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Language y Linguistics

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  1. 1. ENGLISH SYNTAX Dra. Rosario María Burneo Master of Arts ESCUELA : INGLÉS NOMBRES: FECHA: OCTUBRE 2008 – FEBRERO 2009
  2. 2. LANGUAGE <ul><li>Language is a social, cultural and psychological phenomenon that serves the purpose of communication among human beings </li></ul>
  3. 3. LINGUISTICS <ul><li>Linguistics can be defined as the study of human language in all its manifestations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. LINGUISTICS <ul><li>Linguistics focuses on different aspects of the language, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Word formation and inflection; (Morphology); </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds (Phonology). </li></ul><ul><li>Structure (Syntax). </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning (Semantics), and </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between language use and society (Pragmatics ). </li></ul>
  5. 5. UNIT ONE: BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURES <ul><li>Lexical categories are word based: noun, verb, adjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasal categories are phrase-based: noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Linguistic Phenomena These phenomena support the fact that human languages are category-based <ul><li>Anaphora (or anaphor) is a linguistic phenomenon referring to entities mentioned before in the same sentence or discourse: </li></ul><ul><li>Mary likes her new job. </li></ul><ul><li>Students and teachers feel tired. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Linguistic Phenomena <ul><li>Coordination uses conjunctions to join words or phrases belonging to the same category: </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and students are attending a lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Recursion enables speakers to make use of a finite set of rules to generate an infinite number of sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Mike, who is a doctor, lives next door. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Linguistic Phenomena <ul><li>Distribution states which words and phrases can appear in a particular position in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>NPs can appear in subject or object position. </li></ul>
  9. 9. LINGUISTIC PHENOMENA <ul><li>Intrusión refers to the insertion of parenthetical expressions like “I guess”, “certainly”, usually” and others. </li></ul>Usually they visit us in October They usually visit us in October
  10. 10. Core Sentence Patterns <ul><li>Core sentence patterns are basic strings of words that express meaning and have an associated structural description called Base Phrase Marker. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Core Sentence Patterns <ul><li>A Base Phrase Marker is a tree diagram used to show the structure of phrases, clauses and sentences in a graphic way. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Five Core Patterns <ul><li>PATTERN ONE </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP intransitive + (Adv.P) </li></ul><ul><li>Mike walks slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth runs </li></ul>
  13. 13. PATTERN TWO <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP linking + NP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>George became a doctor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP linking + Adj. Phrase </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mr. Johnson looks tired </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pattern THREE <ul><li>THREE: </li></ul><ul><li>It is built around one-place transitive verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP+VP one-place trans+ NP </li></ul><ul><li>Robert washed his car </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pattern FOUR <ul><li>FOUR: This pattern has two versions: </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP transitive +NP + NP + (Adv.P) </li></ul><ul><li>Rose gave him an interesting book </li></ul><ul><li>- This structure takes two objects, a DO and an IO. </li></ul><ul><li>- I bought a car for my son yesterday. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pattern FOUR <ul><li>2. S = NP + VP transitive + NP + NP </li></ul><ul><li>He considers Bush a good person </li></ul><ul><li>The first NP functions as the object and the second one as the complement. </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP transitive + NP + Adj.P </li></ul><ul><li>Most boys consider soccer important. </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP + NP + Inf.P </li></ul><ul><li>People consider politicians to be very bad </li></ul>
  17. 17. OBJECTS <ul><li>DIRECT OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Mike bought a new car </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT OBJECT </li></ul><ul><li>Mike gave me a book </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECT OF PREPOSITION (also called Oblique object) </li></ul><ul><li>Mike bought a book for me </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pattern FIVE <ul><li>This pattern is built around the verb BE. </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP be + NP </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is a teacher </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP be + Adj.P </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is smart </li></ul><ul><li>S = NP + VP be + Adv.P </li></ul><ul><li>Martha is in the classroom </li></ul>
  19. 19. UNIT TWO: ENGLISH PHRASE STRUCTURES <ul><li>Constituents can be lexical (words) or phrasal (phrases). </li></ul><ul><li>Words form phrases: </li></ul><ul><li>This new house </li></ul><ul><li>det. Adj. noun </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases form clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>This new house is beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>NP PV </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Noun Phrase <ul><li>Three different types of noun phrases can be distinguished according to their structure: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Anaphor: reciprocal and reflexive: </li></ul><ul><li>Mike and Ann love each other Linda cut herself </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Noun Phrase <ul><li>2. Pronominal noun phrase include personal pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Lupe believes that she is beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lexical noun phrases include all other noun phrases. </li></ul><ul><li>The students </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Reyes </li></ul>
