A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON“WORKSHOP PRACTICES & RELATED MECHANICAL ACTIVITIES IN CENTRAL WORKSHOPS, JAYANT” By-: kundan giri MIET ,meerut
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMy acknowledgement deeply thanks the co-operation received from all the employees of NorthernCoalfields Limited, Singrauli as a whole for providing me the opportunity to learn from them theirsystematic approach of accomplishing the work. I also convey my gratitude to the employeesspecially the Central workshop for intending all the help I needed and the congenial workingenvironment they provided me during my project, they were so helpful that I never felt that I amworking with the persons senior to me age wise as well as experience wise. With their guidance co-operation and best wishes it would have been possible for me to complete my training and reportsatisfactorily. I express my deep sense of gratitude of Mr. Poorna Kolagani of NCL for his constantsupervision during the entire project work. I am truly grateful to all the shop Managers who gaveme vital information related to my project work. I would also like to thank to my all family members whose morale support helped me to completemy project successfully. Lastly, a big thanks to all those who helped me sparing time even throughtheir busy schedule and for being kind enough to help me whenever needed them.Regards,Kundan GiriMechanical engg.MIET, Meerut
TABLE OF CONTENTSON “WORKSHOP PRACTICES & RELATED MECHANICAL ACTIVITIES IN CENTRALWORKSHOPS,JAYANT” ........................................................................................................................................................ 1ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................................................... 2INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................................................... 4Machine shop ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6Welding shop........................................................................................................................................................................... 11Transmission shop ................................................................................................................................................................ 22Engine shop.............................................................................................................................................................................. 26
INTRODUCTION Mission THE MISSION OF COAL INDIA IS TO PRODUCE AND MARKET THE PLANNED QUANTITY OF COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS EFFECIENTLY AND ECONOMICALLY WITH DUE REGARDS TO SAFETY, CONSERVATION QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTNorthern Coalfields Limited was formed in April 1986 as a subsidiary company of Coal IndiaLimited. Its headquarter is located at Singrauli, Distt. Sidhi (M.P.). Singrauli is connected byroad with Varanasi (220 Km.) – a holy city on the banks of river Ganga, and Rewa (206Km.) – the state of white tigers and Sidhi (100 Km.) – district headquarter town of MadhyaPradesh. The nearest railway station is Singrauli located on the Katni-Chopan branch linerunning parallel to the northern boundary of the Coalfield. The nearest railway station forreaching directly to Delhi and Kolkata is Renukoot that is located on the Garhwa-Chopanrail-line. Nearest (private) airstrip is at Muirpur (60 Km.).The area of Singrauli Coalfields is about 2202 Sq.Km. The coalfield can be divided into twobasins, viz. Moher sub-basin (312 Sq.Km.) and Singrauli Main basin (1890 Sq.Km.). Majorpart of the Moher sub-basin lies in the Sidhi district of Madhya Pradesh and a small part liesin the Sonebhadra district of Uttar Pradesh. Singrauli main basin lies in the western part ofthe coalfield and is largely unexplored. The present coal mining activities and future blocksare concentrated in Moher sub-basin.The exploration carried out by GSI/NCDC/CMPDI has proved abundant resource of powergrade coal in the area. This in conjunction with easy water resource from Govind BallabhPant Sagar makes this region an ideal location for high capacity pithead power plants. Thecoal supplies from NCL has made it possible to produce about 10515 MW of electricity frompithead power plants of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Uttar Pradesh RajyaVidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd (UPRVUNL) and Renupower division of M/s. Hindalco Industries.The region is now called the "power capital of India". The ultimate capacity of powergeneration of these power plants is 13295 MW and NCL is fully prepared to meet theincreased demand of coal for the purpose. In addition, NCL is also supplying coal to powerplants of Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd, Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) andHariyana State Electricity Board.NCL produces coal through mechanised opencast mines but its commitments towardsenvironmental protection is total. It is one of very few companies engaged in miningactivities, which has got ISO –14001 Certification for its environmental systems.
