties of DDT identified
- Estimated malaria cases...
- Modified Plan of Operations Implemented
- World Bank Assisted Enhanced Malaria Control
Project (EMCP)
- Renaming of prog...
1. Surveillance and case management:
Case detection (passive and active)
Early Diagnosis and Complete Treatment
Sentinel s...
• Microscopy: Stained thick and thin blood
smears remains the gold standard for
confirmation of diagnosis of malaria.
• Ad...
• Rapid Diagnostic Test(RDT): Rapid Diagnostic
Tests are based on the detection of circulating
parasite antigens.
• Presen...
• Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for travellers,
migrant labourers and military personnel exposed to
malaria in highly en...
Long-term chemoprophylaxis (more than 6 weeks)
• Mefloquine: 5 mg/kg body weight (up to 250 mg)
weekly and should be admin...
Measures for vector control and protection
include:
1) Indoor Residual Spray(IRS)
2) Insecticide Treated Bed Nets(ITN’s)/ ...
BREEDING HABITATS OF
ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES
• Indoor residual spraying or IRS is the process of spraying the
inside of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoe...
Effectiveness of IRS depends on:
• Target area
• Selection of Insecticides
• Change of Insecticide
• Insecticide formulati...
• An insecticide-treated net is a mosquito net that repels,
disables and/or kills mosquitoes coming into contact with
inse...
• Specific Objectives: Reduce Human contact,
Reduce morbidity, Prevent deaths, Promote
Community participation, Modalities...
1) Environmental control: Good water
management practices are best. Could be
Temporary and Permanent.
2) Biological contro...
:
Bacillus thuringiensis and
B. sphaericus
- Predatory mosquito larvae
(Toxorhynchites)
- Copepods (Macrocyclops
albidus)
• OBJECTIVES: The main aim is the reduction of the
disease to a tolerable level in which the human
population can be prote...
Control Strategies under Urban Malaria Scheme:
Vector Control –
1) Source Reduction
2) Anti-larval methods- Chemical
Recur...
• Confirmation of an Outbreak
• Preparatory aspects like Constitution of Rapid
Response Team(RRT) and Logistics
• Control ...
• Monitoring Malaria incidence trends and
geographic distribution.
1) Active Surveillance(Active case detection)
2) Passiv...
• Malaria is under Regular Surveillance in
Integrated Disease Surveillance Project(IDSP).
• Case Classification:
Suspect c...
INTEGRATION UNDER NRHM
At Village Level
Monthly meetings of Village Health & Sanitation Committee serve
as a platform for...
• Integrated Disease Surveillance Project(IDSP) -
The Project with weekly fever alerts is
increasingly providing early war...
• Global Fund for AIDS TB & Malaria(GFATM)
supported Intensified Malaria Control
Project(IMCP):
• It was for a period of 5...
• Approved for 5years(March 2009-Dec 2012).
Total financial outlay Rs.1000 Crore.
• Being implemented in 93 malarious dist...
• Malaria control: reducing the malaria disease burden to a
level at which it is no longer a public health problem.
• Mala...
• Certification of malaria elimination: the chain of local human
malaria transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes has been ful...
• Key factors proposed for eradicating malaria:
1) Reducing Malaria Burden
2) Vector Control
3) Malarial Vaccine
• Vaccines developed are basically of three types:
Pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine
Blood stage vaccine and
Transmission blo...
• Remote Sensing is a tool for surveillance of
habitats, density of vector species and prediction
of Incidence of diseases...
• World Malaria Day - which was instituted by
the World Health Assembly at its 60th session
in May 2007.
• World Malaria D...
• Monitoring & Evaluation will be an on-going process in the
programme.
• Adoption of newer disease prevention and control...
The following activities will be adopted in the
programme to strengthen the M & E system :
• Strengthening of management i...
• Large-scale population surveys every second year to assess
malaria prevalence and population coverage with main
interven...
• Strengths
• Weaknesses
• Opportunities
• Threats
Strengths
Long experience since 1953
Political commitment
Malaria Surveillance covering all blocks
ASHAs being utilized in...
• Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 21st Edition by
K.Park.
• Health policies and Programmes in India , 1...
“ THERE IS NO LIMIT TO WHAT WE
ACHIEVE
IF YOU DON’T MIND WHO GETS
THE CREDIT”
….Anonymous
Thank you
Malaria control in india
Malaria control in india
Malaria control in india
Malaria control in india
Malaria control in india
Malaria control in india
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Malaria control in india

A Comprehensive presentation on malaria control in India starting from history of malaria control to latest updates under NRHM.

