The term group refers to two or more
individuals who bear an explicit psychological
relationship to one another.
In general, a number of people together at a
given place and given time can be considered
as a group.
‘A group is the largest set of two or more
individuals who are jointly characterized by a
network of relevant communications, a
shared sense of collective identify and one or
more shared dispositions with associated
-By David Horton.
PEOPLE SEE THEMSELVES AS
TWO OR MORE PEOPLE
In formal group, the behaviors that one
should engage in are stipulated by and
directed towards organizational goals.
The six members making up an airline flight
crew are an example of a formal group.
A group is a formal when it is purposely
designed to accomplish an organisation
objective or task.
It is created via a formal authority for some
A command group is determined by the
It is composed of the subordinates who
report directly to a given manager.
An elementary school principal and his/her
12 teacher form a command group, as do the
director of postal audits and his five
Task groups, also organizationally
determined, represent those working
together to complete a job task.
However, a task group’s boundaries are not
limited to its immediate hierarchical superior.
It can cross command relationships.
It exists when members interact to resolve
some type of conflict, usually through
negotiation and compromise.
A labor-management negotiating group is
one example of a counteracting group.
It exists when group members perform
their jobs relatively independently in the
For example, students enrolled in the
same course may participate relatively
independently of each other in class
discussions but act interdependently with
others in under taking a team project.
Interacting group refers to the dynamics
of the team and the way individuals in the
group interact with one another.
Informal groups are the natural
and spontaneous grouping of people
whenever they work together over a period of
Whenever people interact and work together
over a certain period of time, it’s very natural
for them and it comes very spontaneously for
them, that they form informal groups.
Established to meet a mutual objective (a
group formed to lobby management for more
Formed because members have something
A primary group is typically a small social
group whose members share close, personal,
These groups are marked by members'
concern for one another, in shared activities
Examples include family, childhood friends,
and highly influential social groups.
People in a secondary group interact on a less
personal level than in a primary group, and
their relationships are temporary rather than
Since secondary groups are established to
perform functions, people’s roles are more
A secondary group is one you have chosen to
be a part of. They are based on interests and
Examples of these would be employment,
vendor-to-client relationships, etc
Perception approach: People who see
themselves as part of group constitute a group.
Teams are mature groups with a degree of
member interdependence and motivation to
achieve common goals. Teams start out as
groups, but not all groups become teams.
Organization approach: emphasizes group
characteristics to define a group: an organized
system of individual who are connected with
Motivation approach: a group is a collection of
individuals whose collective existence satisfies
Interaction approach: Two or more individuals
interacting with each other in order to accomplish
a common goal. This definition specifies three
minimum requirements for a group to exist:
I. Size—must be two or more individuals.
II. Interaction—must be some form of
exchange or communication.
III. Purpose—must be trying to accomplish a
The group dynamics is that division of social
psychology that investigates the formation
and change in the structure and functions of
the psychological grouping of people into
Group norms are a set of beliefs, feelings and
attitudes commonly shared by group members. These
are also referred to as rules & standards of
behavior that apply to group members.
Norms serve three functions in groups:
1. As first, norms provide a basis for understanding
behavior of others
2. Second, norms regulate the behavior of members.
3. Finally, some norms define relationships among
A characteristic feature of groups which is
particularly important for the behaviour of
their members is COHESIVENESS Extent to
which the members are attracted to each
It is the degree to which members are
attached to and motivated to remain a part of
Decision making is the process of choosing a
course of action among alternatives.
It is important to understand decision making
process in the organizational behaviour
because choice processes play a vital role in
communication, motivation, leadership, and
other aspects of individual, group and
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