METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)


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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: M S. Nina Aleksandrovna Nesterenko
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Primero

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METHODOLOGY I ( I Bimestre Abril Agosto 2011)

  1. 1. METHODOLOGY I<br />Abril – Agosto 2011<br />ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL<br />PRIMER<br />ESCUELA:<br />BIMESTRE:<br />NOMBRE:<br />M.S. NINA NESTERENKO<br />
  2. 2. What is METHODOLOGY?<br />Teaching - is “ showing or helping someone to learn how to do something giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or understand “<br />Method – is a plan for presentation of language material.<br />
  3. 3. Methods are distinctive at the early <br /> stage, and rather indistinguishable <br /> from each other at later stages. <br />It is not proved which method is the best. It depends on the situation<br /> There will never be a method for all.<br /> The focus on the development of <br /> classroom tasks and activities.<br />
  4. 4. TEACHERS AND TEACHING<br /> SUCCESSFUL teacher:<br />1.has a practical command of English, not just a knowledge of grammar rules.<br />2.uses English most of the time<br /> in every class, including <br /> beginner classes<br />3.thinks mostly in terms of learner <br /> practice, not teacher explanations<br />
  5. 5. 4.finds time for really communicative activities, not just practice of language forms.<br />5.Focuses the teaching on learner`s needs, not just on “ finishing” the syllabus or course book.<br />
  6. 6. Establishing Goals and <br />Objectives in Teaching English <br />The clear definition of appropriate goals is<br />vital to successful English language teaching – learning process. <br />Establishing short - and long – term goals. <br />
  7. 7. VARIATIONS IN COURSE GOALS<br />1.enable the learners to communicate in real English (both spoken and written)<br />2.enable the learners to read technical<br /> publications in real English.<br />3.get the learners to me -<br />morize English grammar <br /> rules and vocabulary.<br />Thegoals of differentcoursesshould<br />
  8. 8. is to achieve good results<br />The main goal of teaching English<br />Attention, clear interest toward the teacher‘s explanation,listening, asking and answering questions, following instructions, active participation <br />
  9. 9. GRAMMAR – TRANSLATION METHOD<br />Why Grammar – Translation?<br />It dominated European language<br />Teaching (1840s -1940s )<br />
  10. 10. to learn language in order to read the <br /> target language literature<br />1. Analysis of grammar rules followed by translating exercises<br />2. Reading and writing ( little attention to speaking / listening) . Reading of difficult classical texts is begun at an early stage of studying. <br />3. Vocabulary is based on reading texts used<br />(words are taught through bilingual isolated word lists) <br />.<br />:<br />GOAL<br />CHARACTERISTICS<br />
  11. 11. 5.Accuracy is emphasized– <br />( high standards in translation )<br />6. Grammar is taught deductively <br />7.Little or no attention is given to<br /> pronunciation.<br />8.Class is taught in the student’s mother tongue. <br />
  12. 12. NEGATIVE POINTS<br />It may create a sense of frustration ( memorizing rules and isolated vocabulary, translation exercises)<br />There is no theory how to teach<br />There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it or that attempts to relate it to issues of linguistics, psychology or educational<br /> theory .<br />It makes few demands on teachers<br />
  13. 13. Positive Points<br />. <br />It is useful when understanding texts is the primary focus of foreign language study <br />little need for speaking<br />no specialized training on the part of teachers<br />tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and score objectively<br />no special material for teaching<br />It is successful in leading a student toward a reading knowledge of a foreign language. <br />
  14. 14. The DIRECT METHOD(XIX) , Charles Berlitz<br /> “ “ naturalistic “ or “natural” method – child language acquisition<br />Meaning is conveyed directly through demonstration and action.<br />Emphasis on speaking skills<br />
  15. 15. 1.Classroom instruction -<br /> exclusively in the target language<br />2. Everyday vocabulary is taught.<br />3.Oral communication- around question/answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive class.<br />4.Concrete vocabulary is <br /> taught through demon-<br />strations, pictures, objects.<br />Characteristics<br />
  16. 16. Characteristics<br />5.Grammar is taught<br /> inductively<br />6.Listening and speaking are <br /> emphasized<br />7.Emphasis on correct grammar <br /> and pronunciation.<br />8. New teaching items are <br /> introduced orally<br />
  17. 17. Principles of The Direct Method<br /><ul><li>Never translate : demonstrate
  18. 18. Never explain : act
  19. 19. Never make a speech : ask </li></ul> questions<br /><ul><li>Never imitate mistake : correct
  20. 20. Never speak with single words: </li></ul> use sentences<br /><ul><li>Never speak too much : make students speak much
  21. 21. Never use your book : use your lesson plan
  22. 22. Never jump around : follow your plan
  23. 23. Never go too fast : keep the pace of the student
  24. 24. Never speak too slowly : speak normally
  25. 25. Never speak too quickly : speak naturally</li></li></ul><li>LIMITATIONS of D. M.<br />1.The D.M. requires native <br />speaker teachers (or who have native-<br />like fluency )<br />2.It is dependent on the teacher’s skills, rather on the textbook.<br />3.Problems with following strict D.M. techniques.<br />
  26. 26. Limitations of The D.M.<br />4.It is difficult to apply in <br /> public secondary school <br /> education<br />5.It is counterproductive <br />(long teacher explanation in order to avoid using the native language)<br />The D.M. declined in Europe by the 1920s <br />It was implemented in American schools<br /> with some modifications.<br />
  27. 27. POSITIVE POINTS<br />High motivation<br />Focus on conversational skills<br />Native-speaking teachers <br /> (good speaking model)<br />
  28. 28. The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching ( 1930`s – 1960`s, Harold Palmer and A. Hornby )<br />Palmer and Hornby -grammar as<br />the underlying sentence patterns<br />of the spoken language<br />Speech - is the basis of language,<br />and grammar – is the heart of speaking<br />ability. <br />
  29. 29. CHARACTERISTICS<br />teaching begins with the spoken language. <br />Material is taught orally before it s presented in written form.<br />The target language is the language of the classroom.<br />Language is introduced and practiced situationally. <br />Grammar:simple forms are taught before complex ones. <br />Reading and writing are introduced once <br /> a sufficient lexical and grammatical <br /> basis is established. <br />Emphasis on accuracy (grammar<br /> and pronunciation), avoid errors at all<br /> costs.<br />Writing derives from speech. <br />
  30. 30. situational, situation : the use of concrete objects, pictures, and realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the meaning of new language items.<br />The model sentences and <br />vocabulary are taken <br />from a single situation.<br />
  31. 31. Meaning, context, and situation <br /> are given a prominent place. <br /> Language is related to goals <br /> and situations in the real world. <br />The word meaning and grammar <br /> are deduced from the way they<br /> are used in a <br />situation. <br />
  32. 32. OBJECTIVES<br /> To teach a practical command of four <br /> basic skills.<br />Accuracy in both pronunciation and <br /> grammar (avoid errors ) <br />
  33. 33. LEARNERS ROLES<br />More active participation is encouraged<br /> at later stages.<br />Learners have no control over the content of learning<br />
  34. 34. TEACHER`S ROLES<br />Teacher serves as a model to create <br /> the new structures for students to repeat <br />Teacher is a “skillful manipulator” <br /> using questions,commands to elicit<br /> correct sentences from the learners<br />Class is teacher – centered<br />
  35. 35. The Role of Instructional Materials<br /> SLT is dependant on both a textbook <br /> and visual aids<br /> Textbook – contains organized lesson planned around diff. grammar structures <br />Visual aids may be produced by the teacher<br />(wall harts, flashcards, pictures, stick <br />figures, so on )<br />
  36. 36. Typical OA / SLT class<br />1.PRESENTATION:introductionof a new teaching item in a context or situation<br />2.PRACTICE:controlled <br /> practice of the item<br />3.PRODUCTION :<br />a freer practice phase<br />
  37. 37. THE AUDIOLINGUAL METHOD (The Army method)<br />Speech is language: we first learn <br />to speak,and then to read and write <br />Speechis a primarygoal<br />Language skills are learned <br />more effectively if the items are<br />presented in the spoken form first <br />before they are seen in written form <br />
  38. 38. Short –term : training in listening <br />comprehension, accurate pronunciation ,<br />acquaintance with vocabulary items, meaning <br />Long – term :“ must be language as the native speaker uses it “ (Brook ) <br />Emphasis : <br />- accurate pronunciation<br />- correct grammar <br />- ability to respond quickly in <br /> speech situations <br />Objectives<br />
  39. 39. Characteristics<br />1<br />Structural patterns are taught using repetitive <br /> drills<br /> New material is presented <br /> in dialogue form<br />Vocabulary is limited and<br /> learned in context , not in <br /> isolation<br />Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized<br />The mother tongue is not <br /> permitted.<br />Successful responses<br /> are immediately <br /> reinforced <br />Reading and writing may be<br />taught but they are dependant on prior oral skills<br />
  40. 40. Classroom ACTIVITIES<br />After a dialogue has been presented and memorized,<br /> specific grammatical patterns in the dialogues are <br />selected and become a focus of various kinds of drills.<br />Imitation<br />Drills<br />Repetition<br />Dialogues<br />Memorization<br />
  41. 41. Teacher `s Role <br /> The Role of Instructional Materials<br />This is a teacher- centered method. <br />Instructional materials assist the teacher to develop language mastery <br /> in the learner.<br />Language laboratory is essential. Tape-recorder and audiovisual equipment have central roles <br />
  42. 42. Total Physical Response<br />James Asher, ( 1970s – 1980s ,USA)<br />Main objective<br />Teach oral proficiency at a beginning <br /> level<br />Achieve comprehension<br />Teach basic speaking skills<br />
  43. 43. TEORY OF LANGUAGE AND LEARNING<br />* It is built around the coordination of <br /> speech and action (child <br /> language acquisition)).<br />* A stimulus – response view<br /> ( memory connection )<br />*Listening should be accompanied <br /> by physical movement.<br />*Speech and other productive <br /> skills should come later.<br />
  44. 44. Commands are used<br /> Commands are accompanied by <br /> physical actions<br />No verbal response is necessary<br />Special attention to feedback(teacher <br /> should not interrupt for correction ) <br />Much affection<br />Grammaristaughtinductively<br />Characteristics<br />
  45. 45. Stress - free learning environment<br /> More complex syntax could be incorporated into the imperative mood.<br /> Sentence-based syllabus vs grammar–based<br />Detailedlesson plan<br />
  46. 46. It is a teacher – centered method: teacher decides what to teach, models and presents the new materials<br /> Teacher provides the exposure<br /> to language <br />Teacher uses classroomobjects and<br />othersupportingmaterials<br /> (pictures, realia, slides, word charts ) <br />
  47. 47. Classroom Activities<br />Imperative drills –to elicit physical<br />actions <br />Role- plays: everyday situations<br />( a restaurant, supermarket,<br />hotel, gas station, hospital, etc)<br />
  48. 48. THE SILENT WAY<br />by CALEB GATTEGNO<br />The Silent Way – is “ learning to learn”<br />Primacy of learning over teaching.<br />Emphasis on learner's priorities and commitments.<br />Problem-solving approaches to learning , represented in the words of Benjamin Franklin:Tell me and I forget, teach me and I remember, Involve me and I learn.<br />
  49. 49. According to Gattegno:<br />1. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers rather than just memorizes and repeats what is to be learned.<br />2. Learning is viewed as a problem-solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is the principal actor. <br />
  50. 50. Goal and General objectives of the Silent Way<br />to give beginning level students oral facility in basic elements of the target language<br />To provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar <br />to achieve near-native fluency and correct pronunciation<br />
  51. 51. Learners are expected to develop independence, autonomy, and responsibility<br /> Students correct themselves<br /> Students are expected to make <br /> generalizations and come <br /> to their own conclusions.<br />Learner's Roles<br />
  52. 52. Teacher's Roles<br />To test<br />To teach <br />To get out of the way<br />
  53. 53. Teacher remains silent as much time as possible<br />Teacher monitors learner's interaction with each other<br />Teacher uses gestures, charts, shapes students responses <br />Teacher “writes the script, chooses the props, sets the mood, models the action, designates the players, and is critic for the performance” <br />
  54. 54. The Silent Way Class<br />Presentation of the item using nonverbal <br /> clues to get across meanings<br />.<br />Testing follows immediately<br />Elicitation and shaping of student production<br />Students are presentedwiththestructuralpatterns and learnthegrammar rules throughinductiveprocess<br />Lessons are plannedaroundgrammar and <br />relatedvocabulary<br />
  55. 55. The S. W. Class<br />Free conversations and dialogues are transcribed and distributed for study and analysis.<br />Class / group discussion of single topic <br />Analysis /practice of sentencestructure, patterns, vocabulary<br />Summaries based on the discussed topics<br />Workonintonation /pronunciation<br />Practice of thelearned material in a situation<br />
  56. 56. COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNING( Charles Curran, 1970’s, University of Chicago)<br />Counseling- learning (counselor-client relationships). It includes emotions and feelings.<br />
  57. 57. Theory of Language and Learning:<br />LL interactions : <br />between learners (class becomes a community of learners; this interaction is unpredictable and involves exchanges of affect)<br />between learners and teacher ( this interaction is dependant )<br />
  58. 58. CHARACTERISTICS<br />The progression is topic-based ( no specific goal)<br />Learnersnominatethingstheywishtodiscuss<br />Learnerschooseornominatemessagestheywanttotransmittoclassmates<br />Students learn through interacting with the community; learning is achieved collaboratively<br />
  59. 59. * Students learn to work <br />cooperatively (vs competitively)<br />* Ss should create a positive environment to feel<br />comfortable both correcting one another and<br />being corrected by one another.<br />*Ss learn through interaction <br />within the community<br />(teacher-classmates)<br />Learner's Roles<br />
  60. 60. Learner`s Roles<br />to produce target utteranceswithout<br />hesitation<br />toencourageclassmatestointeractwith<br />eachother<br />to share feelings<br />tobecomecounselors<br /> of otherlearners<br />LEARNERS ARE EXPECTED <br />
  61. 61. Teacher's Roles<br />Control the usage of correct grammar and vocabulary ( may supply idioms, idiomatic expressions, phrases, phrasal verbs)<br />Developlearningmaterials<br />Helpstudentsacceptcriticism<br />
  62. 62. Teacher's Roles<br />Monitor learner <br />utterances and provide assistance<br />Respond in a supportive <br />manner<br /> provide a model<br />
  63. 63. ClassroomActivities<br />Group work (scripts, dialogues, mini-dramas)<br />Free conversations / class /group discussions of<br /> controversial topics<br />Exchange of questions : students and a teacheroranotherknower<br /> ( invitedperson )<br />Comments / summary about/of <br /> discussed material<br />Use of pictures,puppets,drawings<br />
  64. 64. Negative points<br />- High demand on teachers<br />- Thecouncelingbyteacherisunderthequestion (special training)<br />-No teacningmaterials<br />-Teacherisdependantonthe<br />students`choice of topics<br />-Evaluation is difficult to<br /> accomplish<br />- Enadequate control of the<br />oral production and grammar<br />CLL stresses<br />the benefits of<br />humanistic side of<br />language learning<br />
  65. 65. Suggestopedia<br />(1979, GeorgiLozanov)<br />Characteristics<br />- class arrangement : the use of comfortable furniture<br />- music and music rhythm – it helps to increase self-esteem through increased self-satisfaction in musical performance<br />- state of relaxation of learners and highly positive environment<br />
  66. 66. Characteristics<br /><ul><li>authoritative behaviour of the</li></ul>teacher: people remember better<br />and are more influenced if infor-<br />mation comes from anauthorita-<br />tive source<br /> Authority (of a teacher) –<br /> to suggest a teacher-student <br />relation like that of parent to child.<br />
  67. 67. OBJECTIVE – to deliver advanced conversational profociency quickly<br />DIRECT : text and tape<br />The text should have emotional force,<br />literary quality, and interesting characters.<br />- INDIRECT: classroom décor, music.<br />Materials:<br />
  68. 68. Classroom activities<br />Listening activities <br />Readings<br />Role-plays<br />
  69. 69. Typical class:<br />1<br />1stpart-oral review section.Previously learned material is a basis for discussion. Attention to grammar, vocabulary. Emphasis on role- plays<br />(in a hotel,description of tourist or other places, etc)<br />2nd part - presentation and discussion of new material(students may analyze a new dialogue and its translation, grammar, vocabulary. This section is exclusively in the target language)<br />3rd part – concert session– teacher reads the text. Students listen and at the end, leave the room in silence. No homework. <br />
