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Psychology And Language Learning


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Provide an overview of Chapters 5, 6 and 7
Explain details of second bimester assignment
Explain details of second bimester test

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Psychology And Language Learning

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY AND LANGUAGE LEARNING SCHOOL: Ciencias de la Educación: Mención Inglés NOMBRE: Lic. Anna M. Gates FECHA: Marzo – Agosto 2009 1
  3. 3.  Provide an overview of Chapters 5, 6 and 7  Explain details of second bimester assignment  Explain details of second bimester test
  4. 4. Chapter 5
  5. 5.  Linguistic competence doesn’t suffice to explain what happens in the acquisition of a language that will be used for communicative purposes  Field of sociolinguistics, emerged in 1960’s  Only knowing the structures of a languages doesn’t prepare a person to use that language for social interaction
  6. 6.  Linguistic aspects important for language acquisition  Equally important is knowledge of how, when and why to used these linguistic aspects › Language community  Language itself  Culturally based behaviors  L1 vs. L2
  7. 7.  Important from the social perspective to know if the language acquisition is second language, foreign language, auxiliary language, etc.
  8. 8.  Second Language Acquisition › Need it and all of the cultural accompaniments to participate in the dominate community  Foreign Language Acquisition › Little opportunity or need to participate fully in the culture behind the language  Auxiliary Language Acquisition › Limited to a specific domain, often in one’s own homeland.
  9. 9.  What a speaker needs to know to do what he/she wants to do  Judgments about how to gain that knowledge DEPENDS ON THE SOCIAL CONTEXT IN WHICH THE PERSON LEARNS AND USES THE LANGUAGE
  10. 10.  According to Sociocultural Theory › Interaction is a necessary factor and the cause of language acquisition
  11. 11.  Input and interaction › How native speakers modify their language with L2 learners/speakers › Social factors that influence quantity & quality of input › How cultural knowledge & prior experience are involved in processing & interpreting input
  12. 12.  Learner language is variable › One reason is due to the changes that occur in what learners know as they progress › Much variation at every stage of learning  Most important contribution of sociolinguistics › Show that previously thought irregularities in language production follow regular & predictable patterns when considered as variable features.
  13. 13.  Variation that occurs in different contexts in any point of time › Register-Accommodation theory  Change in use of language depending on who you are talking to  Native speakers simplify language when speaking to learners who are not fluent  Learner variety reflected by who friends are
  14. 14.  After linguistic, psychological and social contexts explain learner variations there are still questions  Explained by the theory of free variation happening in 4 stages • Single form is used for a variety of functions • Other forms have been acquired but are initially used interchangeably • Variant forms begin to be used systematically • Non-target forms eliminated
  15. 15.  Foreigner Talk › Way native speakers speak to non native speakers still learning the language  Long pauses  Slow rate of speech  Loud volume  Etc. (See page 106 for more information)
  16. 16.  In written text › Techniques that help make texts easier to understand  Highlighting key terms  Clear topic statements  Visual aids, such as pictures and graphs  Etc. (See page 108 for more information)
  17. 17.  Interactional modifications › Techniques natives speakers use to help learners  Repetition  Paraphrase  Sentence completion  Etc. (See page 109 for more information) › These are considered scaffolding, or providing tools to help students
  18. 18.  Scaffolding is any set of tools or techniques to help learners reach next stage of development.  Lev Vygotsky postulated that learners had a Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) or a place in development that needed guidence to reach the next stage (join Foro next week to learn more)
  19. 19.  Indication to learner that their language is somehow incorrect and serves to help learner correct mistakes › Negative evidence not frequent for L1A but common in L2 learning  Direct correction  Grammar or other explanation  Telling learner they are wrong  Indirect correction  Problem is learner my not notice the correction  Examples can be found on page 110 and 111
  20. 20.  What is acquired in L2 includes variable linguistic structures and knowledge of when to use each  Process of acquisition includes progress through stages in which different types of variability are evident  Reasons why some learners are more successful that others include how well they can perceive and align own usage with target system
  21. 21.  Input absolutely necessary but role is in dispute, even in the social context › Some consider it as data for innate linguistic capacity development › Others claim it determines what features are learned, and how › Social approaches also consider nature and role of interaction in acquisition
  22. 22.  Interaction facilitates input becoming intake, by contributing to the accessibility of the input for the learner.  Interaction connects input, internal learner capacities, selective attention, and output  Doesn’t account for the success of those who are able to teach themselves, without interaction.
  23. 23.  Sociocultural theory (Lev Vygotsky) › Interaction causative force of language learning › All learning grounded in sociocultural settings
  24. 24.  Scaffolding › Experts provide learners with pieces of language that learners can use to express concepts beyond their independent means › Can occur among peers › Scaffolding happens with the learner, not to her
  25. 25.  Drawon frameworks of Ethnography of Communication and Social Psychology
  26. 26.  Languages have power for both symbolic and practical reasons  Political identification and unity  Dominate language is expected to be learned by newcomers; native language of immigrants discouraged  Very important in nation building (invasions, rebirth of languages lost in conquests, revolutions, etc)  Perceived economic or military importance of language  SLA motivated by desire to have access to opportunities
  27. 27.  Linguistic boundaries › Serve to identify membership in communities and exclude outsiders from insider communication  L2 acquisition may be discouraged  Membership requires language is learned; culture and value system too  Other languages may be discriminated against
  28. 28.  Profoundly influenced by external social factors › Group motivation strongly influences SLA and cultural integration, sometimes creates distance among social groups  Majority groups often don’t learn any L2, especially if they don’t want to be associated with the minority language group  Acculturation Mode  Factors that result in negative SLA effects  Dominance of one group over another  Desire to preserve lifestyle