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Malaria control in india

  1. 1. Control of Malaria in India Dr.M.Vijay Kumar M.D.(Community Medicine)
  2. 2. • Introduction • Burden of Malaria at State, National and International level. • Historical aspect of Malaria Control in India • Malaria Control Strategies at State and National level • Surveillance in Malaria • Recent advances • Monitoring and Evaluation • SWOT Analysis
  3. 3. • Intermittent fever, with high incidence during the rainy season, coinciding with agriculture, sowing and harvesting, was first recognized by Romans and Greeks who associated it with swampy areas. • They postulated that intermittent fevers were due to the 'bad odour' coming from the marshy areas and thus gave the name 'malaria' ('mal'=bad + 'air') to intermittent fevers. • In spite of the fact that today the causative organism is known, the name has stuck to this disease.
  4. 4. - Malaria is one of the major public health problems of the country. -Around 1.5 million confirmed cases are reported annually by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP). -Malaria is curable if effective treatment is started early. Delay in treatment may lead to serious consequences including death.
  5. 5. • In 2010 there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria of which 91% were due to P.falciparum. • The vast majority of cases (81%) were in the African Region followed by the South-East Asia (13%) and Eastern Mediterranean Regions (5%). • There were an estimated 6,55,000 malaria deaths worldwide in 2010
  6. 6. SEARO website: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section21/Section340_4018.htm
  7. 7. SEARO (South East Asia Regional Office) website: http://www.searo.who.int/en/Section10/Section21/Section340_4018.htm
  8. 8. National Vector Borne Disease Control Project (NVBDCP) official website: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/malaria9.html
  9. 9. Blood Slide Examination 9368740 Total Malaria Cases 34949 Plasmodium falciparum(Pf) cases 24089 P.f. % 69% Slide Positivity Rate(SPR) 0.49 Slide falciparum Rate(SfR) 0.36 Deaths 05 NVBDCP website: Malaria situation in India PDF file http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/Doc/malaria-situation-august12.pdf
  10. 10. - No organized National Malaria Control Programme 1945 -Insecticide properties of DDT identified - Estimated malaria cases in India - 75 million estimated Deaths due to malaria – 1 million 1953 -Launching of National Malaria Control Programme 1958 - Launching of National Malaria Eradication Programme - Resurgence of malaria - Malaria cases 6.46 million highest in post DDT era (one of the reasons for resurgence was insecticide resistance in malaria vectors)
  11. 11. - Modified Plan of Operations Implemented - World Bank Assisted Enhanced Malaria Control Project (EMCP) - Renaming of programme to National Anti Malaria Programme (NAMP) - Renaming of NAMP to National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme – The NVBDCP became an integral part of the NRHM Global Fund assisted Intensified Malaria Control Project (IMCP) launched - ACT extended to high Pf predominant districts covering about 95% Pf cases NMCP launched
  12. 12. 1. Surveillance and case management: Case detection (passive and active) Early Diagnosis and Complete Treatment Sentinel surveillance 2. Integrated Vector Management (IVM) Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs) / Long Lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) Antilarval measures including source reduction 3. Epidemic preparedness and early response 4. Supportive Interventions Capacity building Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) Intersectoral collaboration Monitoring and Evaluation (M & E) Operational research and applied field research
  13. 13. • Microscopy: Stained thick and thin blood smears remains the gold standard for confirmation of diagnosis of malaria. • Advantages- 1) The sensitivity is high. 2) It is possible to distinguish the various species of malaria parasite and their different stages
  14. 14. • Rapid Diagnostic Test(RDT): Rapid Diagnostic Tests are based on the detection of circulating parasite antigens. • Presently, NVBDCP supplies RDT kits for detection of P. falciparum at locations where microscopy results are not obtainable within 24 hours of sample collection.
  15. 15. • Chemoprophylaxis is recommended for travellers, migrant labourers and military personnel exposed to malaria in highly endemic areas. • Short-term chemoprophylaxis (less than 6 weeks) Doxycycline: 100 mg daily in adults and 1.5 mg/kg body weight for children more than 8 years old. The drug should be started 2 days before travel and continued for 4 weeks after leaving the malarious area. • Note: Doxycycline is contraindicated in pregnant and lactating women and children less than 8 years.
  16. 16. Long-term chemoprophylaxis (more than 6 weeks) • Mefloquine: 5 mg/kg body weight (up to 250 mg) weekly and should be administered two weeks before, during and four weeks after leaving the area. • Note: Mefloquine is contraindicated in cases with history of convulsions, neuropsychiatric problems and cardiac conditions.
