White_Paper_on_Enhancing_the_Education_System_in_India

842 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
842
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
57
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

White_Paper_on_Enhancing_the_Education_System_in_India

  1. 1. 2009Revolutionizing India’s Education System through Technology Learning I Media I Technology Purpleframe Technologies Pvt. Ltd. 11/2/2009
  2. 2. Table of ContentsIntroduction .................................................................................................................................................. 3The Real PROBLEM........................................................................................................................................ 4The Real Challenges ...................................................................................................................................... 4Other Challenges ........................................................................................................................................... 5No Common school system .......................................................................................................................... 5Education for all -The Advantages ................................................................................................................ 6The Significance of E-learning and Technology ............................................................................................ 7Some facts about Learning & Technology: ................................................................................................... 8Types of E-learning........................................................................................................................................ 9 Performance Support Systems for Virtual Classroom Learning Solutions .............................................. 10 Fundamental Ingredients for Building Virtual Learning Solutions .......................................................... 10 Performance Support Systems for Online Learning Solutions ................................................................ 10 Fundamental Ingredients for Building Online Learning Solutions .......................................................... 10 Fundamental Ingredients for Building Rapid Learning Solutions ........................................................... 11 Performance Support Systems for Mobile Learning Solutions ............................................................... 11 Fundamental Ingredients for Building Mobile Learning Solutions ......................................................... 11References .................................................................................................................................................. 14
  3. 3. IntroductionJust Imagine... A world where every kid participates on a level education system,challenging themselves and others, and achieving rewards and prizes for applyingthemselves, no matter what their social, economic, or geographic disposition.We can ...definitely build it….and how?Yes... Technology is the answer……Every man is but the product of his beliefs, and what he thinks, he becomes. It isbelieved that India is uniquely positioned to achieve a significant competitiveadvantage in the world economy by being among the first to implement a flateducation system for its entire people before the end of the next decade. This goal canbe accomplished by partnering with technology to develop a complete free opensource education solution for its people and peoples of the world.We must strongly believe that access to educational opportunities is a basic humanright for all, not just a privilege for the few. Regardless of whether one is from a urban orrural sector, one is born in a city or a village, ones status or location, all people shouldhave access to the best education the world can provide. And we believe that thetechnology already exists to accomplish this goal--so together we can change theworld.For over 3000 years the "sage on a stage" most instructional approach has dominatedhuman culture and education models. Education is now emerging as schools, teachersand students have begun to utilize technology, open to all approach in education.Today technology can play a intense role in creating a education system converge tounite disparate and disconnected education systems into a single global learningplatform.Current instructional pedagogy is tied to task allocation--a cornerstone ofindustrialization. Since the mid-19th Century, training has followed the prescription oftask allocation and delivered education to students believed to be socially andmentally standardized groups. Yet, this historical disconnect between the standard andthe needs of differentiated learners is now being felt more profoundly than ever.Therefore, factors such as ethnicity, gender, class, nationality, language, environment,and culture all combine to create a student body that is incredibly difficult tohomogenize.It is important then to realize that todays students demand information to be deliveredon demand from the best minds more quickly and in more emotionally stimulating andcontextually relevant formats. What is the methodology through which technology and
  4. 4. e-learning can develop tools to bridge these divides? The answer lies in natures oldestand most successful learning tool... Play.Such an effort to revolutionize education in India will not be possible without bringingtogether leaders in government, technology industry and education into a collectivemission dedicated to realizing the vision of Educated India and learning for ALL. Theoutcome we seek will benefit millions, tens of millions, in Indians. India will enjoy as aresult of elevating education to be equal and accessible for all across cities, towns andvillages. In essence this is a continuation of Gandhis struggle for equality and fairnessfor the people of India.The Real PROBLEMIndias education system is facing challenges that may be one of the biggest facingany nation in the 21st Century. Faced with the fastest population growth and poortechnical infrastructure in rural regions, India must find a cost effective solution foreducating its people. The traditional education solution isnt going to be adequate toovercome the educational challenges it is facing. Under that model, India would needto build new schools, train and retain teachers, buy books and collateral supplies, keepthese materials current and put in place more bureaucracy that leads to everescalating costs at the sacrifice to education. Therefore, a technological solution for itsentire people needs to be identified, actualized and implemented. And mostimportantly how can we do it for less than it is currently costing India?The Real Challenges 1 Today, India‘s education system is designed to overload the pupils with too much knowledge or theory and the focus is to enable them to improve their memory skills rather than enabling them to be innovative/creative/practical. 2 The current system is designed to create a hierarchical society, with only a small section scoring very high marks; the remainder gets fed up with the monotonous and irrelevant education system, forcing them to discontinue their studies. 3 India has made giant leaps in the field of telecommunication and technology. There is hardly any village in India which is left out from this excitement. This technology has not touched the education system to provide remote teaching facilities or online knowledge sharing. 4 The urban sectors are more concentrated on, whereas technology can touch lives and enable education across the rural sectors as well.