  22. 22. PRONOUNS <ul><li>Personal Pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>- Nominative pronouns function as subjects (I, YOU ...) </li></ul><ul><li>- Accusative pronouns function as objects of verbs (me, us) </li></ul><ul><li>- Dative pronouns function as objects of prepositions (for me, ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Genitive pronouns indicate possession (mine, yours, etc.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reflexive Pronouns <ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns refer back to the subject of the clause they are in. They have anaphoric reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive pronouns can function as: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct object: I cut myself. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect object: Tom bought himself a car. </li></ul><ul><li>Object of preposition: May lives by herself </li></ul>
  24. 24. Demonstratives <ul><li>They may function as both, pronouns and determiners. </li></ul><ul><li>As pronouns: </li></ul><ul><li>That is my book </li></ul><ul><li>As determiners: </li></ul><ul><li>That book is mine </li></ul>
  25. 25. Functions of Noun Phrases <ul><li>A noun phrase is a string of words headed by a noun and which expresses meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>According to its external syntax, a noun phrase may function as a subject, as an object and as a complement: </li></ul><ul><li>Those boys play tennis very well </li></ul><ul><li>My friend sold his old car </li></ul><ul><li>He is a dentist </li></ul>
  26. 26. Types of Noun Phrases according to their structure <ul><li>Elementary noun phrases may consist of proper nouns and pronouns. </li></ul><ul><li>You came yesterday (Nominative NP) </li></ul><ul><li>Mike gave me a book (Accusative NP) </li></ul><ul><li>Mike is in his company (Genitive NP) </li></ul><ul><li>Robert likes to hunt (Proper NP ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Types of Noun Phrases <ul><li>Noun phrases have nouns as their heads. A head noun is the word that dictates the internal structure of the phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos is very smart </li></ul><ul><li>Common noun phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Cats are beautiful </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Noun Phrases <ul><li>1. Elementary noun phrases introduced by determiners: This cat </li></ul><ul><li>The moon </li></ul><ul><li>2. Elementary noun phrases introduced by genitives: Mike’s car </li></ul><ul><li>Your house </li></ul><ul><li>3. Noun phrases introduced by quantity words: Some workers </li></ul><ul><li>Much water </li></ul>
  29. 29. Types of Noun Phrases <ul><li>Partitive Noun Phrases can be: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced by quantity words: </li></ul><ul><li>Some of his money </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced by measure words: </li></ul><ul><li>One pound of sugar </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Noun Phrases <ul><li>Introduced by the words ALL and BOTH: </li></ul><ul><li>Rose met all her classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Rose met all of her classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>Both students attended that class. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of the students attended that class. </li></ul>
  31. 31. THE VERB: Tense, aspect and Modality <ul><li>Tense communicates information about the time in which an action or event happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Present tense </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense </li></ul><ul><li>Future tense (uses periphrastic expressions). These are extra words as WILL. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Aspect <ul><li>Aspect indicates the way an action or event is seen or experienced. It can be ongoing or resultant. </li></ul><ul><li>The progressive aspect is ongoing. </li></ul><ul><li>María is washing her car. </li></ul><ul><li>The Perfect aspect is resultant. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts have predicted a new crisis. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Modality <ul><li>Mood refers to the purpose of a sentence. It can be: </li></ul><ul><li>- Indicative for statements </li></ul><ul><li>- Interrogative for questions </li></ul><ul><li>- Imperative for commands </li></ul><ul><li>- Subjunctive for wishes </li></ul><ul><li>- Conditional for possibility, certainty, obligation, necessity, promise o threat </li></ul><ul><li>This book might become a best seller </li></ul>
  34. 34. Action and Belief Modalities <ul><li>The Action (or deontic) modality involves language and potential action. It is used to make promises, to order, or to place an obligation. </li></ul><ul><li>No smoking (order) </li></ul><ul><li>I promise to help you (promise) </li></ul><ul><li>Can you help me? (request) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Belief Modality The Belief (or epistemic) modality involves possibility, certainty, and necessity. I suppose that the children are hungry. It might rain tonight
  36. 36. The Internal and External Syntax of Phrases <ul><li>Internal Syntax refers to the way words are put together to form phrases or clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>External syntax refers to the function constituents (as phrases) might perform in a sentence or clause. </li></ul><ul><li>Head words dictate the internal syntax of phrases. For example, a noun is the head word of a noun phrase; a verb is the head word of a VP, etc. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Subcategorization <ul><li>Subcategorization refers to the complement properties of individual words. </li></ul><ul><li>Each word has a set of syntactic features h indicating the context in which it can be inserted. </li></ul><ul><li>Ken broke the window –Brake: V + NP </li></ul>
  38. 38. Subcategorization examples <ul><li>We heard the boys asking questions– </li></ul><ul><li>Hear: V + NP + VP (present participle) </li></ul><ul><li>Catty put the pen on the desk– </li></ul><ul><li>Put: V + NP + PP </li></ul>
  39. 39. Noun Phrases as Complements <ul><li>NPs can function as subjects, objects and complements. </li></ul><ul><li>In complement position, they function as arguments and as predicates. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Arguments and Predicates <ul><li>As arguments they indicate that the subject plays certain role: </li></ul><ul><li>My friend killed a tiger </li></ul><ul><li>As predicates, they provide information about the subject (person or thing mentioned earlier in the sentence). Mike is a soldier </li></ul>
  41. 41. Complements <ul><li>Infinitives as verb phrase complements: </li></ul><ul><li>That bird seems to be sick </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitives as complements of adjectives: </li></ul><ul><li>We are eager to travel to Europe . </li></ul>
  42. 42. Complements <ul><li>Infinitives as complement of nouns: </li></ul><ul><li>The plan to save wild life is important. </li></ul>
  43. 43. LIFE IS 10% OF WHAT Life is 10% of what happens to you, and 90% of how you respond to it. Thank you GOD BLESS YOU