National Liberation Movements and Women:
• Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962): This was a major armed struggle between Algeria
and France, which ultimately led to Algeria's independence. Women played a crucial role in
this movement, both as fighters and as logistical support. They participated in guerrilla
warfare, transported weapons and supplies, and helped provide medical aid to injured fighters.
• Mau Mau Uprising (1952-1960): The Mau Mau Uprising was a rebellion against British
colonial rule in Kenya. Women participated in this movement in various ways, from supplying
food and clothing to the fighters to providing intelligence and medical assistance. Some
women, such as Muthoni Kirima, even took up arms and fought alongside men.
• Guinea-Bissau War of Independence (1963-1974): This conflict was waged against Portuguese
colonial rule in Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. Women were involved in the struggle as
fighters, intelligence gatherers, and logistical support. One notable example is Titina Silá, a
female guerrilla leader who was killed during the conflict.
National Liberation Movements and Women:
• South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO): SWAPO was a political
party and liberation movement in Namibia that fought for independence
from South Africa. Women were involved in this movement as soldiers,
nurses, and political activists. They also participated in the establishment of
the organization's Women's Council, which aimed to promote gender
equality and women's rights.
• African National Congress (ANC) - South Africa: The ANC was a key
player in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. Women played an
important role in this movement, participating in protests and acts of civil
disobedience, such as the 1956 Women's March, where 20,000 women
marched to Pretoria to protest against the pass laws. Prominent female
leaders in the ANC included Lilian Ngoyi, Helen Joseph, and Winnie
1- What are the key limitations of the national bourgeoisie in underdeveloped
countries, as identified by Fanon? How do these limitations impact the nation's
development after independence?
2- How does Fanon's critique of the national bourgeoisie challenge the notion that
political independence automatically leads to economic independence and social
3- What role does the national bourgeoisie play in perpetuating the legacy of
colonialism in post-colonial societies? How does this affect the country's
economy and social structure?
4- In what ways does Fanon's analysis of the national bourgeoisie's limitations
remain relevant today in the context of global capitalism and neocolonialism?
5- How can Fanon's critique of the national bourgeoisie be applied to
contemporary examples of post-colonial nations? Are there any recent cases that
seem to support or challenge his arguments?
6- What alternative strategies for national development and social
transformation might be more effective than those pursued by the national
bourgeoisie in underdeveloped countries? How can these alternatives address
the issues raised by Fanon?
1.What were the main factors that contributed to the outbreak of the Anlu
Rebellion in the Kom region of Cameroon? How did these factors intersect
to create the conditions for the uprising?
2.Discuss the role of women in the Anlu Rebellion and its significance in the
broader context of anti-colonial resistance movements in Africa. How did
their involvement challenge traditional gender roles and power structures
within the Kom society?
3.Analyze the methods and tactics used by the women during the Anlu
Rebellion, such as the traditional "Anlu" protest. How did these methods
reflect the cultural practices and values of the Kom people, and how
effective were they in challenging both colonial and patriarchal authority?
1.How did the British colonial authorities respond to the Anlu Rebellion? What
measures did they take to suppress the uprising, and what impact did their
response have on the long-term political and social dynamics in the region?
2.Assess the historical significance of the Anlu Rebellion in the broader context of
Cameroon's struggle for independence. How did the rebellion shape the
subsequent political developments in the country, and what lessons can be drawn
from this event for other anti-colonial movements?
3.Examine the leadership of Foncha Susana (Mami Kebukujoh) during the Anlu
Rebellion. What qualities and attributes made her an effective leader, and how did
her background as a healer contribute to her role in the uprising?
4.Compare and contrast the Anlu Rebellion with other anti-colonial uprisings in
Africa during the same period. What similarities and differences can you identify
in terms of the motivations, strategies, and outcomes of these movements?