NCL, through its community development programmes, has significantly contributedtowards improvement and development of the area. It is helping local tribal, non-tribal andproject-affected persons in overall improvement of quality of their life through self-employments schemes, imparting education and providing health care.Salient featuresTOTAL AREA 2202 Sq.Km.AREA OF MOHER BASIN 312 Sq.Km.AREA OF MAIN BASIN 1890 Sq.Km.ESTIMATED RESERVES OF MOHER BASIN 8.31 Billion TonnesAs on 31.03.07BALANCE MINEABLE RESERVES OF MOHER BASIN (up to 2.68 Billion Tonnes300 meter depth) As on 31.03.07LIFE OF COALFIELD AT SCHEDULED RATE OF 37 YRS.PRODUCTION. JHINGURDA 130-138 m D-E PUREWA TOP 9 m D-ECOAL SEAMS IN MOHER BASIN, THICKNESS & GRADE PUREWA BOTTOM 12 m C-D TURRA 20 m C-EGRADIENT 2 to 5 DEGREESNote: Jhingurda seam is the Thickest Coal Seam of India
WELDING SHOP -UNDER MR. G.S VISWAKARMA, MR. S.P DWIVEDI MR. SAMIM M R . S A TR U D HA N (FROM 21ST JUNE 2011 TO 27TH JUNE 2011) THINGS COVERED DURING WELDING SHOP TRAINING PERIOD:- Safety while welding Types of safeties Types of welding Welding equipments Welding techniques Welding defects and distortions Prevention of defects Types of welding starts Different types of welding machines Electric arc welding Submerged arc welding Gas welding and gas cutting Flux(metallurgy) Shielding gas FIGURE 1: WELDING SAFTEY EQUIPMENTS BEING PROVIDED AT Welding joints CWS JAYANT, NCL ARC WELDINGGas metal arc weldingArc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc betweenan electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point. They can use eitherdirect (DC) or alternating (AC) current, and consumable or non-consumable electrodes. Thewelding region is usually protected by some type of shielding gas, vapor, and/or slag. Powersupplies Engine driven welder capable of AC/DC welding. To supply the electrical energy necessaryfor arc welding processes, a number of different power supplies can be used. The most commonclassification is constant current power supplies and constant voltage power supplies. In arcwelding, the voltage is directly related to the length of the arc, and the current is related to theamount of heat input. Constant current power supplies are most often used for manual weldingprocesses such as gas tungsten arc welding and shielded metal arc welding, because they maintaina relatively constant current even as the voltage varies. This is important because in manual
welding, it can be difficult to hold the electrode perfectly steady, and as a result, the arc length andthus voltage tend to fluctuate. Constant voltage power supplieshold the voltage constant and vary the current, and as a result,are most often used for automated welding processes such asgas metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding, and submergedarc welding. In these processes, arc length is kept constant,since any fluctuation in the distance between the wire and thebase material is quickly rectified by a large change in current.For example, if the wire and the base material get too close, thecurrent will rapidly increase, which in turn causes the heat toincrease and the tip of the wire to melt, returning it to itsoriginal separation distance. The direction of current used inarc welding also plays an important role in welding.Consumable electrode processes such as shielded metal arcwelding and gas metal arc welding generally use direct current,but the electrode can be charged either positively ornegatively. In welding, the positively charged anode will have agreater heat concentration and, as a result, changing thepolarity of the electrode has an impact on weld properties. Ifthe electrode is positively charged, it will melt more quickly,increasing weld penetration and welding speed. Alternatively, FIGURE 2:ENGINE DRIVEN WELDERa negatively charged electrode results in more shallow welds. CAPABLE OF AC/DC WELDING.Non-consumable electrode processes, such as gas tungsten arcwelding, can use either type of direct current (DC), as well as alternating current (AC). With directcurrent however, because the electrode only creates the arc and does not provide filler material, apositively charged electrode causes shallow welds, while a negatively charged electrode makes deeper welds. Alternating current rapidly moves between these two, resulting in medium-penetration welds. One disadvantage of AC, the fact that the arc must be re-ignited after every zero crossing, has been addressed with the invention of special power units that produce a square wave pattern instead of the normal sine wave, eliminating low-voltage time after the zero crossings and minimizing the effects of the problem. Home and hobby power supplies Home and hobby arc welders for occasional light duty (under 0.25 FIGURE 3: A DIESEL POWERED WELDING in/unknown operator: ustrong mm plate) GENERATOR (THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR IS ON THE LEFT) repair and construction are available from $100 and up as of 2011. In the $100 to $200 range,many choices are available in welding power supplies such as output current at a given duty cycle,120 volts (domestic) or 220 V AC, and differing input currents. At these low prices, any positivefactor typically weakens another important factor. One seller offers this specification: "Duty Cycle:45% @ 60 amps, 25% @ 80 amps," for their 120 volts, 20 A input, "90 Amp Flux Wire Welder". Dutycycle is a welding equipment specification which defines the number of minutes, within a 10 minuteperiod, during which a given arc welder can safely be used. For example, an 80 A welder with a 60%
