Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

59

Share

Download to read offline

Ovarian cancer ppt

Download to read offline

ovarian cancer

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Related Audiobooks

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Ovarian cancer ppt

  1. 1. Ovarian Cancer Presented by: Vidya dhonde M.Pharm sem-1 2014-2015 Guided by : Dr. S.S.Mahajan. 1
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Types of ovarian tumors  Symptoms  Causes  Diagnosis  Stages  Treatment  Side effects  Prevention  Conclusion  reference 2
  3. 3. Introduction  The body is made up of trillions of living cells  Normal body cells grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion.  Cancer begins when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control.  Cancer cell growth is different from normal cell growth. 1. Instead of dying, cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells. 2. Cancer cells can also invade (grow into) other tissues, something that normal cells cannot do. Why the Cells become cancerous ??? Due to damage to DNA. 3
  4. 4. Anatomy and physiology 4 female organs (glands producing sex hormones and the ova) size: One ovary is long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick Shape: almond shape. Location: on each side of the uterus in pelvice.
  5. 5. Types of ovarian cancer The ovaries contain 3 main kinds of cells: 1. Epithelial 2. Germ cells 3. Stromal cells Each of these cells can develop into different type of tumors. Subsequently there are 3 main types of ovarian tumours: 1. Epithelial tumours 2. Germ cell tumours 3. Stromal tumours 5
  6. 6. Epithelial ovarian tumours  Benign epithelial ovarian tumours  Tumours of low malignant potential  Malignant epithelial ovarian tumor 6
  7. 7. Germ cell tumors  Less than 2% of Ovarian Cancers are germ cell tumors.  9 out of 10 patients surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis. Types of Germ Cell Tumors  Teratoma  Dysgerminoma  Endodermal sinus tumor (yolk sac tumor). 7
  8. 8. Stromal tumours  About 1% of ovarian cancers are ovarian stromal cell tumors.  More than half of stromal tumors are found in women older than 50, but about 5% of stromal tumors occur in young girls.  The most common symptom of these tumors is abnormal vaginal bleeding.  sudden, severe, abdominal pain. This occurs if the tumor starts to bleed. 8
  9. 9. Symptoms Early symptoms of ovarian cancer: •Pain in the pelvis •Pain on the lower side of the body •Back pain •Indigestion or heartburn •More frequent and urgent urination •Pain during sexual intercourse As ovarian cancer progresses these symptoms are also possible: •Nausea, Weight loss, Breathlessness, Fatigue (tiredness) •Loss of appetite 9
  10. 10. Causes  Family history  - Age  - High number of total lifetime ovulations. - Never having been pregnant .  - Early start of menstruation and Late start of menopause .  - Breast cancer. - HRT (Hormone replacement therapy) . - Obesity/overweight. - Endometriosis. - Inherited genetic syndromes.  - Cowden's disease. 10
  11. 11. Stages stage:1 11
  12. 12. 12 Stage:2
  13. 13. 13 Stage: 3
  14. 14. 14 Stage:4
  15. 15. Diagnosis of ovarian cancer The following tests are used to diagnose ovarian cancer:  Blood test  Ultrasound  Laparoscopy and possibly Endoscopy  Colonoscopy  Abdominal fluid aspiration  Chest X-ray  CT (computerized tomography) scan  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan  Positron emission tomography (PET scan)  Biopsy 15
  16. 16. Treatment Treatment for ovarian cancer consists of 1. surgery 2. chemotherapy 3. combination of surgery with chemotherapy 4. radiotherapy  Surgery  Chemotherapy: Patients will typically receive a combination of carboplatin (Paraplatin) and paclitaxel (Taxol) intravenously. As it is injected into the bloodstream it can target cancer cells in the reproductive system, as well as any cancer cells that may have reached elsewhere in the body. 16