  17. 17. Measures for vector control and protection include: 1) Indoor Residual Spray(IRS) 2) Insecticide Treated Bed Nets(ITN’s)/ Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets(LLIN’s) 3) Antilarval measures including source reduction
  18. 18. BREEDING HABITATS OF ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES
  19. 19. • Indoor residual spraying or IRS is the process of spraying the inside of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoes that spread malaria. • The main purpose of IRS is to reduce transmission by reducing the survival of malaria vectors entering houses or sleeping units. • IRS remains a valuable intervention in malaria control when certain conditions are met.
  20. 20. Effectiveness of IRS depends on: • Target area • Selection of Insecticides • Change of Insecticide • Insecticide formulations used under NVBDCP 1. DDT( Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) 2. Organophosphorus (OP) compounds 3. Synthetic Pyrethroids Strategies of Delay the onset of Resistance Note: Recently GHMC in Hyderabad have introduced Synthetic Pyrethroid for IRS
  21. 21. • An insecticide-treated net is a mosquito net that repels, disables and/or kills mosquitoes coming into contact with insecticide on the netting material. There are two categories of ITNs: • A conventionally treated net is a mosquito net that has been treated by dipping in a WHO-recommended insecticide. To ensure its continued insecticidal effect, the net should be re- treated after three washes, or at least once a year. • A long-lasting insecticidal net is a factory-treated mosquito net made with netting material that has insecticide incorporated within or bound around the fibres..
  22. 22. • Specific Objectives: Reduce Human contact, Reduce morbidity, Prevent deaths, Promote Community participation, Modalities for social marketing trough Public-Private Partnership. • Assessment of community needs by rapid surveys, size of the nets and number of nets according to size. Synthetic Pyrethroids mainly two Deltamethrin(2.5%) at a dosage of 25mg/m2 and cyfluthrin (5%) at 50mg/m2.
  23. 23. 1) Environmental control: Good water management practices are best. Could be Temporary and Permanent. 2) Biological control: Fishes, Insects, Protozoans, Arthropods, Bacteria, Fungi & viruses. 3) Genetic control: Genetic Engineering like Transgenic Mosquito 4) Chemical control: Given high priority in Operational Measures.
  24. 24. : Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus - Predatory mosquito larvae (Toxorhynchites) - Copepods (Macrocyclops albidus)
  25. 25. • OBJECTIVES: The main aim is the reduction of the disease to a tolerable level in which the human population can be protected from malaria transmission with the available means. • The Urban Malaria Scheme aims at : a) To prevent deaths due to malaria. b) Reduction in transmission and morbidity. • NORMS :
  26. 26. Control Strategies under Urban Malaria Scheme: Vector Control – 1) Source Reduction 2) Anti-larval methods- Chemical Recurrent anti-larval measures at weekly intervals with approved chemical larvicides like Temephos. 3) Use of larvivorous fish like gambusia and guppy 4) Aerosol space spray – 5) Minor engineering&Legislative measures
  27. 27. • Confirmation of an Outbreak • Preparatory aspects like Constitution of Rapid Response Team(RRT) and Logistics • Control of malaria epidemic by 1. Delineation of the affected area 2. Estimation of population involved 3. Measures for liquidation of foci 4. Follow-up Action
  28. 28. • Monitoring Malaria incidence trends and geographic distribution. 1) Active Surveillance(Active case detection) 2) Passive Surveillance(PCD) 3) Sentinel Surveillance
  29. 29. • Malaria is under Regular Surveillance in Integrated Disease Surveillance Project(IDSP). • Case Classification: Suspect case- Any case of fever(in an endemic area). Probable case- A case that meets the clinical case description. Confirmed case- A suspect case with malaria parasites in blood film.
  30. 30. INTEGRATION UNDER NRHM At Village Level Monthly meetings of Village Health & Sanitation Committee serve as a platform for health education and counseling of community. Involvement of ASHA as- surveillance worker to inform any increase in fever cases including Dengue/ Chikungunya and J.E. FTD for early detection of suspected malaria cases and treatment linkage between ANC services and prevention & treatment of malaria  organizer, motivator and trainer in village level meetings/training workshops.
  31. 31. • Integrated Disease Surveillance Project(IDSP) - The Project with weekly fever alerts is increasingly providing early warning signals on malaria outbreaks. • Other Vector borne diseases - Dengue & malaria control activities overlap in many Urban areas, Malaria & kala-azar in few districts of Jharkhand. • Reproductive and Child Health - ANC services utilized in distribution of LLINs to pregnant women.
  32. 32. • Global Fund for AIDS TB & Malaria(GFATM) supported Intensified Malaria Control Project(IMCP): • It was for a period of 5years from July 2005 to June 2010. Implemented in 106 districts in 10 states. • It helped to achieve 23.4% decline in Malaria Incidence. • IMCP-II has been initiated for a period of five years (2010-2015).
