“The means of transport and communication are called the lifelines of a country
and its economy”
Lifelines of a human being are his veins which carry blood to all parts of the body and
provide them energy. Same way means of transport and communication bring all the
regions of a country closer and develop them equally. A country can make tremendous
progress only on the basis of its developed means of transport and communication.
“Various means of transport and communication have reduced distances,
bringing the world closer”.
Earlier people used to move on foot, the means of transportation were not at all
developed, going from one place to another was considered as a burden, but now a
days no place in the world is far away. With the present means of transportation, one
can reach to any part of the world within hours. Earlier the means of communication also
were not developed. It took a long time to send message from one place to another. In
the present world with the means like telephone, television and most importantly
internet, none of the countries or any part of world is far away.
Lifeline of National Economy
According to their capacity According to type
of material used
Railways Waterways PipelinesAirways
Super Highways Metalled
All India Radio
Newspapers, Books &
Balance of Trade
Balance of Trade
Importance of road transport :
Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railways lines. Roads can traverse
comparatively more dissected and undulating topography. Roads can negotiate higher
gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains such as the Himalayas. Road
transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of
goods over short distance. It also provides door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading
and unloading is much lower. Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of
transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports.
Types of roads : For the
purpose of administration roads
can be divided into.
Golden Quadrilateral Super
Highways : Linking Delhi-
Delhi by six lane Super
North-south and East-west
corridors from Srinagar to
Kanyakumari and Silchar to
(iv) These are implemented by
the National Highway Authority
of India (NHAI).
Objective : To reduce the time
and distance between the mega
cities of India.
National highways : These are the primary road systems and are laid and maintained
by the Central Public works Department. Connects one state with another and are of
State highways : Join state capitals with district headquarters and other important
towns. Constructed and maintained by the State Public Works Department in State and
District roads : Connects the district headquarters with other places of the district, are
maintained by the Zila Parishad.
Village roads : Connects the village with the neighbouring towns and cities. These
roads received special impetus under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.
Border Road Organisation a Government of India undertaking constructs and
maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country. This organisation was
established in 1960 for the development of roads of strategic importance in the northern
and north-eastern border areas. These roads have improved accessibility in areas of
difficult terrain and have helped in the economic development of these areas.
Principle mode of transportation for freight and passengers in India. Railways also make
it possible to conduct multifarious activities like business, sightseeing, pilgrimage along
with transportation of goods over long distances. Have been a great integrating force for
more than 150 years. Bind the economic life of the country as well as accelerate the
development of the industry and agriculture. Have a network of 7133 stations spread
over a route length of 64,460 km. with a fleet of 9213 locomotives, 53220 passenger
service vehicles, 6493 other coach vehicles and 229381 wagons as on March 2011.
Factors affecting the distribution pattern of the railway network in the country :
Distribution pattern of the railway network gets influenced by physiographic, economic
and administrative factors. Level land of the great plains of India with high density of
population and rich agriculture and greater industrial activity have favoured railway
network in these areas. On the other hand, flood plains of Bihar and Assam, rugged
topography of the Himalayan region, deserts of Rajasthan and hilly tracts of Sahayadri
are unfavourable for the development of railways.
Problems from which rail transport suffers : Many passengers travel without tickets.
Passengers pull chain unnecessarily causing heavy losses to the railway. Thefts and
damaging of railway property have not yet stopped completely.
Importance : A convenient mode of transport for mineral oil and natural gas. Can be
constructed over land as well as in water. Initial cost of laying pipelines is more but
subsequent running cost are minimum. Pipeline transport rules out transshipment losses
or delays. The transportation cost is also very low.
Important networks of pipeline
(i) From oil fields in upper Assam to
Kanpur via Guwahati, Barauni and
(ii) From Salaya in Gujarat to
Jalandher in Punjab via Virangam,
Mathura, Delhi and Sonipat.
(iii) Gas pipeline from Hazira in
Gujarat to Jagdishpur in U.P. via
Vijaipur in M.P.
(iv) Pipelines between Mumbai high
and Mumbai, Mumbai and Pune.
Inland Water Transport
(i) Cheapest mean as well as near about pollution free form of transport.
(ii) Most suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods. Inland navigable waterways
14500 km, of which 5685 km are navigable by mechanised boats.
National Waterways (N.W.) :
(i) Ganga river between Allahabad
and Haldia (1620 km). Is N.W. No. 1
(ii) Brahmaputra river between
Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km).
Is N.W. No. 2
(iii) West coast canal in Kerala
and Champakkara canals -205 km).
