Methodology I (II Bimestre)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Methodology I
II Bimestre
Abril-Agosto 2007
Ponente: Mg. Nina Nestenrenko

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Methodology I (II Bimestre)

  2. 2. TEACHING by PRINCIPLES bPRINCIPLESTea <ul><li>COGNITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>1.Automaticity – the process of learning a language subconsciously, without analyzing the forms of language </li></ul><ul><li>2. Meaningful learning - will lead toward better long term retention of material. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Anticipation of reward – provide an optimal degree of immediate verbal praise and encouragement. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intrinsic motivation – motivation within the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Strategic investment - the success in mastering a foreign language depends on learner’s own personal “investment” of time, effort, and attention to the target language. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Affective Principles <ul><li>6 . Language Ego – second identity, new mode of thinking, feeling and acting. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Self – Confidence –”self- esteem” principle. “I can do it!” </li></ul><ul><li>8. Risk – Taking – importance of getting learners to take calculated risks in attempting to use language. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Language – Culture Connection – language and culture are intertwined. When you learn a new language, you should learn about the culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques: movies, readings, role-plays, cultural capsules. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cic LINGUISTIC PRINCIPLES <ul><li>10.The Native-Language Effect – a strong native language influence on the acquisition of the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Interlanguage – the process of language acquisition just as children’ s- through mistakes. Importance of positive affective feedback on the part of the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Technique: make students correct themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Communicative Competence- all the aspects of language (grammar, sociolinguistics, pragmatics, fluency, accuracy, context, etc. – are involved in human interaction for successful communication. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) mid -1970s, by John Grindler and Richard Bandler <ul><li>It’s a humanistic training philosophy and set of suggestions and training techniques therapist could use in building rapport with clients, gathering information about their internal and external views of the world, and helping them achieve goals and bring about personal change , and designed to convince people that they have the power to control their own and other people’s lives for the better, and prescriptions on how to do that. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>NLP is a collection of techniques, patterns, and strategies for assisting effective communication, personal growth and change, and learning. It is based on a series of underlying assumptions about how the mind works and how people act and interact. </li></ul><ul><li>(Revel and Norman 1997:14 </li></ul><ul><li>NLP offers a set of humanistic principles that provide a new justification for well – known techniques or a different interpretations of the role of teacher and the learner. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Principles of NLP <ul><li>1. Outcomes: or “ know what you want” - knowing what you want helps you achieve it. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Rapport: “ Establish rapport with yourself and then with others” – it is essential for communication ( maximize similarities and minimize differences between people) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sensory acuity : “ Use your senses ” – look at, listen to, and feel what is happening. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Flexibility: “ Keep changing what you do until you until you get what you want ” – have a range of skills to do smth else if what you are doing is not working. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling is central to NLP </li></ul>
  8. 8. Approach: Theory of Language and Learning <ul><li>In NLP, “ neuro “ refers to the brain and how it functions. </li></ul><ul><li>” Neuro” part of NLP is concerned with how we experience the world through our 5 senses and represent it in our minds through neurological process. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Linguistic” – refers to a theory communication. It tries to explain both verbal and non-verbal information processing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Linguistic “ part of NLP is concerned with the way the language we use shapes and reflects our thinking and experience of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Programming” refers to patterns or “programs’ of thoughts and behaviour. This part of NLP is concerned with training ourselves to think, to speak, and act in new and positive ways in order to release our potential and reach the achievements we dream about. </li></ul>
  9. 9. LEXICAL APPROACH <ul><li>Main point of LA : </li></ul><ul><li>belief that “building blocks “ of language learning and communication are not grammar, functions, notions, but LEXIS – words and word combinations </li></ul><ul><li>( word collocations) . </li></ul><ul><li>Collocations – are regular occurrence together of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal verbs and idioms are varieties of collocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Krashen – through reading </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis (2000) – through teacher’ s talk( teacher is a “knower”, learner – a “discoverer “ ) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer – based applications- through investigations and comparison. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Class activities: <ul><li>Should involve the use of tasks that that draw student’s attention to lexical collocations and seek to enhance their retention and use of collocations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of exercises that focus on lexical phrases through debates, analyzing contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Use of comparative analysis via computers </li></ul><ul><li>Use of reading or contexts that enable students to discover the collocations; select the collocations which are crucial for student’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of exercises that involve teaching individual collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Store collocations or phrase verbs and idioms in a lexical notebook </li></ul><ul><li>Give feedback on learner’s errors. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Competency – Based Language Teaching 1970’s in the USA <ul><li>Educational movement that is based on programs that consist in the following: </li></ul><ul><li>- tasks that lead to a demonstrated mastery of language associated with specific skills that are necessary for individuals to function proficiently in the society. </li></ul><ul><li>CBLT approach ; </li></ul><ul><li>Offers teachers an opportunity to revitalize their educational and training programs </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the quality of teaching and student learning </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of CBLT:28 <ul><li>It establishes graded objectives: the definition of short – term goals, each building upon the one before, so that learners advance in knowledge and skill. </li></ul><ul><li>It teaches language in relation to social contexts in which it is used. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used for language teaching in situations where learners have specific needs and where language skills they need can be predicted or determined. </li></ul><ul><li>It has the notion that certain life encounters certain language. (designers of CBLT can predict the vocabulary and structures likely to be encountered in those particular situations) </li></ul><ul><li>CBLT is built around communicative competence and seeks to develop functional communication skills in learners. ( through specific real – world tasks) </li></ul>