  33. 33. • Approved for 5years(March 2009-Dec 2012). Total financial outlay Rs.1000 Crore. • Being implemented in 93 malarious districts of eight states including Andhra Pradesh. • Provides additional Support for procuring ACT, Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets(LLIN’s), Provision of additional manpower.
  34. 34. • Malaria control: reducing the malaria disease burden to a level at which it is no longer a public health problem. • Malaria elimination: the interruption of local mosquito-borne malaria transmission; reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by human malaria parasites in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts.
  35. 35. • Certification of malaria elimination: the chain of local human malaria transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes has been fully interrupted in an entire country for at least 3 consecutive years. • Malaria eradication: permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a particular malaria parasite species.
  36. 36. • Key factors proposed for eradicating malaria: 1) Reducing Malaria Burden 2) Vector Control 3) Malarial Vaccine
  37. 37. • Vaccines developed are basically of three types: Pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine Blood stage vaccine and Transmission blocking vaccine SPf-66—1st malaria vaccine that was tried in clinical trials in 1990s. RTS,S--Most successful vaccine candidate, currently in Phase III Challenges facing vaccine development
  38. 38. • Remote Sensing is a tool for surveillance of habitats, density of vector species and prediction of Incidence of diseases. • It is likely to become a rapid epidemiological tool for surveillance of vector borne diseases and Malaria in particular. • Coupled with GIS(Geographical Information System), will play a key role in Macro stratification for Prioritizing control measures in a cost-effective way.
  39. 39. • World Malaria Day - which was instituted by the World Health Assembly at its 60th session in May 2007. • World Malaria Day 2012 marks a decisive juncture in the history of malaria control.
  40. 40. • Monitoring & Evaluation will be an on-going process in the programme. • Adoption of newer disease prevention and control instruments like RDTs, ACTs & LLINs and recruitment of ASHA, a new frontline worker under NRHM, made it necessary to restructure the Management Information System (MIS). • The NVBDCP also has an online system of data collection and collation called the National Anti malaria Management Information System (NAMMIS). • Objectives - To ensure that 80% of districts in high-disease burden areas will collect, process, analyze, and effectively manage malaria data by 2010 and 100% of them by 2012.
  41. 41. The following activities will be adopted in the programme to strengthen the M & E system : • Strengthening of management information system for tracking malaria incidence and operational indicators including the revival of the National Anti Malaria Management Information System (NAMMIS). • Sentinel surveillance to collect data on severe malaria, hospitalized malaria cases and malaria deaths from selected hospitals in each district. • Decentralized measurement of outcomes at district and PHC levels through Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS).
  42. 42. • Large-scale population surveys every second year to assess malaria prevalence and population coverage with main interventions. • Logistic Management Information System for supply chain management. • System to monitor the quality of RDTs and medicines to ensure their quality upon delivery and at point of use.
  43. 43. • Strengths • Weaknesses • Opportunities • Threats
  44. 44. Strengths Long experience since 1953 Political commitment Malaria Surveillance covering all blocks ASHAs being utilized in all endemic villages for surveillance. RDTs for diagnosis of Pf introduced Microscopy available up to PHC level ACT for treatment of Pf introduced LLINs introduced Research support from NIMR Weaknesses RDT coverage needs to be expanded to all endemic villages. Delay in conducting microscopic examination of smears . ACT needs to be used for all Pf cases in country. Requirement of total shift from re- impregnation of plain nets to LLINs. Difficulty in distributions of ITN’s in remote areas with inhibited access. Deficiency of human resources at all levels from national to block level. Opportunities NRHM strengthening the health structure and malaria control at all levels. NURM expected to be launched in 12th five year plan will strengthen UMS. Increasing commitment for funds from international agencies such as GFATM. NGOs willing to be partners. Possibility of introduction of pan-specific RDTs for both Pf & Pv soon. Threats Overloading of ASHAs with many Programmes. Development of Insecticide resistance. Development and spread of drug resistance. Social and ecological constraints to effectiveness of standard interventions in some high risk populations. Social unrest in some areas.
  45. 45. • Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, 21st Edition by K.Park. • Health policies and Programmes in India , 10th Edition by Dr.D.K.Taneja. • National Health Programmes of India, 10th Edition by Jugul Kishore. • World Health Organization(WHO) World Malaria report 2011, http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/9789241 564403_eng.pdf • National Vector Borne Disease Control Project (NVBDCP) official website: http://www.nvbdcp.gov.in/malaria-new.html • Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Malaria in India 2011 by National Ministry : http://www.mrcindia.org/Guidelines%20for%20Diagnosis2011.pdf
  46. 46. “ THERE IS NO LIMIT TO WHAT WE ACHIEVE IF YOU DON’T MIND WHO GETS THE CREDIT” ….Anonymous
  47. 47. Thank you

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