ACADEMIC WRITINGUSING PARALLEL STRUCTURES AND FIXING SENTENCE PROBLEMS 1
USING PARALLEL STRUCTURES AND FIXING SENTENCE PROBLEMSPARALLELISM means that each item in alist or comparison follows the samegrammatical pattern.PARALLELISM is important inwriting, especially when you are listing andcomparing and contrasting items or ideas.
Examples:PARALLELMary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.NOT PARALLELMary likes hiking, swimming, and to ride abicycle.
Words, phrases and clauses that are joined byand, or, and but are written in parallel form.Example:The states regulate the noise created by motorvehicles but not by commercial aircraft.
Use parallel forms with the pairedconjunctions: both…and either…or neither…nor not only… but alsoHumanity will have the information it needsnot only to survive but also to thrive in aworld that is changing at a rapid pace.
SENTENCE PROBLEMS include:Sentence Fragments are incompletesentences or parts of sentences.A complete sentence must contain at leastone main or independent clause.
Toys of all kinds thrown everywhere.Toys of all kinds were thrown everywhere.They found toys of all kinds thrown everywhere. Source: http://www.hamiltonbulldogs.com/article/toy-toss-to-take-place-on-december-4
Choppy sentences are sentences that aretoo short.The overuse of short sentences is consideredpoor style in academic writing. In these cases, it is better to turn your choppy sentences into longer, more complex ones by making them compound sentences with several subjects and verbs.
Short choppy sentences may be turned into complex sentences by turning one sentence into a phrase or clause and adding a subordinating conjunction.The basin is empty. You climb in there and scrub.When the basin is empty, you climb in there and scrub.
Ifthe sentences express equal ideas, use coordinators to combine them.If the sentences express unequal ideas, that is, if one sentence express a less important idea than the other, use subordinators to combine them.
A stringy sentence is a sentence withtoo many independent clauses.To correct a stringy sentence, divide itand/or recombine the clauses, rememberingto subordinate when appropriate.
My family left our homeland, and we lived ina refugee camp for several months, butfinally we got our documents, so we traveledto Canada, and we live there now.After my family left our homeland, we livedin a refugee camp for several months. Assoon as we got our documents, we traveledto Canada, where we live now.