  13. 13. CBLT design <ul><li>It designed around the notion of competency </li></ul><ul><li>Competencies consist of description of essential skills, attitudes, and behaviours required for effective performance of a real-world tasks or activities( they may be related to any domain in life, or linked to the field of work or to social survival in a new environment ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Activities <ul><li>Learners can be asked to perform specific learning tasks : </li></ul><ul><li>Fill job application </li></ul><ul><li>Perform job interview </li></ul><ul><li>Follow instructions to carry out a simple task </li></ul><ul><li>Respond appropriately to supervisor’ s comments </li></ul><ul><li>Use social language </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and comment work schedules , fill paychecks </li></ul><ul><li>Read charts labels, forms written instructions to perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>State problem and ask for help if necessary </li></ul>
  15. 15. Positive and Negative points <ul><li>Advantages of CBLT from the learner’s point of view: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The competencies are specific and practical and relate to learners needs. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The learners can judge whether the competencies are relevant and useful. </li></ul><ul><li>3. learner knows exactly whet needs to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Competencies can be mastered one at a time so the learner can see what has been learned and what still remains to be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative aspects: </li></ul><ul><li>There are no valid procedures available to develop competency lists for more programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the areas for which competencies are needed are impossible to operationalize. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communicative Language Teaching approach (British language teaching, late 1960s) <ul><li>It starts from a theory of a language as communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to develop communicative competence </li></ul><ul><li>(Hymes, 1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Language is a system for the expression of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>The primary function of language is to allow interaction and communication </li></ul><ul><li>It is a learner – centered approach </li></ul>
  17. 17. Strands and Elements of CLT <ul><li>STRANDS : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Language is not just bits of grammar , it also involves language functions ( inviting, agreeing, suggestions, etc ) which students should learn how to use . </li></ul><ul><li>2.If students get enough exposure to language and have opportunities to use it and if they are motivated , - then language learning will be successful. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Communication principle: activities that involve real communication promote learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Task principle : activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningful principle: Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Classroom activities <ul><li>are unlimited. All the activities should engage learners in communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional communication activities: </li></ul><ul><li>comparing set of pictures and noting similarities and differences: </li></ul><ul><li>Working out a sequence of events in a set of pictures: </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering missing pictures in a map or pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Giving instructions on how to draw a picture or shape or how to complete a map </li></ul><ul><li>Following directions and solving problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Social interaction activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation and discussion sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogues and role plays </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations and improvisations </li></ul>
  20. 20. Learner’s and Teacher’s roles Learning Materials <ul><li>Learner’s role: </li></ul><ul><li>-students interact with each other rather than with the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Learners see that failed communication is the joint responsibility, and not the fault of listener or speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Successful communication is achieved collaboratively. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Teacher’s role: </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the communication between all participants in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>To act as an independent participant within the learning – teaching group </li></ul><ul><li>As a researcher and learner , counselor, group manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Text – based: lesson topic, comprehension questions, taking notes, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Task – based: games, role plays, pair work, communication activities, etc. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Natural Approach by Tracy Terrel and Stephen Krashen, 1980’s <ul><li>It is a communicative approach. Language is viewed as a vehicle for communicating meaning and message. </li></ul><ul><li>GOALS to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Basic personal communication skills: oral ( listening to public announcements) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic personal communication skills : written ( reading and writing ) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic learning skills: oral ( listening to a lecture) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic learning skills : written ( taking notes in class) </li></ul>
  23. 23. OBJECTIVES of NA: <ul><li>Help beginners become intermediates </li></ul><ul><li>Specific objectives depend on learners needs and the skill ( reading, writing, listening , and speaking ) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop basic communication skills , both oral and written, in every day situations. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Characteristics of Natural Approach <ul><li>NA is based on three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The pre-production stage- “ the silent period “ </li></ul><ul><li>2. The early production stage –simple questions and answers, short phrases, fixed conversational patterns </li></ul><ul><li>3. The speech – emergent phase – role plays, games, express personal opinion, exchange personal information, open-ended dialogues and discussions </li></ul>
