Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Facility Layout
  2. 2. Production Layout Formats • • • • Work centre Assembly Line Manufacturing Cell Project Layout
  3. 3. Facility Layout • A layout is the physical configuration of departments, workstations, and equipments in the conversion process. it is arrangement of physical resources used to create the product. Success of operations depends on the physical layouts of the facilities. Flow of raw material. Productivity and human relationship are all affected by the arrangements of the conversion facilities. Plant layout involves: – planning and arranging facilities in new plant – improvements in existing layout to introduce new methods.
  4. 4. Factors Affecting Layout • • • • • • • Material Product Machinery Labour Location Management policies Type of industry
  5. 5. Types of Layouts • • • • • Process layout Product layout Grouping technology layout Fixed position layout Hybrid layout
  6. 6. Process Layout • Appropriate for intermittent operations where work flow is not consistent for all output. • Variable workflow occurs when variety of products or variation of single product are produced. • Also called as functional layout or job-shop layout. • Similar equipments are grouped and located at one place like lathe, drilling machines etc. • Workers should be highly skilled. • Intensive job instructions should be given • Technical supervision required. • Quick to change and adapt to the unique batches of the products.
  7. 7. Process Layout Advantages • Greater Flexibility • Better and more efficient supervision possible through specialization • Breakdowns can be taken care by shifting the job to another machine • Capacity of different product line can be expanded easily. • Better utilisation of men and machine
  8. 8. Process Layout Disadvantages • More work in progress • More floor space • More distances travelled by the product.
  9. 9. Product Layout • Appropriate for producing one standardized product, usually in large volume. • Also called as flow –shop layout or straight line layouts. • Machines are arranged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made. • Examples: Chemical, paper, rubber, refineries, cement industry.
  10. 10. Product Layout Advantages • Advantages: • ii)Mechanization of materials is possible andmaterial handling cost can be reduced.iii)It requires less floor area.iv)It facil itates better production controlv)Production bottlenecks are avoided. • Disadvantages
  11. 11. Product Layout Disadvantages • Expansion of production line is difficult • There is difficulty in supervising • Breakdown of equipment disrupts the production.
  12. 12. Product Layout in Machining Piston Casting Rough turning Lathe Pinhole Boring Machine Circlip Grooving Machine Cam Turning Lathe Grooving Machine Inspection Packing
  13. 13. Group Technology Layout • Grouping technology or cellular manufacturing layout is made for a single part family i.e. parts with common characteristics. • Dissimilar machines are grouped into cells and each cell functions like product layout. • Reduces material handling cost and simplifies machine changeovers. • Reduces in-process inventory and automate the production. • Reduces flexibility.
  14. 14. Fixed Position Layout • When due to size , shape and other characteristic constraints, the products can not be moved, the machine and operators move around the product. • Example -construction of a building, assembly of an aircraft or ship. • Less investment is required in this layout and less transport cost as bulky materials are not moved. •
  15. 15. Hybrid Layout • No single layout like process, product of fixed position layout is used in strict meaning. • Combination of these layouts are used. • Called a hybrid or combined layout. • Example, in process layout, one section may use product layout like parts may follow process layout and assembly as product layout. (Used in aircraft manufacturing)
  16. 16. Computer Models - CRAFT • Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique (CRAFT) is one such program which can handle up to 40 work centres. • The model considers various type of layouts and different material handling methods that a firm can use among the work centres. • The analyst provides initial layout, a matrix identifying the number of loads moved among work centres and matrix identifying the cost of transportation. • After calculating the initial effectiveness, the CRAFT exchanges the location of pairs or triplets of work centres and by many iteration and evaluation final solutions printed out.
  17. 17. Developing Cellular manufacturing Layout • Major problems – Developing and classification a coding scheme for items of different shape, sizes, materials etc. – Grouping parts in families to form cell groups on the basis of processing requirements and routings – Creating physical layouts for positioning cells relative to each other
  18. 18. Service Facility Layouts • Service facilities exist to bring together customer and organisation's services. • Features like easy entrance, well organized parking lots, well marked entries and exits, powered doors, escalators and lobbies for customers, create a convenience to customer and increase the business. • The layouts depend on degree of customer contacts. • One case, it may be designed around the customer and other around the technology, process materials and production efficiency. • Example: Banks designed around customer and hospitals around the technology.