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4. word stress

  1. 1. ENGLISH PHONOLOGY: PRONUNCIATION VIDEO LESSON 4 WORD STRESS Techniques to teach word stress Mgs. Nina Nesterenko
  2. 2. the relative prominence stress of syllables • Stress is one of the vocal features. • Major characteristic of the English language - the use of strong and weak stress. There are NO consistent rules in English. The main reason for the complexity of stress in English the language is a mixture of Germanic and Romance languages. This is why stress is unpredictable and not systematic.
  3. 3. Improperly placed stress causes misunderstanding: invalid –invalid Stress placement may also have a grammatical function – changing the stress to another syllable can change the part of speech. Noun Verb present and present project and project record and record desert and dessert convert –and convert
  4. 4. Stress and Vowel Reduction In English, unstressed syllables and vowels tend to sound alike. Example: action - / æk- ʃn / and NOT / æk- ʃon / people - / pi: pl / and NOT / pi: - pɔl / nation - / neɪ- ʃn / and NOT / neɪ- ʃon / vision - / vɪ - ʒn / and NOT / vɪ - ʒon / This indistinct pronunciation and shortening of the unstressed syllable in English is called VOWEL REDUCTION.
  5. 5. The phenomenon of vowel reduction in English affects only those syllables that are completely without stress. Example: curtain - / k ə rtn / certain - / s ə r t n / apple - / æ p l / Vowel reduction in unstressed syllables also normally takes place in longer English words. Example: reduction / r ɪ-d ʌ- k ʃn /
  6. 6. RULES of WORD STRESS Stress on TWO - SYLLABLE words If the word does not have a suffix, and in the majority of two-syllable words stress usually goes on the first syllable.
  7. 7. No suffix two-syllables Nouns in general cherry window jacket devil Tuesday table father breakfast paper vanish cupcake money morning
  8. 8. Compound words Numbers ( of ten ) flashcard twenty thirty forty bookstore fifty sixty seventy stoplight eighty ninety
  9. 9. Combinations of words which are treated as single units from the point of view that their meanings are called compound In most compound words, the stress is on the first part, as in the example: bus stop In longer compounds, the first element has the main stress, and the other part has weaker stress. Example: crossword,baseball, strawberry, airport, photocopy
  10. 10. TWO-SYLLABLES word stress Most two-syllable verbs have stress on the second syllable, even if they do not come from an original one- syllable word. Example:report, prepare,outrun, invite believe, support, complete
  11. 11. There are some exceptions regarding the change of the part of speech as in examples below. (there is not a change of stress) VERB NOUN picture picture promise promise reply reply travel travel visit visit
  12. 12. When the prefix re- means again, it receives the strong stress: Ex: re-do, re-name, re-tell, re-make, re-dress When the prefix re- begins a word, and it does not mean again, it is UNSTRESSED Ex: remark, remind, reward, require, refuse
  13. 13. Stress in NOUN / VERB Homographs Remember Nouns – stress on Verbs – stress on the first syllable the second syllable NOUNS VERBS conflict ( controversy) conflict ( to clash ) content ( subject matter ) content ( to satisfy) desert ( barren region ) desert ( to abandon ) contest ( competition) contest ( to dispute) increase ( enlargement) increase (to make larger)
  14. 14. We can build longer word by adding parts to the beginning or end of shorter word. Stress usually stays on the same syllable as in the original word. Example: un-der- line (original word is line) re-co-llect (original word is collect)
  15. 15. In English, the suffixes – ic, - ical , as in words basic, medical ARE ALLWAYS UNSTRESSED When suffixes are added to English words, the stress remains on the same syllable Ex: real - real +ly – real +ize separate – separate+ly
  16. 16. BUT ! when the suffixes - tion / -ity are added to English words, the stress goes automatically to the syllables immediately preceding the suffix: Ex: real – realization - reality nation- nationalization- nationality
  17. 17. RULES TO REMEMBER Reflexive pronouns are usually stressed on the SECOND syllable Examples: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves. Compound verbs are usually stressed on the SECOND or LAST syllable. Examples: outrun, overlook, overfeed, undergo
  18. 18. Teaching ideas and techniques Listen and pronounce the stress pattern differences --Please record the record. - Please don’t desert me in a desert. - We project that our project will be successful - She will present you with a present. Work with a dictionary to find examples with noun/ verb Homographs Write your own senteces to contrast the meaning of the Homographs. ( ex: project and project ) Make role plays or dialogues with Homographs.
  19. 19. Teaching ideas and techniques Listen and circle/ underline the words with the stress on the FIRST syllable Ex: eighty , accept, window, vowel, resighn, machine, mother Listen and circle/ underline the words with the stress on the SECOND syllable: Ex: around, husband, severe, summer, complete , himself, winter Write the words in the corresponding column according to the stressed syllable baseball, allow, invite, eighty, complete, myself, behind FIRST SYLLABLE SECOND SYLLABLE ---------------------------- -------------------------------- ---------------------------- --------------------------------
  20. 20. Teaching ideas and techniques Read the sentences and fill in the blank with compound nouns formed from the two boldfaced words. Stress the words correctly. Ex: A rack that holds coats is a ….(coatrack) A juice made from oranges is called….. A store that sells books is called …. When you have an ache in your head, you have a ………… Listen and mark the stressed syllable in these words: sunglasses, bedroom, lipstick, headache, goldfish
  21. 21. Teaching ideas and techniques Listen and repeat the pairs of words and the sentences. Remember to stess re- only when it means “ again”. re-mark ( to mark smth again) re-mark ( to comment) re-lay (to lay smth down again) re-lay ( to pass on a message) Re-do this model, but re-duce the size. Re-mind me to re-sort the index cards. Will he re-fuse to re-print this book? They will re-quire you to re-write the letter. Write / say your own sentences as in the exercise above.
  22. 22. Teaching ideas and techniques Classify the words below according to their stressed syllable: Winter, acceptance, breakfast, respect, eminent, absolute, afternoon, examine, employer, policeman, herself,report First stressed Second stressed Last stressed syllable syllable syllable
  23. 23. Thank you! To be continued!....