  25. 25. Teacher`s role and role of Materials <ul><li>Teacher's role : </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher generates a constant flow of language input </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher creates an interesting and friendly atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides a low affective filter ( no error correcting, subjects of high interest) . </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: make class activities meaningful, relate them to the real world, foster communication among learners. </li></ul><ul><li>-The use of realia : pictures, visual aids, schedules, advertisements, maps, books, etc. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Classroom Activities <ul><li>- The use of imperative mood ( commands ) </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrations (realia) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Simple questions and answers </li></ul><ul><li>The use of visuals to introduce new vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiying the picture according to description </li></ul><ul><li>Short dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cooperative Language Learning <ul><li>Emphasis on maximum use of cooperative activities involving pairs and small groups of learners in the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning id dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between learners and in which each lerner is motivated to increase the learning of others ( Olsen and Kagan 1992:8 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation is working together to accomplish shared goals. </li></ul><ul><li>CLL is contrasted with competitive learning . </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Cooperative Learning Groups <ul><li>Learning occurs in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Formal cooperative learning groups – are established to achieve specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Informal cooperative learning groups - facilitate learning during direct teching. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cooperative base groups – give each member support, help, encouragement, and assistance to succeed academically. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Elements of Successful Group – Based Learning in CLT <ul><li>According to Olsen and Kagan: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Interdependence – build spirit of mutual support. </li></ul><ul><li>Group formation - teacher – or students- selected, group size, gender, sex, race, level of linguistic proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual accountability – involves both group and individual performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Social skills – the way students interact with each other as teammates. </li></ul>
  30. 30. IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF GROUP WORK <ul><li>For one group: </li></ul><ul><li>All students work on the same material </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher directs presentation of the task </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should know what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Any group member should know the answer and be ready to report and explain. </li></ul>
  31. 31. For different groups in the same class: <ul><li>-Topics may be different for each group </li></ul><ul><li>Students may use different sources for research </li></ul><ul><li>Work may be presented in oral or writen form </li></ul><ul><li>Each group presents work for the whole class ( not only for the teacher ) </li></ul>
  32. 32. CONTENT – BASED INSTRUCTION (1980`s) <ul><li>In this approach, teaching is organized around the content or information that students will acquire, rather then around a linguistic type of syllabus. </li></ul><ul><li>Main point : language is used for specific purposes ( academic, vocational, social). Learning is believed to be more motivating when students use topics of a particular interest. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Objectives of CBI <ul><li>1. To activate and develop existing English language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To acquire learning skills and strategies that could be applied in future language development opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>3. To develop general academic skills applicable to university studies in all subject areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. To broaden student`s understanding of English – speaking peoples. </li></ul>
  34. 34. MATERIALS <ul><li>CBI is based on content area , or theme – based model in which content and instructional sequence is chosen according to language learning goals. </li></ul><ul><li>MATERIALS : </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic texts, subject textbooks, articles related to the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Materials could be adapted or modified to achieve maximum comprehensibility. </li></ul>
  35. 35. TEACHER`S and LEARNER`S ROLES <ul><li>LEARNERS are sources of content and active participants in the selection of topics. </li></ul><ul><li>TEACHER must be good knower of the subject, besides of English. </li></ul><ul><li>He/ she selects, adapts authentic material for class use; analyzes the students needs, develops high-level of student esteem, and uses appropriate error correction techniques. </li></ul>
  36. 36. CLASS ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Vocabulary building </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Study skills </li></ul><ul><li>Group work and team-building techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw reading arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Much writing </li></ul><ul><li>Language skill improvement </li></ul>
  37. 37. TASK- BASED LANGUAGE TEACHING INDIA, 1980`s( Prabhu) <ul><li>TBLT is an approach based on the use of tasks requiring increasingly complex use of language. </li></ul><ul><li>The tasks are done in groups where learners use English they already know. </li></ul><ul><li>Main point : engaging learners in task work provides a better context for the activation of learning process then form-focused activities. </li></ul>
  38. 38. CLASS PROCEDURE <ul><li>PRE- TASK : - introduction to a topic, listening, reading, brainstorming; reactivation of essential language previously learned </li></ul><ul><li>TASK : -Planning the task, doing the task ( finding solution to a puzzle, reading a map, writing a letter, making a phone call, etc) , and reporting on the task or presenting the product of task. </li></ul><ul><li>POST –TASK : -Focus on language used, error correction, comments on tasks; practice of the language ( reviewing new grammar or vocabulary used during the task, etc; discussion of the task </li></ul><ul><li>Important: clear objectives and a sense of achievement </li></ul>
  39. 39. TBLT emphasizes the importance of activities: <ul><li>Which involve real communication </li></ul><ul><li>( conversation ) </li></ul><ul><li>In which language is meaningful and is used for carrying out meaningful tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>TASKS : a. real world tasks (ex: phone </li></ul><ul><li>conversation, filling hotel forms) </li></ul><ul><li>b. pedagogical tasks( ex: doing a </li></ul><ul><li>grammar exercise, etc ) </li></ul>
  40. 40. POSITIVE and NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF TBLT <ul><li>POSITIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks improve learners motivation and promote learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks require the learners to use authentic language </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks are varied in format and operation </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks include physical activity, they involve partnership and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE : </li></ul><ul><li>-Difficult tasks may reduce the attention, therefore, fluency may develop at the expense of accuracy </li></ul>
  41. 41. INTERACTIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING <ul><li>Establish the goals and objectives in teaching English </li></ul><ul><li>Increase students` MOTIVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Use elements necessary for successful language learning in classroom ( ENGAGE-STUDY - ACTIVATE ) </li></ul><ul><li>Roles of Interactive Teacher : </li></ul><ul><li>T. as a: Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul>