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# Measurement

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### Measurement

1. 1. 1. Name 2. Order 3. Distance 4. Zero
2. 2. Gender 1M 2M 3M 4F 5F 6M 7F 8M 9F 10 F LOCALITY OCCUPATION RELIGION BANDRA WORKING H MAHIM WORKING M SANTACRUZ WORKING H ANDHERI NOT WOKING C COLABA WORKING H DADAAR NOT WORKINGM BANDRA NOT WORKINGH COLABA NOT WORKINGC MAHIM NOT WORKINGH ANDHERI WORKING M
3. 3. Name order Distance zero
4. 4. After tasting tea rate it on a scale of I to 5, 1-very tasty ,5-tasteless. Social class Economic class GPA
5. 5. Name order Distance zero
6. 6. 19 Jan 2011 Team India South Africa England Sri Lanka Australia Pakistan West Indies New Zealand Bangladesh Matches 42 36 45 27 43 29 25 32 19 Points 5357 4228 5165 2951 4583 2615 2128 2482 131 Rating 128 117 115 109 107 90 85 78 7
7. 7. # Country Points 1 England 1001 2 Italy 902 3 Spain 892 4 Netherlands 822 5 Portugal 805 6 Germany 780 7 France 752
8. 8.  The difference bet 1981 -1982 is same as difference between 1991-1992 but they do not have a fixed zero Name order Distance zero
9. 9.  Consumer Price Index  Fahrenheit temperature  Calender
10. 10. Name order Distance zero
11. 11.  Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain pre specified rules.
12. 12.  The main point is assigning a rule  Example  A class can be classified as foll > 90% A 80% - 89% B < 80 % C
13. 13. Xo = Xt + Xs + Xr Xo - the observed score of measurement Xt- the true score of the characterstic . Xs – Systematic error Xr – Random error
14. 14.  Reliability  Validity  Practicality  Genralizability
15. 15.  Reliability refers to the extent to which the scale a scale produces consistent results if repeated measurements are made. Types  Test – retest reliability  Internal consistency reliability
16. 16.  The purpose of measurement is to measure what it intends to measure .  Example :  Absenteeism is a good measure of Morale  How can we say it can be due to wave of illness or a number of other factors
17. 17.  Comparative scales  Non comparative scales
18. 18.  Suppose a researcher wants to know which are the most important attributes in a product or which attribute is preferred over the other.
19. 19. A B C D E A 100 164 120 174 180 B 36 100 160 176 166 C 80 40 100 168 124 D 26 24 32 100 102 E 20 34 76 98 100
20. 20.   Data – ordinal No of comparisons –n(n-1)/2
21. 21.    A Rank Order scale gives the respondent a set of items and asks them to put the items in some form of order. The measure of 'order' can include such as preference, importance, liking, effectiveness and so on. The order is often a simple ordinal structure (A is higher than B). It can also be done by relative position (A scores 10 whilst B scores 6).
22. 22.    Please write a letter next to the four evening activities below to show your preference. Use A for your most preferred activity, B for the next preferred, then C for the next and then D for the least __ Staying in and watching television __ Going bowling __ Going out for a meal __ Going to a bar with a friend preferred. Data - ordinal
23. 23.  a respondent is given a constant sum of money, script, credits, or points and asked to allocate these to various items (example : If you had 100 Yen to spend on food products, how much would you spend on product A, on product B, on product C, etc.). This is an ordinal level technique.
24. 24. Attributes of a toilet soap 1. Mildness 2. Lather 3. Shrinkage 4. Price 5. Fragrance 6. Packaging 7. Moisturizer 8. Cleaning powder
25. 25.  Data seems to be ratio in limited sense ,but actually it is a comparative scale and data is ordinal.
26. 26.  Data seems to be ratio in limited sense ,but actually it is a comparative scale and data is ordinal.
27. 27.    Was developed to discriminate among relatively large number of items. Items ranging between 60 – 140. Piles of most preferred to least preferred.
28. 28. 1. Continuous scales 2. Itemized scales
29. 29.  The respondents are asked to give a rating by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a continuous line. The scale can be written on card and shown to the respondent during the interview
30. 30.  Whichever form of itemised scale is applied, researchers usually treat the data as interval level.
31. 31.    A Likert scale is what is termed a summated instrument scale. This means that the items making up a Likert scale are summed to produce a total score. Typically, each scale item will have 5 categories, with scale values ranging from -2 to +2 with 0 as neutral response.
32. 32.  Mergers and acquisitions provide a faster means of growth than internal expansion.  Strongly disagree disagree Agree strongly agree  Weights are attached to each response  uncertain
33. 33.       Lending a helping hand Life is beautiful Appreciation is the best motivation Work and play are not mutually exclusive We love our employees and we want them to know it Innovation is our bloodline
34. 34.    This type of scale makes extensive use of words rather than numbers. Respondents describe their feelings about the products or brands on scales with semantic labels. When bipolar adjectives are used at the end points of the scales, these are termed semantic differential scales.
35. 35. It is a unipolar scale It extends from +5 to -5 It has no neutral point
36. 36. It is a unipolar scale It extends from +5 to -5 It has no neutral point
37. 37.  Where people are less educated or among children ,we use similes or ladders to express preference
38. 38.  Name :  Gender:  Age :  Position:
39. 39.  Family profile Marital status  N.o of members  Occupation of Spouse  Education level 
40. 40.  Work experience :  N.o of company’s worked with  Reason for quitting your last job  I would like to know if he is happy with his present compensation , salary revisions ,monetary and non monetary benefits
41. 41.        On a scale of one to five please mark your agreement or disagreement with the following statements 1-strongly and 5 strongly disagree The company offers excellent compensation The compensation offered by the company is comparable with the industry The frequency of salary revisions can be improved. The perks offered by the company are very apt. Perks though are good are not need based . The perks only cater to the young generation.
42. 42. Working conditions Autocratic 1 2 formal Uncomfortable Stringent 3 4 6 7 Democratic Informal comfortable linient
43. 43.        Frequency of rewards Type of rewards Feeling towards rewards Quotient of brethren feeling Adjustment with his peer Recreation activities with peer group Amount of sharing with Peers
44. 44. Frequency of rewards How many awards have you received in last one year 1. 1 2. 2 3. 3 4. More than 3 
45. 45.     Feeling towards rewards Quotient of brethren feeling Amount of sharing with the peers Adjustment with his peer
46. 46.        Rewards are a way to give recognition Rewards give a feeling of loyalty Rewards definitely boost self esteem Rewards increase competition Rewards discriminate among employees Monetary rewards are better motivators The frequency of rewards should be quarterly
47. 47.   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Type of rewards Which of the following rewards are instituted in your organization Best agent Best employee Best consultant Star performer Any other
48. 48.    No of promotions he has got Training programs for self improvement and self development. His personal aspirations