Overview• In which conditions ?• Why ?• What are collected ?• How ?• Type of sample Vs Significance
Sexual Assaults• Alleged rape• Childhood sexual abuse• Unnatural offences
Purpose• To find out whether sexual intercourse has taken place or not.• If it has, whether it was with consent or not.• Identification of possible assailant/s.• Estimation of age.• Examination for STDs.• Examination for pregnancy.• Examination for intoxication.
Samples collected (From whom?)• Victim• Suspected assailant/s• Scene (Locus)
How to collectFrom Clothing;→ Depends on the sample If wet (blood or secretions)Air dry before sending to the serologist
How to collectVaginal swabs From vulva Low vaginal Upper vaginal Cervix Before Per vaginal examination or instrumentation (why?) Capillary pipette Smears prepared immediately & examined
How to collectOther swabs From perineum Anus & rectum Thighs Mouth Any other area (appropriately) Mainly for semen Smears prepared immediately & examined
How to collectPubic area Loose hair – From assailant Dried & matted seminal fluid in pubic hairBite marks May contain saliva - swabs Blood group Serological antigens studies Saliva Buccal DNA analysis mucosal cells
How to collectNail beds Epidermal debris – From assailant Nail clipping – Disposable sterile tooth picks Nail scraping – Suitable scraper run under fingernailsBlood stains Usually dried Use a moistened swab* Nail scraping – Suitable scraper run under fingernailsDischarges From vagina – Swabs Smears Microbiological studies
Medico legal Examination in acase of sexual assault would not be complete without examination & obtaining trace material from the suspected assailant/s & the Scene.