Phonology

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LANGUAGE
SPEECH HABITS
PRONUNCIATION
NATIVE LANGUAGE
INTERFERENCE
THE FOREIGN ACCENT

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  • Phonology

    1. 1. ESCUELA : CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN NOMBRES ENGLISH PHONOLOGY FECHA : Dra: Carmen Benítez C. OCTUBRE 2008-FEBRERO 2009
    2. 2. <ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>SPEECH HABITS </li></ul><ul><li>PRONUNCIATION </li></ul><ul><li>NATIVE LANGUAGE INTERFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>THE FOREIGN ACCENT </li></ul>
    3. 3. PHONOLOGY <ul><li>BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>SPEECH SOUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION articulation </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSITION formation </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION place in a word </li></ul><ul><li>FUNCTION vowel or cons. </li></ul>
    4. 4. BRANCHES OF PHONOLOGY 5 PHONOLOGY PHONETICS PRODUCTION/ARTICULATION PHONEMICS DISTRIBUTION/FUNCION Acoustic properties Auditory perception Articulatory articulation
    5. 5. IMPORTANT CONCEPTS <ul><li>PHONEME: unit of sound different from another one </li></ul><ul><li>seat /s//i://t/ sit /s// ɪ /t/ </li></ul><ul><li>ALLOPHONE: variations same sound </li></ul><ul><li>pear captain stop </li></ul><ul><li>p ʰ er k æ pt ə n sta:p= </li></ul>
    6. 6. KINDS OF PHONEMES PHONEMES SEGMENTAL SUPRASEGMENTAL Vowels/Vocoids nonfriction, open, continuous a ɪ æ ^ u ɔ : ʊ Consonants/Contoids friction,short, lack of sonority ƞ ʃ ʧ ʤ θ І Pitch ( melody ) Stress (force/articulation) Juncture (transition)
    7. 7. Symbols for vowel phonemes / ə / as in 'about, 'upper' ə ba ʊ t, ʌ p ʊ /e ɪ / as in 'bay' be ɪ /a ɪ / as in 'buy' ba ɪ / ɔɪ / as in 'boy' b ɔɪ / ɪə / as in 'peer' p ɪə /e ə / as in 'pear' pe ə / ʊə / as in 'poor' p ʊə / əʊ / as in 'go' g əʊ /a ʊ / as in 'cow' ka ʊ / ɪ / as in ‘pit’ p ɪ t /e/ as in 'pet' pet /æ/ as in 'pat' pæt / ʌ / as in 'putt' p ʌ t / ɒ / as in 'pot' p ɒ t / ʊ / as in 'put' p ʊ t /i:/ as in 'key' ki: / ɑ :/ as in 'car' k ɑ : / ɔ :/ as in 'core' k ɔ : /u:/ as in 'coo' ku: / ɜ :/ as in 'cur' k ɜ :
    8. 8. Symbols for consonant phonems /z/ as in 'zip' z ɪ p / ʃ / as in 'ship' ʃɪ p / ʒ / as in 'measure' me ʒə /h/ as in 'hat' hæt /m/ as in 'map' mæp /n/ as in 'nap' næp /ŋ/ as in 'hang' hæŋ /I/ as in 'led' led /r/ as in 'red' red /j/ as in 'yet' jet /w/ as in 'wet' wet / ʤ as in 'gin' ʤɪ n /p/ as in 'pea' pi: /b/ as in 'bee' bi: /t/ as in 'toe' t ə ʊ /d/ as in 'doe' d ə ʊ /k/ as in 'cap' k æ p /g/ as in 'gap' g æ p /f/ as in 'fat' f æ t /v/ as in 'vat' v æ t /θ/ as in 'thing' θ ɪ ŋ /ð/ as in 'this' ð ɪ s /s/ as in 'sip' s ɪ p
    9. 9. PARTS INVOLVED IN THE RODUCTION OF SPEECH <ul><li>MOTOR: lungs, trachea, larynx, diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>VIBRATOR: vocal cords </li></ul><ul><li>RESONATOR: larynx, pharynx, nose, mouth </li></ul><ul><li>ARTICULATORS: lips, tongue, uvula, lower jaw </li></ul><ul><li>POINTS OF ARTICULATION: teeth, upper lip, alveolar, hard palate, soft palate, walls of the pharynx, glottis. </li></ul>
    10. 10. THE THREE POSITIONS OF THE VOCAL CORDS pos. 1 pos. 2 pos. 3 1.Wide apart: normal breathing, VOICELESS 2: Closely together: impede the flow of air. 3: Light contact: VOICED SOUNDS
    11. 11. ARTICULATORS
    12. 12. POINTS OF ARTICULATION
    13. 13. <ul><li>DEFINITION OF CONSONANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PHONETICALLY.- made by a closure or narrowing in the vocal tract, the air flow is either completely blocked, or so restricted producing friction. </li></ul><ul><li>PHONOLOGICALLY.- margins of syllables, singly/clusters, short, lack of sonority / predominance of friction noise, oral or nasal, </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>MANNER OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>degree or type of obstruction to the air flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STOPS or PLOSIVES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FRICATIVES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AFFRICATES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NASALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LATERAL, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R-SOUNDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEMICONSONANTS </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>PLACE OR POINT OF ARTICULATION </li></ul><ul><li>place in the vocal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Bilabial </li></ul><ul><li>Labiodental </li></ul><ul><li>Dentals or Interdental </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar </li></ul><ul><li>Palatal </li></ul><ul><li>Velar </li></ul><ul><li>Glottal </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>DISTRIBUTION OF CONSONANT PHONEMES </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetically, DISTRIBUTION refers to the total set of contexts, in which a sound unit can occur according to the word. </li></ul><ul><li>water team boat </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>CONSONANT ALLOPHONES </li></ul><ul><li>Special phonetic symbols, identify allophonic differences in the same phoneme. </li></ul><ul><li>A small (h) the upper-right side of the consonant symbol, ASPIRATED STOP. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. [t ʰ ] as in T EN. </li></ul><ul><li>Two parallel hyphens (=) at the lower-right of the consonant symbol, means unreleased stop . Ex. [ p= ] as in ZI P </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>An (r) with an apostrophe (') in its upper side, represents a voiced intervocalic tap . Ex. [ ŕ ] as in WE DD ING. </li></ul><ul><li>A slanted line (/) crossing the consonant /l/, means that this is a VELAR LATERAL or DARK- /l/. Ex.:[ ł ] as in A LL . </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>MINIMAL PAIRS </li></ul><ul><li>Sets of monosyllabic words differing in only one sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonant contrast p e t b et </li></ul><ul><li>Vowel contrast s i t s ea t </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>CONSONANT CLUSTERS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSONANT CLUSTER two or more consonants together with no vowels in between, at the beginning or end of a word </li></ul><ul><li>INITIAL CLUSTERS: beginning </li></ul><ul><li>b r ead /br/, st op /st/, cl ean /kl/, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(fifty-two) </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL CLUSTERS: word final position </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters of 2, 3, and 4 consonants can occur at the end </li></ul><ul><li>ado pts /-pts/, ti pped /-pt /, la psed /-pst/ (170). </li></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>INITIAL CLUSTERS: beginning </li></ul><ul><li>b r ead /br/, st op /st/, cl ean /kl/, etc. (fifty-two) </li></ul><ul><li>FINAL CLUSTERS: final position </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters of 2, 3, and 4 consonants can occur at the end. </li></ul><ul><li>ado pts /-pts/, ti pped /-pt /, </li></ul><ul><li>la psed /-pst/ (170) </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>

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