  70. 70. NEGATIVE ASPECT-much memorization<br />POSITIVE POINTS<br />-We learn about how to believe in the power of the human brain;<br />- The state of relaxation may be beneficial in the classroom. <br />
  71. 71. Whole Language<br />( 1980’s -1990’s)<br />The WhL- language should be taught as a “whole” <br />Emphasis on learning to read and write naturally with<br />a focus on real communication and reading<br />and writing for pleasure<br />Language is seen as something that is used <br />for meaningful purposes and to carry out <br />authentic functions<br />
  72. 72. MAIN PRINCIPLES:<br />1.The use of authentic <br />literature and real world <br />materials rather than specially prepared<br />texts.<br />2.Focus on real and natural events rather than on specially written stories that do not relate to student’s experience.<br />3.Reading for comprehension<br />
  73. 73. Main Principles<br />4.Readingof texts of high interest (literature)<br />5. Writing for a real audience and not simply to practice writing skills.<br />6. The use of student-produced texts<br />
  74. 74. Main Principles<br />7.Integration of all four skills – reading, writing, listening and speaking<br />8. It is a student –centered learning<br />9. Encouragement of risk –taking and the acceptance of errors as signs of learningrather than of failure<br />
  75. 75. TEACHER`S ROLES<br />The teacher is a facilitator and negotiates a plan of work with the learners.<br />The Teacher is an active participant in the learning community rather than an expert passing on knowledge. <br />The Teacher creates a supportive and collaborative climate.<br />
  76. 76. Learner's Roles<br />The learner is a collaborator <br />(with classmates, with the teacher)<br />The learner is evaluator of his/her own and other's <br /> leaning<br />The learners select <br /> learning materials <br /> and activities.<br />
  77. 77. Classroom activities<br />-Individual /small group<br />reading and writing<br />-Writing conferences<br />-Story – writing<br />- Dialogue journals<br />- Student – made books<br />
  78. 78. Negative Point<br />WhLapproach is seen as anti – direct<br />teaching, anti-skills, anti–materials. <br />Positive Points<br />* It focuses on experiences and activities that are relevant to learner’ s lives and needs<br />* It uses authentic materials<br />* It facilitates the development of all aspects of a second language.<br />
  79. 79. (Howard Gardner, 1993)<br />MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES<br />It focuses on differences between learners<br />and the need to recognize learner differences in<br />teaching. <br />All learners have individual styles, <br />preferences or intelligences.<br />Teaching is most successful when these <br />learner differences are acknowledged <br />and applied in teaching.<br />MI approach must be used in design of <br /> lesson planning.<br />
  80. 80. Kinds of intelligences and Language – Learning Activities<br />Student speeches, storytelling, debates, word games, creating class newspapers<br />1.Linguistic-the ability<br />to use language in<br />special and creative<br />ways.(Lawyers,writers,<br />editors, interpreters<br />
  81. 81. Kinds of intelligences and Language Learning Activities<br />*puzzles,story problems,<br />calculations,codes,scien-<br />tific demonstrations,<br />logic problems<br />2.Logical-<br />mathematical –<br />the ability to think<br />rationally (doctors,<br />engineers, scientists )<br />
  82. 82. *Charts,maps,video, diagrams, movies, optical illusions, student drawing, imaginative storytelling<br />3.Spatial-the ability to<br />form mental models of<br />the world(architects,<br />decorators sculptors,<br />painters )<br />
  83. 83. 4.Musical-a good ear for music <br />(singers,composers)<br />* Playing rerecorded music, singing, group singing<br />
  84. 84. *Creative movement,<br />role-plays, hands-on activities, miming<br />5.Bodily /Kinesthetic<br />–having a well- <br />coordinating body<br />(athletes and<br />craftsperson )<br />
  85. 85. *Cooperative<br />groups,peer<br />teaching,group<br />brainstorming,<br />board games,<br />pair work<br />6. Interpersonal–<br />the ability to be able<br />to work well with<br />people (salespeople,<br />politicians, teachers)<br />
  86. 86. *Independent<br />student work,<br />options for<br />homework, <br />reflective learning, <br />goal setting<br />7.Intrapersonal-<br />the ability to under-<br />stand oneself and<br />apply one’s talent<br />successfully.<br />
  87. 87. 8.Naturalist– the ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature<br />
  88. 88.<br /> 072 – 570-275 ( ext. 2327 )<br />THANK YOU!<br />