Is N.W. No. 3
(iv) Specified stretches of Godavari
and Krishna rivels along with
Kakinada Poducherry stretch of
canals (1078 km) – N.W. No.4
(v) Specified stretches of river
Brahmani along with Matai river, delta
channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani
rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km)
Advantages : Fastest mode of transport. Best mean of transport for remote,
inaccessible and hostile areas. Plays a vital role during calamities.
Companies operating Airways : Air India provides international air services. Indian
airlines, Alliance air and private scheduled airlines provide domestic air services in India.
Pawanhans Helicopters ltd. and Air taxi operators provide services to remote areas of
About 7516 km long coast line having 12 major and 181 medium and minor sea ports,
handles 95% of India’s foreign trade.
On the eastern coast:- Kolkata (an
inland riverine tidal port, requires constant
dredging of Hoogly), Haldia (developed
as a subsidiary port, in order to relieve
growing pressure on the Kolkata port),
Paradip (specialises in the export of iron
ore), Vishakapatanam (deepest
landlocked and well-protected port),
Tuticorin (a natural harbour and rich
hinterland) and Chennai (one of the
oldest artificial ports of the country, is
ranked next to Mumbai in terms of the
volume of trade and cargo).
On the western coast:- Kandla (first port to be developed soon after independence to
ease the volume of trade on the Mumbai port, is a tidal port, caters to the convenient
handling of exports and imports across the states of northern and north-western India),
Mumbai (biggest port with a spacious natural and well-sheltered harbour), Jawaharlal
Nehru port ( to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub port), Mormagao
(premier iron ore exporting port, accounts for about 50% of India’s iron ore export), New
Mangalore (caters to the export of iron ore export or iron ore concentrates from
Kudremukh mines) and Kochi( located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural
Can be divided into 2 parts : Personal communication and Mass communication.
Personal communication :
Indian Postal Network : Largest in the world. 1.5 lakh post offices (89% in rural areas
11% in urban areas) Carries 2 types of mails.
First class mail : It is air lifted between stations, mail covering both land and
connected by air. Includes cards and envelopes.
Second class mail : Carried by surface mail covering land and water transport.
Includes registered newspapers, periodicals and book packets.
Telecom network : Largest telecom network in Asia, about 3200 telephone exchanges.
Besides urban places covers over 2/3rd of the villages of India. Private companies have
also entered, resulting in availability of better facilities to the consumers.
Mass communication :
Plays a vital role in creating awareness, provides healthy
entertainment as well.
All India Radio : broadcast a variety of programmes in National,
Regional and Local languages.
Doordarshan : The National television of India, is one of the
largest terrestrial network, Its programmes range from
entertainment to education and sports..
Print media : A large number of newspapers and periodicals,
published in about 100 languages and dialects.
Largest producer of feature films, other films produced are short
films, video feature films and video short films.
Modern life is so complex that one has to depend on others. No country today can
prosper without the cooperation and assistance of others. In the present world, Trade
has become a necessity as - No country is self reliant, each country lacks in one
resource or the other. On the other hand some resources are in excess. Requirements
can be fulfilled only through trade. In times of calamities, trade relations are very useful
as help can be received through the friendly countries. Trade relations are a guarantee
of peace. It is generally believed that the trading countries are not going to fight with
each other as they are interdependent.
International trade has undergone a sea change in the last fifteen years. Exchange of
commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and
knowledge. India has emerged as a software giant at the international level and it is
earning large foreign exchange through the export of information technology.
The difference between value of exports
& imports is known as the balance of
trade. If value of exports is more than the
value of imports it is called favourable
balance of trade and if value of import is
more than the value of export it is called
unfavaurable balance of trade. India has
trade relations with all the trading blocks
of the world, most of the commodities
exported from India consist of both raw
material and manufactured goods which
fetches less income. Commodities
imported are mostly petroleum, gold,
chemicals etc. which are more costly.
Thus the overall balance of trade is
Balance of trade :
Foreign tourist’s arrivals in the country witnessed an increase of 11.8 percent during the
year 2010 as against the year 2009, contributing Rs 64,889 crore of foreign exchange.
5.78 million foreign tourists visit India in 2010. More than 15 million people are directly
engaged in the tourism industry. Tourism also promotes national integration, provides
support to local handicrafts and cultural pursuits. It also helps in the development of
international understanding about our culture and heritage. Foreign tourists visit India for
heritage tourism, eco-tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and
business tourism. Rajasthan, Goa, Jammu and Kashmir and temple towns of south India
are important destinations of foreign tourists in India.