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English Phonology, I Bim

Distinguished according to phonetical and phonological points of view.

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English Phonology, I Bim

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Purpose  Definition  Importance  Phoneme (example)  Conventions (examples)  Accent  Dialect 2
  3. 3.  Received Pronunciation  BBC Pronunciation  Estuary English 3
  4. 4. THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS Articulators above the Larynx  Pharynx  Velum  Hard palate  Alveolar ridge  Tongue  Teeth  Lips 4
  5. 5. Vowels: Distinguished according to phonetical and phonological points of view.  Cardinal vowels Classified according to  Tongue position: Shape and position of the tongue The part of the tongue raised  Lip position: 5
  6. 6. THE PRODUCTION OF SPEECH SOUNDS Classification according to length  Short: relativeley short in length  Long: relatively long in length  Length: physical duration of the sound 6
  7. 7. LONG VOWELS, DIPHTHONGS AND TRIPHTHONGS LONG VOWELS: Tend to be longer than short in similar contexts Different in:  Length  Quality Different according to:  Context  Presence or absence of stress 7
  9. 9. VOCING AND CONSONANTS THE LARYNX Functions:  Permits the pass of air from the lungs  Contain the vocal folds Anatomy: Thyroid cartilage cricoide cartilage tracheal rings 9
  10. 10. VOCAL FOLDS: What: Two elastic bands Where: Inside the thyroid cartilages Attached to arytenoid cartilague cricoid cartilage 10
  11. 11. GLOTTIS: What: opening betwen the vocal folds Where: inside the vocal folds Functions: produce certain types of sounds according to its state: 11 Wide apart .- Vocal folds are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s.
  12. 12. Narrow glottis.- Air passes through the glottis and the result is a fricative sound 12 Position for vocal fold vibration.- the edges are near touching each other, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration.
  13. 13. 13 Vocal folds tightly closed.- the vocal folds firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them the resulting sound is one called a glottal stop or glottal plosive.
  14. 14. RESPIRATION AND VOICING Air in the lungs is forced out, as a result: eggresisve pulmoic airstream important to produce sounds Process for producing airstream :  ribcage is lifted upwaurd and outwards so lungs are expanded  lungs take air as ribcage returns to its position, the air expeled is used to produce sounds. 14
  15. 15. Air is retained as it scapes from the lungs formimg strictures A stricture: obstruction of air, happens in the larynx if: vocal folds are in a correct position air is under enough pressure to be forced out the glottis. 15
  16. 16. Changes in the vocal folds Singing Shouting speaking quietly read immitating characteres 16
  17. 17. VOICING AND PHONATION Variations of the subglottal pressure In Intensity:  high: shouting  low: speaking quitely Frequency:  high: rapid vibration of vocal cords  low: slow vibration of vocal cords Quality  harsh, breathing, murmured creaky 17
  18. 18. CONSONANT ARTICULATION: PHASES: 1 articultator against another 2 articulators against each other Release of air Presure of air (plosion) CLOSING COMPRESION RELEASE POST RELEASE 18
  19. 19. ENGLISH PLOSIVES: p t k b d g occur initially, medially and finally ? occurs frequently, alternative pronunciation of p t k in certain contexts 19
  20. 20. p b bilabial lips pressed t d alveolar tongue against the alveolar k g velar back of the tongue against the velum 20
  21. 21. p t k:  voiceless b d g:  fully voiced  partly voiced  Voiceless 21
  22. 22. Environments:  Initial CV  Medial CVC  Final VC 22
  23. 23. INITIAL POSITION (CV) Closing phase p t k occur silently b d g p t k not voicing Compresion phase very little voicing / just before r b d g voicing if pronounced slowly no voicing rapid speech 23
  24. 24. Difference: aspiration not voicing p t k may not be preceded by s (unaspirated) b d g can not be preceded by any other consonant 24
  25. 25. MEDIAL POSITION (CVC Depends on whether the preceding or following syllables are stressed or not Can have the sound of initial or final plosives FINAL POSITION (CVC) b d g little voicing beg. of compression phase p t k voiceless p t k release phase of both weak not b dg audible Difference: vowels preceding p t k are shorter than the ones preceding b d g 25
  26. 26. FORTIS AND LENIS  It is not accurate to call these sounds voiced.  Initially – medially scarcely voiced. p t k produced with more force FORTIS strong b d g produced with with less force LENIS weak 26
  27. 27. THE PHONEME Phoneme: basic unit of sound, changes meaning of words Realization : 2 different ways of making a sound without changing its meaning, they  Occur in the same context  Different realizations never occur in different positions Complementary Distribution: The separation of places where particular realizations can occur Allophones: different realizations of the same phoneme. 27
  28. 28. SYMBOLS AND TRANSCRIPTIONS  PHONEMIC SYMBOLS Do not indicate precise phonetic value There are many phonetic symbols according to different authors  PHONETIC SYMBOLS Indicate precise phonetic value TRANSCRIPTION: PHONEMIC PHONETIC 28
  29. 29. TRANSCRIPTION PHONEMIC: using phonemes / written with the appropriate symbol. From dictation: Ss listen to a person or recording and write down what they hear From a written text: Ss are given a passage and use phonemic symbols to represent how they think it should be pronounced by any speaker 29
  30. 30. PHONEMIC: Much more accurate in phonetic detail Narrow: shows exact quality of sounds Broad: a little more information than a phonemic one 30
  31. 31.  Symbols differ according to writers  We are not looking at all of them  We are using the BBC pronunciation and symbols (cambridge dictionary)  Reasons :  Some have established a minimum set of nonstandard symbols.  Others have thought on quantity  Others in quality  Others in both 31
  32. 32. PHONOLOGY  PHONETICS: The comparative straightforward businesss of describing the sounds used in the language  PHONOLOGY: How phonemes function in the language, the relationship among them (abstarct side of the language)  IMPORTANCE: To acquire a full understanding of the use of sounds in the English language 32
  33. 33. FRICATIVES AND AFFRICATES  FRICATIVES: Definition: sounds in which air escapes through a small passage making a hissing sound, also called continuants because you can make them without any interruption (sssssss)  AFFRICATES: Definition: sounds that begin as plosives and end as fricatives; ʧ begins in t and ends in ʃ. The sequence kf is not considered a single sound because they need to be homorganic. 33
  34. 34. English Fricatives: f θ s ʃ fortis V ð z ʒ lenis English Affricates ʧ fortis shorten preceding vowel (final in the syllable ʤ lenis 5
  35. 35. NASAL AND OTHER CONSONANTS Definition: sounds in which the airflow leaves through the nose m n occur frequently in initial position ŋ never in initial position, but in middle position, quite frequent ŋk sequence pronounced as ŋ ng sequence pronounced sometimes as ŋ, sometimes as ŋg ŋ finger ŋg singer ŋ hang complete morpheme part of a morpheme end of a word 35
  36. 36. The consonant l l is a lateral consonat, the airflow leaves through the sides of the tongue. Occurs in initial, medial and final positions Clear l before a vowel (back of the tongue raised) Dark l after a vowel (realized different, front of the tongue raised) Devoiced l after p or t 36
  37. 37. The consonant r r is an approximant, in which the tongue approaches the alveolar but never gets close enough to produce a complete consonant such as nasal or fricative Occurs only before vowels 37
  38. 38. The consonants j and w Approximant sounds (semivowels) Phonetically (way of pronouncing) are like vowels. Phonologicaly (distribution) are like consonats. After p, t, k they are devoiced j palatal w bilabial 38
  39. 39. THE SYLLABLE Two points of view Phonetically: way of producing them, way they sound: consist of a center with little or no obstruction and which sounds comparatively loud (vowel). Before and after the center a great deal of obstruction (consonant) Minimum: single vowel I aɪ: Onset: consonat before vowel pear pe: Coda: vowel before consonant are a: Onset and coda consonat vowel consonant put pʊt 39
  40. 40. Phonolgically: possible combinations of English phonemes Syllables start with:  A vowel  1, 2 or 3 consonants  More than 3 is impossible Syllables end with  A vowel  1,2,3 or 4 consonats  More than 4 is impossible
  41. 41. THANKS
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