Syntax and Teaching Grammar Lesson Four Dr. Rosario María Burneo
Unit 10: Syntactic linkageSyntactic linkage refers to the devices used byspeakers to signal which words can be linked to form aphrase: and, which phrases can be linked to formcoherent clausesTwo linguistic phenomena: Agreement Government
AgreementIt is a form of cross-reference betweendifferent constituents of a sentence orphrase.The agreement based on overt grammaticalnumbers formal agreement, She worksin contrast, notional agreement is based onmeaning: This class is large The class are discussing about new rules
Common type of Agreement Grammatical person: I am versus He is Grammatical number One car versus Two cars I am versus We are Grammatical genderJenny loves her cat vs. Jimmy loves his cat. Grammatical case I told him versus He told me.
1. Subjects and verbs must agree in number. The dog growls when he is angry. The dogs growl when they are angry.2. When sentences start with “there” or “here,”the subject will always be placed after the verb: There is a problem with the balance sheet. Here are the papers you requested.3. Make sure you accurately identify the subjectbefore deciding on the proper verb form to use. Does Lefty usually eat grass? Where are the pieces of this puzzle?
4. When gerunds are used as the subject of a sentence theytake the singular verb form; but when they are linked by andthey take the plural form. Standing in the water was a bad ideaSwimming in the ocean and playing drums are my hobbies.5.Indefinite pronouns typically take singular verbs. Everybody wants to be loved. Except for the pronouns (few, many, several, both, all, some)that always take the plural form. Few were left alive after the flood.
GovernmentGovernment in English grammar can be found in “case” Case refers to the grammaticalrelationship of nouns or pronouns with other words in a clause or sentence.
Pronouns show three case distinctions Nominative (subjective) I, you, he, she, it, we, they Genitive (possessive) my, your, his, her,our, their Accusative (objective) me, you, him, her,us, them