  5. 5. 5 The cultural differences between the urban and rural sections of people in India; this creates barriers for people in the rural sector, who are more docile in nature and it takes great efforts for them to open up, answering in class, or making their ideas heard 6 The access to uniform teaching content, especially video and multi-media content will enable removal of disparities. This will neutralize the ill effects of absentee teachers (which is also a major problem in rural India). 7 Limited access to technology, where only a few can afford.Other ChallengesPrimary and secondary education: Lack of access, quality and literacyDespite efforts to incorporate all sections of the population into the Indian educationsystem, through mechanisms such as positive discrimination and non-formal education,large numbers of young people are still without schooling. Although enrolment inprimary education has increased, it is estimated that at least 35 million, and possibly asmany as 60 million, children aged 6–14 years are not in school. Severe gender, regional,and caste disparities also exist. The main problems are the high drop-out rate, especiallyafter Class 10, low levels of learning and achievement, inadequate schoolinfrastructure, poorly functioning schools, high teacher absenteeism, the large numberof teacher vacancies, poor quality of education and inadequate funds. Other groupsof children ‗at risk‘, such as orphans, child-laborers, street children and victims of riotsand natural disasters, do not necessarily have access to schools.No Common School SystemFurthermore, there is no common school system; instead children are channeled intoprivate, government-aided and government schools on the basis of ability to pay andsocial class. At the top end are English-language schools affiliated to the upscale CBSE(Central Board of Secondary Education), CISCE (Council for the Indian SchoolsCertificates Examination) and IB (International Baccalaureate) examination boards,offering globally recognized syllabuses and curricula. Those who cannot afford privateschooling attend English-language government-aided schools, affiliated to state-levelexamination boards. And on the bottom rung is poorly managed government ormunicipal schools, which cater for the children of the poor majority. Therefore, whileeducation for all is safeguarded by the Constitution, and a majority of people can now
  6. 6. access educational resources, the quality of the education that young people in Indianreceive varies widely according to their means and background.• The present Indian government, the United Progressive Alliance, appears to becommitted to confronting these challenges, as reflected in their Common MinimumProgram.• The introduction of a 2 per cent education cess (surcharge) on tax, a stress onemployment guarantees and the establishment of a National Rural Health Mission arethus welcome developments in this respect.India‘s aim of providing basic education for all stems from the empowering andredistributive impact of education. Until recently, literacy, and the related issue ofaccess to schooling, have taken precedence over curricular content.J. Dreze and A. Sen argue: Literacy is an essential tool for self-defense in a societywhere social interactions include the written media. An illiterate person is significantlyless equipped to defend herself in court, to obtain a bank loan, to enforce inheritancerights, to take advantage of new technology, to compete for secure employment, toget onto the right bus, to take part in political activity – in short, to participate successfullyin the modern economy and society.The 1991 census indicated that about half of the adult population was unable to reador write. Unsurprisingly, literacy rates vary widely between states, and between genders.The northern Hindi-belt states, whose economic performance has been worse than thatof western and southern states, have lower literacy rates. Female literacy varies fromaround 34 per cent in Bihar to 88 per cent in Kerala; male literacy varies between 60 percent in Bihar and 94 per cent in Kerala. Rajasthan suffers the widest gender difference:female literacy stands at 44 per cent; male at 77 per cent.Education for all -The AdvantagesTechnology and Learning when together will majorly help improve many of theproblems facing India by creating a complete education system -for every student,young or old, rich or poor, urban or rural. • Technology and Learning can enable education that is not anymore limited to a particular region or age group. • It will be learning anything, anytime, and anywhere from multiple authorities from the comfort of your home, village, town, city from any web-enabled device.