duty cycle must be "rested" for at least 4 minutes after 6 minutes of continuous welding. Failureto observe duty cycle limitations could damage the welder. Commercial- or professional-gradewelders typically have a 100% duty cycle. SAFETY ISSUESWelding can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice without the proper precautions; however, withthe use of new technology and proper protection the risks of injury or death associated withwelding can be greatly reduced.Heat and sparksBecause many common welding procedures involve anopen electric arc or flame, the risk of burns from heatand sparks is significant. To prevent them, welders wearprotective clothing in the form of heavy leather glovesand protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure toextreme heat, flames, and sparks.Eye damageExposure to the brightness of the weld area leads to acondition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causesinflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas ofthe eyes. Welding goggles and helmets with dark faceplates - much darker than those in sunglasses or oxy-fuelgoggles - are worn to prevent this exposure. In recentyears, new helmet models have been produced featuringa face plate that automatically self-darkens FIGURE 4: AUTO DARKENING WELDINGelectronically. To protect bystanders, transparent HOOD WITH 90×110 MM CARTRIDGE ANDwelding curtains often surround the welding area. These 3.78×1.85 IN VIEWING AREAcurtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shieldnearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc.Inhaled matterWelders are also often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes like flux-coredarc welding and shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing particles of various types ofoxides. The size of the particles in question tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smallerparticles presenting a greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce various gases (mostcommonly carbon dioxide and ozone, but others as well) that can prove dangerous if ventilation isinadequate. Furthermore, the use of compressed gases and flames in many welding processes posean explosion and fire risk;some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in theair and keeping combustible materials awayfrom the workplace.Interference with pacemakersCertain welding machines which use a high frequency AC current component have been found toaffect pacemaker operation when within 2 meters of the power unit and 1 meter of the weld site.
ELECTRODEAn electrode is an electrical conductor used to makecontact with a non-metallic part of a circuit (e.g. asemiconductor, an electrolyte or a vacuum). The wordwas coined by the scientist Michael Faraday from theGreek words elektron (meaning amber, from which theword electricity is derived) and hodos, away.Anode and cathode in electrochemical cellsAn electrode in an electrochemical cell is referred to aseither an anode or a cathode (words that were also coinedby Faraday).The anode is now defined as the electrode atwhich electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs, and FIGURE 5: ELECTRODES USED IN ARCthe cathode as the electrode at which electrons enter the WELDINGcell and reduction occurs. Each electrode may becomeeither the anode or the cathode depending on the direction of current through the cell. A bipolarelectrode is an electrode that functions as the anode of one cell and the cathode of another cell.Primary cellA primary cell is a special type of electrochemical cell in which the reaction cannot be reversed, andthe identities of the anode and cathode are therefore fixed. The anode is always the negativeelectrode. The cell can be discharged but not recharged.Secondary cellA secondary cell, for example a rechargeable battery, is one in which the chemical reactions arereversible. When the cell is being charged, the anode becomes the positive (+) and the cathode thenegative (−) electrode. This is also the case in an electrolytic cell. When the cell is being discharged,it behaves like a primary cell, with the anode as the negative and the cathode as the positiveelectrode.Other anodes and cathodesIn a vacuum tube or a semiconductor having polarity (diodes, electrolytic capacitors) the anode isthe positive (+) electrode and the cathode the negative (−). The electrons enter the device throughthe cathode and exit the device through the anode. Many devices have other electrodes to controloperation, e.g., base, gate, control grid. In a three-electrode cell, a counter electrode, also called anauxiliary electrode, is used only to make a connection to the electrolyte so that a current can beapplied to the working electrode. The counter electrode is usually made of an inert material, such asa noble metal or graphite, to keep it from dissolving.Welding electrodesIn arc welding an electrode is used to conduct current through a workpiece to fuse two piecestogether. Depending upon the process, the electrode is either consumable, in the case of gas metalarc welding or shielded metal arc welding, or non-consumable, such as in gas tungsten arc welding.For a direct current system the weld rod or stick may be a cathode for a filling type weld or an