  29. 29.  Social institutions are systems established by law, custom or practice to regulate life in public domains: examples are religion, politics, and education › These have power, authority and influence in relation to SLA  Official and unofficial policies that regulate which languages are used in which situations  Policies that provide access or barriers to SLA
  30. 30.  Subtractive Bilingualism › Loss of L1 resulting in alienation from L1 group and ultimate disappearance of the L1 itself › Inability to transfer knowledge in L1 acquired in L2 If this doesn’t happen when learning a second language it is called Additive Bilingualism
  31. 31.  Age, sex, education level, ethnicity, etc.  These categories often influence experiences one has, how one is perceived  Coupled with language learning, these categories create different learning experiences for each student
  32. 32.  Prior educational experience  Cognitive styles dependent on how one is raised › Field dependant (cooperative rural settings, lower economic status) › Field independent (competitive urban settings; affluent economic status)
  33. 33. QUESTIONS
  34. 34. Chapter 6
  35. 35.  Competence and Use › Communicative competence combines:  Linguistic competence (knowledge of language, knowledge of the specific components and levels of a language)  Knowledge required for their appropriate use in communicative activities.
  36. 36. › Competence requires Cultural knowledge Linguistic Content Context elements Language use
  37. 37.  Academic competence Knowledge needed by learners who want to use the L2 primarily to learn about other subjects The activities that have highest priority are receptive: › Reading › Listening › Writing › Speaking
  38. 38.  Interpersonal competence Knowledge required of learners who plan to use the L2 primarily in face-to-face contact with other speakers. The activities that have highest priority are oral: › Listening › Speaking › Reading › Writing
  39. 39. Academic and interpersonal domains involve genres. Academic genres include research, lectures, and book reviews › The development of academic discourse competence requires reading and hearing a great deal of academic texts. Interpersonal genres include conversations, service encounters and letters › The development of interpersonal discourse requires opportunity for social interaction and the input and feedback that it produces.
  40. 40. RECEPTIVE ACTIVITIES READING • It is the most important area of activity for individuals to engage in for the development of L2 academic competence and for interpersonal functions • It provides significant input related to technological developments, world news, and scientific discoveries • Fluency in reading is an essential aspect of academic competence which takes time to develop in either L1 or L2.
  41. 41. LISTENING • Listening is an important activity for learners: To participate in oral interpersonal communication To receive information from oral sources.  Listening to academic lectures has the potential to be reciprocal depending on whether listeners have the opportunity to participate in discussion.
  42. 42. • Developing fluency in reading requires acquiring sufficient knowledge specially of vocabulary, grammar and discourse structure Functions for reading in academic settings  Reading to find information  Reading for general understanding  Reading to learn  Reading to critique and evaluate
  43. 43.  Reciprocal communication requires learners to speak as well as to listen  Non-reciprocal communication requires listener to process input and construct meaning without being able to request repetition Video-recording television programs can provide a useful source for listening practice
  44. 44. PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES WRITING • It is the most important productive activity for L2 learners to develop • It is a common medium for testing knowledge • Many professionals and occupations require a high level of L2 proficiency in writing
  45. 45. • Effective academic writing requires considerable knowledge of: • vocabulary, morphology and syntax, • mechanisms of orthographic representations and conventions related to style and organization.
  46. 46. SPEAKING It is a very important area of activity for L2 learners if they will be using the language for interpersonal purposes. There is need for speaking in situations where L2 learners participate in the L2 community Tourists generally need to ask directions Immigrants need to shop for goods Foreign students need to negotiate transactions for housing and also express in an academic or professional speech
  47. 47. In order to have a successful participation in conversational speech activities learners must have: Knowledge of conversational structure Knowledge of contextualization cues Knowledge of communication
  48. 48.  Language has been divided by linguists into the following components: › VOCABULARY (lexicon) › MORPHOLOGY (word structure) › PHONOLOGY (sound system) › SYNTAX (grammar) › DISCOURSE (ways to connect sentences and organize information)
  49. 49.  It is the most important level of L2 knowledge for all learners to develop (for academic or interpersonal competence)  There is a core of high frequency words in a language that everyone needs to learn. The core vocabulary in every language includes: › Function words a limited set of terms that carry primarily grammatical information
  50. 50. Chapter 7
  51. 51. L2 Learning and teaching Linguistic, psychological, and social perspectives on SLA focused on what, how, and why questions What exactly does the L2 learner come to know?  A system of knowledge about second language  Patterns of current elements  How to encode particular concepts in the L2  Pragmatic competence
  52. 52.  Means for using the L2 in communicative activities  How to select among multiple language system  Communicative competence How does the learner acquire L2 knowledge?  Innate capacity  Application of prior knowledge  Processing of language input
  53. 53.  Interaction  Restructuring of the L2 knowledge system  Mapping of relationships or associations  Automatization Why are some learners more successful than others?  Social context  Social experience
  54. 54.  Relationship of L1 and L2  Age  Aptitude  Motivation  Instruction
  55. 55. Implications for L2 learning and teaching  Consider the goals for learning an additional language  Set priorities compatible for those goals  Approach learning/teaching tasks involved in linguistic, psychological and social  Understand the potential strengths and limitations of particular learners  There is no one “best” way to learn or teach a second language  Be patient. Learning a language takes time
  56. 56.  To get full points › Answer the questions using your own words › Apply the theory to your own experiences IF YOU COPY WORD FOR WORD FROM THE TEXT OR ANOTHER SOURCE, I WILL KNOW AND YOU WILL RECEIVE THE MINIMUM SCORE
  57. 57.  Same format at first exam › Multiple choice; 4 options  None of the above › Choose this answer if none of the other answer choices is correct  All of the above › Choose this answer if all of the answers choices are correct
  58. 58. THANK YOU