  7. 7. • It will be about playing exciting e-games that emphasize the topics key points you just watched or listened too. • It will be about students being able to earn and spend reward points for achieving goals and milestones, or completing assignments and connecting with others in virtual classrooms. • It will lend a helping hand in the process of identification of brilliant global students living in villages of India, based on their ability to interact within an intelligent e-learning environment. • There will be new roles for schools – it can mean the end of thoughtless evaluation tests, grades and abusive certificates. Educational institutions, schools, colleges that will become the heaven for networking, knowledge application and mentoring. • There will be shift in learning, so will there be a change in the way schools and colleges operate. • Our teachers will become more focused on teaching problem solving techniques, critical thinking skills and social and interpersonal skills. • Teachers will no longer need to be experts in subject areas. Instead experts will be delivering their thought and ideas directly to the students. • Teachers will become more like mentors and guidance counselors to their students and as a result India will be able to train more teachers faster, and retain them, helping to increase the teacher to student ratio in classes. • It will then become easy to create and deliver a complete open course-ware online education media solution to any web enabled device. • It will provide tremendous efficiencies by allowing a global community of enthusiasts, teachers and practitioners to develop open course ware. • It will eliminate the need to repeatedly create lesson plans, and local and regional control of educational content will become a thing of the past. • Just as communities of writers sort out topics on Wikipedia a community of global educators will sort out the order in which learning should progress for every subject. • There will be more avenues available to more people on job training and professional training programs that traditionally were limited to specialized organizations.The Significance of E-learning and TechnologyIn today‘s times the there is important views that organizations form on the investmentsin human capital and enterprise IT systems with enterprise success metrics such as
  8. 8. revenue, profitability, knowledge measurement, retention, and talent attraction.Therefore, there is no doubt that e-learning provides a foundation for performancemonitoring that makes those correlations between people and learning technologiespossible.The benefits of e-learning are twofold: 1 One focused on the needs and interests of individuals who are linked to competency and accomplishment. 2 The other more closely aligned with the needs of the enterprise, tied to true business results.Some facts about Learning & Technology: • Learning is a deeply personal act that is facilitated when learning experiences are relevant, reliable, and engaging. • During those early days of e-learning, we learned the hard way that simply building a learning system that could be accessed over the Internet did not guarantee that people would have much need for, or interest in, the courses and programs, regardless of the provider. • We learned that shoveling courseware online did not provide anyone— faculty, students, or administrators—with an online experience that was much more than tedious electronic page-turning. Sometimes we learned the hard way that ―doing learning unto others‖ could quickly de-motivate and disengage the very people we had hoped to serve. • Different kinds of learning demand appropriate strategies, tools, and resources. • Concrete operational learning can be facilitated using representational media, whereas teaching complex problem-solving—such as performing surgery or landing an airplane—may be far better served by allowing learners to practice developing those skills in a safe, risk-free virtual environment. • Having just-in-time access to information, even in a flat-file, text-based form, may be far preferable to having no access to any information at all. • Questions about media appropriateness from a pure cognitive perspective are likely to be mitigated by aesthetic and experience quality metrics. • More than 20 years of empirical evidence underscores that there is no such thing as a ―one-size-fits-all‖ technology solution for learning. (e.g. Clark, 1983;Jonassen, 2004).