anode for other welding processes. For an alternating current arc welder the welding electrodewould not be considered an anode or cathode.Alternating current electrodesFor electrical systems which use alternating current the electrodes are the connections from thecircuitry to the object to be acted upon by the electric current but are not designated anode orcathode since the direction of flow of the electrons changes periodically, usually many times persecond.UsesElectrodes are used to provide current through nonmetal objects to alter them in numerous waysand to measure conductivity for numerous purposes.Examples include:• Electrodes for medical purposes, such as EEG, ECG, ECT, defibrillator• Electrodes for electrophysiology techniques in biomedical research• Electrodes for execution by the electric chair• Electrodes for electroplating• Electrodes for arc welding• Electrodes for cathodic protection• Electrodes for grounding• Electrodes for chemical analysis using electrochemical methods• Inert electrodes for electrolysis (made of platinum)• Membrane electrode assemblyChemically modified electrodesChemically modified electrodes are electrodes that have their surfaces chemically modified tochange the electrodes physical, chemical, electrochemical, optical, electrical, and transportproperties. These electrodes are used for advanced purposes in research and investigation. SUBMERGED ARC WELDINGSubmerged arc welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process. Originally developed by the Linde- Union Carbide Company. It requires a non-continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (fluxcored) electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contaminationby being “submerged” under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganeseoxide, calcium fluoride, and other compounds. When molten, the flux becomes conductive, andprovides a current path between the electrode and the work. This thick layer of flux completelycovers the molten metal thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as suppressing the intenseultraviolet radiation and fumes that are a part of the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process.
SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode, however, semi-automatic (hand-held) SAW guns with pressurized or gravity flux feed delivery are available. The process is normallylimited to the flat or horizontal-fillet welding positions (although horizontal groove position weldshave been done with a special arrangement to support the flux). Deposition rates approaching 100lb/h (45 kg/h) have been reported — this compares to ~10 lb/h (5 kg/h) (max) for shielded metalarc welding. AlthoughCurrents ranging from300 to 2000 A arecommonly utilized,currents of up to 5000 Ahave also been used(multiple arcs).Single or multiple (2 to 5)electrode wire variationsof the process exist. SAWstrip-cladding utilizes aflat strip electrode (e.g. 60mm wide x 0.5 mm thick).DC or AC power can beused, and combinations ofDC and AC are common onmultiple electrodesystems. Constant voltagewelding power supplies FIGURE 6: SUBMERGED ARC WELDING. THE WELDING HEAD MOVES FROMare most commonly used; RIGHT TO LEFT. THE FLUX POWDER IS SUPPLIED BY THE HOPPER ON THE LEFT HAND SIDE, THEN FOLLOW THREE FILLER WIRE GUNS AND FINALLY Ahowever, constant current VACUUM CLEANER.systems in combinationwith a voltage sensingwire-feeder are available. OXY-FUEL WELDING AND CUTTINGOxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.)and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals,respectively. French engineers Edmond Fouché and CharlesPicard became the first to develop oxygen-acetylene weldingin 1903. Pure oxygen, instead of air (20% oxygen/80%nitrogen), is used to increase the flame temperature to allowlocalized melting of the workpiece material (e.g. steel) in aroom environment. A common propane/air flame burns atabout 3,630 °F (2,000 °C), a propane/oxygen flame burns atabout 4,530 °F (2,500 °C), and an acetylene/oxygen flameburns at about 6,330 °F (3,500 °C).Oxy-fuel is one of the oldest welding processes. Still used inindustry, in recent decades it has been less widely utilized inindustrial applications as other specifically devised
technologies have been adopted. It is still widely used forwelding pipes and tubes, as well as repair work. It is alsofrequently well-suited, and favored, for fabricating sometypes of metal-based artwork.In oxy-fuel welding, a welding torch is used to weld metals.Welding metal results when two pieces are heated to atemperature that produces a shared pool of molten metal.The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metalcalled filler. Filler material depends upon the metals to bewelded.In oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen isthen trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag.Torches that do not mix fuel with oxygen (combining, instead, atmospheric air) are not consideredoxy-fuel torches and can typically be identified by a single tank (Oxy-fuel cutting requires twoisolated supplies, fuel and oxygen). Most metals cannot be melted with a single-tank torch. As such,single-tank torches are typically used only for soldering and brazing, rather than welding.
