Re ---------------- Search
Re means (once more, afresh, anew) OR
(back; with return to a previous state)
Search means (look thorough or go over thoroughly
to look something) OR (examine to find anything
Research: literally means..
To establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of
previous work, solve new or existing problems, support
theorems, or develop new theories.
According to B.W. Tuckman (1978) following are the
characteristics of research:
An older description of research may be explained with the five
characterizations spelling out the word MOVIE.
M stands for mathematical precision and accuracy
O stands for Objectivity
V stands for verifiability
I stands for impartiality
E stands for Expertness
WHY UNDERTAKE CLINICAL RESEARCH?
Ethnic and racial variations
Pattern of clinical conditions/ management
Reporting of unusual clinical situations
Reporting of index case
RESEARCH IN OPHTHALMOLOGY..
Ophthalmology is a very vast but quite interesting in
which research can be done in various fields..
Cornea and refractive surgeries
Low vision aids
RESEARCH IN OPHTHALMOLOGY
1. Role of Avastin in Pterygium surgery
2. Role of Caretenoids, Vit A, Vit E in management of age
related macular degeneration.
3. Torsional Phaco Vs Longitudinal Phaco.
4. Manifestations of tuberculosis in eye.
5. Association of borderline hypertension with
6. Comparison of optic nerve imaging methods to
distinguish normal eyes from glaucoma
7. Laser DCR Versus External DCR
8. Virtues of Polymerase chain reaction in ophthalmology
9. Outcome of chemotherapy in advanced retinoblastoma
10. Hyper homocystenemia is a risk factor for retinal
ROLE OF AVASTIN IN PTERYGIUM SURGERY
Pterygium in the conjunctiva is
characterized by elastotic
degeneration of collagen (actinic
elastosis) and fibrovascular
High rates of recurrences when
operated via conventional surgery (50-
Vascular growth factors such as
vascular endothelial growth factor
(VEGF) have been detected in
Avastin (Bevacizumab, anti VEGF)
known to inhibit vascular endothelial
Subconjunctival injection of
bevacizumab is useful in treatment of
patients with primary and recurrent
pterygium without local or systemic
LASER VS EXTERNAL DCR
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is
treatment of choice for chronic
The operative approach to the sac
may be external or endoscopic and
endoscopic approach may be with or
External approach leaves a
cutaneous scar, long duration, longer
Laser DCR via trans-canalicular
route is an OPD procedure with
fairly good results.
COMPARISON OF OPTIC NERVE IMAGING METHODS TO
DISTINGUISH NORMAL EYES FROM GLAUCOMA
Glaucoma is leading cause of
preventable, irreversible loss
In diagnosis of Glaucoma
approx. 40% of RFNL needs to
be lost in order to detect
changes in standard automated
With use of newer machines
we can detect the Glaucoma at
very early stage(pre-
Heidelberg retinal tomography.
GDx variable corneal
Optical coherence tomography.
ASSOCIATION OF BORDERLINE HYPERTENSION WITH
Hypertension is a worldwide
problem that affects one
Hypertensive retinopathy is
among the vascular
complications of essential
Hypertensive retinopathy can
be vision threating in
Should be diagnosed and
documented early with help of
fundus camera, fundus
fluorescein angiography and
with help of laser(argon).
TORSIONAL PHACO VS LONGITUDINAL PHACO
In longitudinal phaco, the needle tip uses
an in-and-out motion to break up the lens
Energy utilized to break lens in going in
but not in coming out.
Torsional phaco utilizes less ultrasound
energy by virtue of torsional movement
of phaco tip.
Advantages of torsional phaco over
1. Torsional phaco more effective than
longitudinal phaco in the amount of
applied fluid and the quantity of Ultra
Sound energy expend.
2. Safe in patient with endothelial
3. Short duration.
4. Lesser complications.
EYE- A UNIQUE ORGAN
Systemic diseases affect eyes in various ways
Many of the systemic diseases may be diagnosed
first by ophthalmologist
EYE IS THE MIRROR OF THE WHOLE BODY
In various departmental research, ophthalmology can be
In diabetics, hypertension , endocrine disorders,
neurology,cardiovascular diseases, rheumatology, skin,
haemopoeitc & lymphoproliferative disorders there can be
ocular involvement in various ways.
Visual loss may occur through
Field changes related to the tumours
Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy
Retinal vein and artery occlusions
IIIrd, IVth and VIth nerve palsies
Even before the visual loss and other obvious findings ,there can
be early retinal changes which indicates need for vigorous control
ENDOCRINE DISORDERS AND THE EYE
ENT AND OPHTHALMOLOGY
Dacryocystitis: Comparative study of DCR through
endonasal done by ENT surgeons & external DCR
COMMUNITY MEDICINE & OPHTHALMOLOGY
Various research work can be undertaken in
Nutritional deficiency diseases like vitamin A
deficiency in preschool and primary school
Incidence and prevalence of various eye diseases
Comparison of ocular problems among children of
rural and urban school
THE FUTURE IS BRIGHT..!!
The Bionic Eye
Femtosecond laser surgery
Stem cell transplantation in retinal diseases
Advanced utility of the donated eye
Is an experimental visual
device intended to restore
functional vision in those
suffering from partial or
Patients with vision loss due
to degeneration of
geographic atrophy macular
degeneration) are the best
candidate for treatment.
According to the World Health Organization, corneal
blindness is the world’s fourth leading cause of blindness.
Treated primarily by corneal transplants.
However, due to the dearth of eye donors, the problem of
corneal blindness in India remains largely unaddressed
Artificial cornea is made from artificial collagen in the lab
and, when transplanted into a patient's eye, encourages
damaged cells to regenerate and colonize the new tissue.
After two years a majority of patients with the artificial
corneas had significantly improved vision.
The treatment of cataract has been dramatically
changed from needling procedures to femtosecond
Cataract surgery is now bladeless, suture less,
painless..with the help of femtosecond lasers.
There is also various landmark advancements in IOL’S
from PMMA to Rollable IOL’S enabling NICS..needle
incision cataract surgery.
The day is not so far when the cataract surgery will
become an OPD procedure..!!
The new era of refractive surgeries namely Customized
LASIK, I- LASIK, Lenticular extraction are more
precise in correcting the refractive error.
Stem cell transplantation in retinal diseases
Stem-cell transplants can survive, migrate,
differentiate, and integrate within the retina.
Stem cells from various developmental stages have
been used in experiments, including embryonic stem
cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, retinal
stem cells, and adult stem cells from the ciliary margin.
Not only can these transplants adopt retina-like
morphologies and phenotypes, but they have also shown
evidence of synaptic reconnection and visual recovery in
both animal and human studies.
Still, work must be done to achieve higher yields of
functioning retinal neurons and to promote better
integration within the host retina
Resection of the involved and diseased optic
nerve in glaucoma and anastomosis of the healthy
nerve can be tried in glaucomatous optic atrophy
patients ( novel scientific thought by me still
work has to be established in this direction).