  9. 9. Therefore, technology engages learners by structuring and organizing information, bydisplaying and demonstrating procedures and operations. It can help make a learningexperience more memorable and can help relate new information to that which isalready known.Technology can also simulate a range of conditions, immerse people in virtualenvironments, and provide safe practice opportunities as mastery is developed—all ofwhich are necessary conditions for maximizing the probability that learning will occur.Perhaps even more important, technology allows us to have relationships withinformation in our own, unique ways. This phenomenon effectively shifts the questionfrom ―Will technology improve learning?‖ to ―How much further will technology let uspush the envelope of human cognitive, affective, and kinesthetic experience?‖The more engaging the experience and the more intentional the results, the greater isthe likelihood that learning will occur.Therefore, technology can help strengthen learner motivation, focus attention, make alearning moment more memorable, or demonstrate the relevancy of learning toperformance; the greater is the likelihood that technology will have a direct positiveeffect on learning.Types of E-learningE-learning is emerging as a solution for delivering online, hybrid, and synchronouslearning regardless of physical location, time of day, or choice of digitalreception/distribution device.E-learning programs are implemented in the following ways: • The virtual classroomThis model of e-learning continues to be the most familiar analogue for building e-learning programs. The intention of virtual classrooms is to extend the structure andservices that accompany formal education programs from the campus or learningcenter to learners, wherever they are located. The virtual classroom is for learners whomay be pursuing a distance education degree made up entirely of online lessons, andit may include campus-based courses, where students join in from a variety of on- andoff-campus locations—in a real-time class session via the Internet.
  10. 10. Performance Support Systems for Virtual Classroom Learning SolutionsThe virtual classroom model includes places for posting papers for review andcomment, and for completing tutorials and distributing class assignments for teamreview before posting the secure PDF file containing multimedia assets and for breakingaway into study sections dealing with shared interest using web conferencing tools.Fundamental Ingredients for Building Virtual Learning SolutionsIn the Adobe world, common tools used for constructing virtual classrooms include suchapplications as Adobe Acrobat® 8, Adobe Acrobat Connect Professional (formerlyknown as Macromedia® Breeze® Meeting), Adobe Presenter 6 (formerly BreezePresenter), and Adobe Captivate 2. • Online learningThis model of e-learning revolves around its dependence on courseware, deliveredover the Internet to learners at a variety of locations where the primary interactionbetween the learner and the experiences of their learning occur via NetworkedComputer Technology.Performance Support Systems for Online Learning SolutionsIncreasingly, learning management systems are serving as the basis for building onlineprograms where the education experience is entirely meditated through a digitalinterface.Fundamental Ingredients for Building Online Learning SolutionsAdobe tools, which have long been the de facto standard for creating interactivedigital learning content, include such familiar products as Flash®, Dreamweaver®,Photoshop®, Illustrator®, Adobe Premiere®, Adobe Contribute™ and Adobe Captivate,to name a few. The rising trend of integrating dynamic, modular learning content—learning objects—in face-to-face and e-learning programs alike is expected to drivegreater demand for solutions built on Adobe Flex® and Adobe LiveCycle® platforms.Greater interoperability with industry leading LMS platforms extends integration ofAcrobat Connect Professional. • Rapid e-learning