  17. 17. Side effects of chemotherapy Nausea, vomiting - medication for this may be given intravenously during chemotherapy sessions.  Diarrhoea.  Hair loss.  Loss of appetite.  Mouth sores.  Anaemia. 17
  18. 18. Drugs used in chemotherapy:  Topotecan  Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil®)  Gemcitabine (Gemzar®)  Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan®)  Vinorelbine (Navelbine®)  Ifosfamide (Ifex®)  Etoposide (VP-16)  Altretamine (Hexalen®)  Capecitabine (Xeloda®)  Irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar®)  Melphalan  Pemetrexed (Alimta®)  Albumin bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, Abraxane®) 18
  19. 19. COMBINATION CHEMOTHERAPY For Germ Cell Cancer: The combination mainly used most often is called PEB P - cisplatin (Platinol), E -etoposide, B - bleomycin. Other combination includes - · TIP: paclitaxel (Taxol), ifosfamide, and cisplatin · VeIP: vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin · VIP: etoposide (VP-16), ifosfamide, and cisplatin For stromal tumors: carboplatin plus paclitaxel or PEB Side effects: Nausea, vomiting, hair loss and low blood count. 19
  20. 20. RADIOTHERAPY Side effects - •Bladder infections. •Diarrhea, Constipation. •Irritation, darkening of your skin that the radiation beams hit. •Nausea, Frequent urination, Abdominal pain PREVENTION: Oral contraceptives Gynaecologic surgery tubal ligation hysterectomy 20
  21. 21. EARLY DETECTION If a woman shows ovarian cancer symptoms, doctors may monitor her with one of three tests or a combination of them: 1. Blood Test 2. Transvaginal Ultrasound 3. Pelvic Exam Screening test for ovarian cancer: 1. Transvaginal ultrasound 2. CA – 125 blood test. 21
  22. 22. Conclusion  Remember that although ovarian cancer is less common cancer it is not silent and early diagnosis may save lives.  Ovarian cancer has always been thought of as a symptomless disease, but research has shown this to be untrue . There are symptoms , unfortunately they may be so subtle that they are attributed to other benign conditions.  However 81% of the respondents realize in observation that symptoms existed before diagnosis, with these symptoms being confused with irritable bowel syndrome, pre-menopause, stress acid-reflex, endometriosis, gall bladder issues or other ailments.  It is the time to BREAK THE SILENCE….. educate yourself and the women you love !!! 22
  23. 23. References  American joint committee on cancer. Ovary. In: AJCC cancer staging manual. 6th ed. New york: springer; 2002: 275-279.  Murthy ns1, shalini s, suman g, pruthvish s, mathew changing trends in incidence of ovarian cancer - the indian scenario. Asian pac. J cancer prevention. 2009;10(6):1025-30.  World cancer research fund/american institute for cancer research, food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer, ovarian cancer 2014 report :1-39. 23
  24. 24. Thank you 24
  • amanimadigela

    Sep. 15, 2021
  • SwatiChahar3

    Aug. 11, 2021
  • himanshusehrawat12

    May. 5, 2021
  • MDTarique10

    Apr. 29, 2021
  • AyalewAbebe3

    Apr. 13, 2021
  • SushilChoudhary25

    Mar. 5, 2021
  • angelmary1998

    Nov. 16, 2020
  • KShabna1

    Oct. 8, 2020
  • JibiRaju1

    Oct. 2, 2020
  • DevilDevi1

    Jul. 14, 2020
  • NoorALHuda24

    Jul. 3, 2020
  • saraashraf37

    May. 8, 2020
  • AtulSingh542

    Oct. 22, 2019
  • KansigoEmily

    Jul. 25, 2019
  • FelixMwila1

    Jul. 24, 2019
  • AremoJide

    Apr. 2, 2019
  • GolamhosenIrfaan

    Jan. 6, 2019
  • MamtaGehlot2

    Jun. 7, 2018
  • anubhutidave

    Apr. 26, 2018
  • MamtaPandey28

    Apr. 15, 2018

ovarian cancer

Views

Total views

37,214

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

49

Actions

Downloads

2,254

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

59

×