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  2. 2. PARAPHRASEA paraphrase is... your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form (without changing the meaning). one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.
  3. 3. The original passage:Students frequently overuse direct quotation intaking notes, and as a result they overusequotations in the final [research] paper.Probably only about 10% of your finalmanuscript should appear as directly quotedmatter. Therefore, you should strive to limitthe amount of exact transcribing of sourcematerials while taking notes. Lester, James D.Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.
  4. 4. A plagiarized version:Students often use too many direct quotationswhen they take notes, resulting in too many ofthem in the final research paper. In fact,probably only about 10% of the final copyshould consist of directly quoted material. So itis important to limit the amount of sourcematerial copied while taking notes.
  5. 5. A legitimate paraphrase:In research papers students often quoteexcessively, failing to keep quoted materialdown to a desirable level. Since the problemusually originates during note taking, it isessential to minimize the material recordedverbatim (Lester, 1976).
  6. 6. Steps to Effective Paraphrasing Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Take notes. Write down only a few words for each idea. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a piece of paper.
  7. 7.  Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Add in-text citation and record the source (so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper).
  8. 8. You can paraphrase by using:SynonymsThe hardest language to learn is Mandarin.The most difficult language to learn is Mandarin.The most difficult language to master is Mandarin.Mandarin is one of the most difficult languages to master.
  9. 9. AntonymsThe school is far away.The school is not near.Phrasal verbsShe discarded her used lipstick case in the trash can.She threw away her used lipstick case in the trash can.
  10. 10. General verbsThe factory manufactures boxes.The factory produces boxes.PhrasesMany people in Canada are bilingual.Many people in Canada speak two languages.
  11. 11. ›Paraphrases and summaries involve retelling or rewriting information in your own words. What is the difference between a paraphrase and a summary?
  12. 12. If your retelling (or rewriting) is about thesame length as the original, it is a paraphrase.If you shorten the information by retelling onlythe most important points and omitting thedetails, it is a summary.
  13. 13. THANK YOU