  11. 11. This is a direct response to e-learning products that made it hard for nontechnicalsubject matter experts and learners to contribute and make use of multimedia learningcontent to the knowledge base.Fundamental Ingredients for Building Rapid Learning SolutionsRapid e-learning uses tools such as Adobe Captivate 2 and Adobe Presenter 6 toreduce the time it takes to produce rich, engaging Flash learning content, whileallowing more non-technical contributors, including subject matter experts (SMEs) andstudents, to share their SCORM and AICC conformant Adobe Captivate learningobjects as a stand-alone Flash movie or as an element of a multimedia portfolio thatcan be securely shared within an Adobe PDF document. • Mobile learningThis type of learning builds on the availability of ubiquitous networks and portable digitaldevices, including laptop computers, PDAs, game consoles, MP3 players, and mobilephones, and it takes advantage of place-independent flexibility that comes fromworking away from the desktop. Mobile learning provides the opportunity to connectinformal learning experiences that occur naturally throughout the day with formallearning experiences. Common tools for producing mobile learning content includeFlash Professional, Flash Media Server, and Flash Lite.Performance Support Systems for Mobile Learning SolutionsThese include decision support tools, checklists, and other kinds of performance aidsthat are designed to bring workflow support to the point of need. Performance supporttools can be simple and straightforward or can be richly immersive, depending uponneed and criticality of performance.Fundamental Ingredients for Building Mobile Learning SolutionsFrom specialized content creation tools such as FrameMaker® to Adobe Acrobat andall of the Adobe Creative Suite® and Adobe Studio tools, to server products such asColdFusion® and those for creating rich Internet applications with Flex and LiveCycle,Adobe tools are a fundamental ingredient for building e-learning solutions that respondto any and all e-learning deployment models.It is important to understand that all solutions for e-learning are all based upon creatingand extending rich, retentive, engaging learning experiences that connect learners
  12. 12. with instructors, other learners, and rich learning content assets regardless of physicallocation.The keyword is ENGAGEMENT and this is what binds together all types of distributed,distant, and e-learning experiences. • Provides the power to be able to determine the kinds of outcomes that a learning engagement should enable guides the developments of instructional designs, concept specifications, functional specifications, and technical specifications. • E-learning also provides for the metrics for evaluation. • Opportunities to use Interactions that promote and enable a strong sense of social presence help keep learners engaged and motivated.Therefore, e-learning and technology mediation, play a significant role and we need tostand up and realize the value that rich, engaging content creation, distribution, andmanagement tools contribute to the experience of rich, effective e-learning programsenables new levels of engagement and participation among all learning stakeholders.Final word…Purpleframes solutions for e-learning are all based upon creating and extending rich,engaging learning experiences that connect learners with instructors, other learners,and rich learning content assets regardless of physical location. Engagement is theconceptual glue that holds distributed, distant, and e-learning experiences together.Being able to determine the kinds of outcomes that a learning engagement shouldenable guides the developments of instructional designs, concept specifications,functional specifications, and technical specifications. They will also provide metrics forevaluation. Interactions that promote and enable a strong sense of social presencehelp keep learners engaged and motivated.The significant role played by technology mediation, and the value that rich, engagingcontent creation, distribution, and management tools contribute to the experience ofrich, effective e-learning programs enables new levels of engagement andparticipation among all learning stakeholders.Purpleframe Technologies Pvt. Ltd. is a Learning, New Media and Technology SolutionsCompany offers cost effective business solutions, enabling organizations achieve theirperformance management goals. Our process oriented approach ensures precise andcreative solutions for communication and learning needs in the fields of education,entertainment, edutainment and infotainment. Purpleframe specializes in providingblended learning solutions, engineering services, virtual reality, stereoscopy, rapidprototyping (physical modeling) and other novel and ingenious products.
