● Drug: a medicine or other substance which has a physiological effect
when ingested or otherwise introduced into the body.
● Tolerance: the ability or willingness to tolerate the existence of opinions
or behaviour that one dislikes or disagrees with.
● Addiction: the fact or condition of being addicted to a particular
substance or activity.
● Dependence: the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or
How does it alter the body?
Heroin is a substance made of different chemicals. Some of this chemicals
can be considered Painkillers, like morphine and codeine, this are also used in
Heroin activates specific receptors in the brain called mu-opioid receptors
(MORs). Our bodies contain naturally occurring chemicals called
neurotransmitters that bind to these receptors throughout the brain and body
to regulate pain, hormone release, and feelings of well-being. When MORs are
activated, they stimulate the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine,
causing a reinforcement of drug behavior
Effects of Heroine
Family and Job(social)
How do painkillers alter the body?
Painkillers helps to relieve the symptoms of an infectious disease, but they
do not kill the pathogens involved.
● For example, paracetamol, aspirin and morphine block nerve impulses
from the painful part of the body, or block nerve impulses travelling to
the part of the brain responsible for perceiving pain.
How do antibiotics alter the body?
Antibiotics are substances that kill bacteria or stop their growth. They do not
work against viruses because they live and reproduce inside cells. It is
difficult to develop drugs that kill viruses without also damaging the body’s
Penicillin, the first antibiotic, was discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming.
He noticed that some bacteria he had left in a Petri dish had been killed by
naturally occurring penicillium mould.
Different antibiotics work in different ways. It is important that specific
bacteria should be treated using specific antibiotics.
Effects of painkillers and antibiotics
● Lost of friends
● Stealing → Pay
● Unable to do sports → Get kicked out of the team
● Muscle Spasms → nerves reacting to stimuli
● Heart attack
● If it is injected→ Infections, illnesses