  13. 13. Please visit our website www.purpleframetech.com for more on our solutions forcommunication and learning needs in the fields of education, entertainment,edutainment and infotainment. You can also write to us atsales@purpleframetech.com.Purpleframe Technologies Pvt Ltd.#23, Opp Big Bazaar, Banashankari 3rd Stage,Bangalore-560085, Karnataka, INDIAPh- +91.80.26678494
  14. 14. ReferencesFor more details on the NEP and the problems of Indian education in the 1980s and1990s, see N. Jayapalan, Problems of Indian Education (Delhi: Atlantic Publishers, 2001).Ram and K.D. Sharma, National Policy on Education: An Overview (Delhi: VikasPublishing House, 2005), p. 1. http://www.indianchild.com/education_society_india.htm(accessed 15.09.04). http://www.indianchild.com/education_society_india.htm(accessed 15.09.04). Outlook, 18 August 2003.J. Dreze and A. Sen, ‗Basic Education as a Political Issue‘, in B.G. Tilak (ed.), Education,Society and Development: National and International Perspectives (New Delhi: APH,2003), p. 3. 13 J. Dreze and A. Sen, Indian Development: Selected Regional Perspectives(Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997).ADDITIONAL INFORMATIONThe evolution of India‘s education policy Elitism, Nehruvianism and developmentTraditional Hindu education served the needs of Brahmin families: Brahmin teacherswould teach boys to read and write. Under the Moguls, education was similarly elitist,favoring the rich rather than those from high-caste backgrounds. These preexisting elitisttendencies were reinforced under British rule. British colonial rule brought with it theconcept of a modern state, a modern economy and a modern education system. Theeducation system was first developed in the three presidencies (Bombay, Calcutta andMadras). By linking entrance and advancement in government service to academiceducation, colonial rule contributed to the legacy of an education system geared topreserving the position and prerogatives of the more privileged. In the early 1900s, theIndian National Congress called for national education, placing an emphasis ontechnical and vocational training. In 1920 Congress initiated a boycott of government-aided and government-controlled schools and founded several ‗national‘ schools andcolleges. These failed, as the rewards of British-style education were so great that theboycott was largely ignored. Local elites benefited from the British education systemand eventually used it expel the colonizers. Nehru envisaged India as a seculardemocracy with a state-led command economy. Education for all and industrialdevelopment were seen as crucial tools to unite a country divided on the basis ofwealth, caste and religion, and formed the cornerstones of the antiimperial struggle.Following Independence, school curricula were thus imbued with the twin themes ofinclusiveness and national pride, placing emphasis on the fact that India‘s differentcommunities could live peacefully side by side as one nation.The legacies of this Nehruvian approach to education are considerable; perhaps mostnotable is the entrenchment of the pluralist/secularist perspective in the minds of theIndian people. Subsidized quality
  15. 15. higher education through institutions such as the IITs and IIMs formed a majorcontribution to the Nehruvian vision of a self-reliant and modern Indian state, and theynow rank amongst the best higher education institutions in the world. In addition,policies of positive discrimination in education and employment furthered the case foraccess by hitherto unprivileged social groups to quality education. It has been arguedthat while access for some marginalized communities continues to be limited, theupward mobility of a few Dalit and tribal households resulting from positivediscrimination in educational institutions and state patronage has created role modelsthat help democracy survive in India.The Kothari Commission: education for modernization, national unity and literacyDrawing on Nehru‘s vision, and articulating most of his key themes, the KothariCommission (1964–6) was set up to formulate a coherent education policy for India.1According to the commission, education was intended to increase productivity,develop social and national unity, consolidate democracy, modernize the country anddevelop social, moral and spiritual values. To achieve this, the main pillar of Indianeducation policy was to be free and compulsory education for all children up to theage of 14. Other features included the development of languages (Hindi, Sanskrit,regional languages and the three-language formula2).The need for change: the National Policy on EducationIn 1986, Rajiv Gandhi announced a new education policy, the National Policy onEducation (NPE), which was intended to prepare India for the 21st century. The policyemphasized the need for change: ‗Education in India stands at the crossroads today.Neither normal linear expansion nor the existing pace and nature of improvement canmeet the needs of the situation.Operation Blackboard (1987–8) aimed to improve the human and physical resourcesavailable in primary schools.Restructuring and Reorganization of Teacher Education (1987) created a resource forthe continuous upgrading of teachers‘ knowledge and competence.Minimum Levels of Learning (1991) laid down levels of achievement at various stagesand revised textbooks.National Program for Nutritional Support to Primary Education (1995) provided acooked meal every day for children in Classes 1–5 of all government, government-aided and local body schools. In some cases grain was distributed on a monthly basis,subject to a minimum attendance.
  16. 16. District Primary Education Program (DPEP) (1993) emphasized decentralized planningand management, improved teaching and learning materials, and schooleffectiveness.Movement to Educate All (2000) aimed to achieve universal primary education by 2010through micro planning and school-mapping exercises, bridging gender and socialgaps.Fundamental Right (2001) involved the provision of free and compulsory education,declared to be a basic right for children aged between 6 and 14 years.

×