MACHINE SHOP -UNDER SURINDER SINGH ( F R O M 2 8 T H J U N E 2 0 1 1 TO 4 T H J U N E 2 0 1 1 ) MACHINES AVAILABLE IN THE MACHINE SHOP 1. To 23. Lathes in different sizes 24. SB CNC 25. NH CNC 26. BVS 25/50 27. Milling (total 6 machines,m1 to m6) 28. Horizontal boring machines 29. Radial drill (3) 30. Slotters (2) 31. Shapers (3) 32. Power grinders (4) 33. Surface grinders 34. Center less grinder 35. Tool post grinder 36. Power hacksaw 37. Band saw 38. Gear hobbins 39. Circular saw 40. EOT cranes (10 ton and 5 ton capacities) 41. Planomiller LATHEOne of the most important machine tools in the metalworking industry is the lathe. A lathe operateson the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is feed into theworkpiece, which rotates about its own Z-axis, causing the workpiece to be formed to the desiredshape. The lathes in the Student Shop are commonly referred to as “engine lathes”. Thisis the mostpopular type of lathe in industry because of its versatility and ease ofoperation. Some of the morefrequently performed operations on theengine lathe are: turning cylindricalsurfaces, facing flat surfaces, drilling andboring holes, and cutting internal or externalthreads. Although relatively simple, thesefew operations provide a wide range ofmanufacturing ability. Lathes are classifiedaccording to the maximum diameter, (knowas the “swing”), and the maximum length ofthe workpiece that can be handled by thelathe. Another important characteristic ofany lathe is the maximum horsepower thatcan be supplied to rotate the workpiece. Anew way lathes are being classified today is by their controls, manual, computer-numerically-
controlled, (commonly called CNC), and the latest referred to as hybrid lathes. Hybrid lathes are across between the standard manually operated lathe and the computer operated lathe, CNC.Lathe ConstructionThere are four main groups of components that comprise the basis for all engine lathes. Theseconsist of the: bed, headstock, tailstock, and the carriage. Please refer to figure for clarity.The bed is the foundation of the engine lathe. The bed is a heavy, rugged casting made to supportthe working parts of the lathe. The size and mass of the bed gives the rigidity necessary for accurateengineering tolerances required in manufacturing today. On top of the bed are machined ways thatguide and align the carriage and tailstock, as they are move from one end of the lathe to the other.The headstock is clamped atop the bed at the left-hand end of the lathe. The headstock contains themotor that drives the spindle through a series of gears. The workpiece is mounted to the spindlethrough means of a chuck, faceplate, or collet. Since the headstock contains the motor and drivegears, the speed or RPM at which the spindle rotates is also controlled here. The headstock alsocontains the power feed adjustments, which are the controls for the rate at which the carriagemoves when the power feed lever in engaged. The carriage assembly moves lengthwise,(longitudinally), along the ways between the headstock and the tailstock. The carriage is composedof the cross slide, compound rest, saddle, and apron. The saddle is an H shaped casting mounted ontop of the ways, and supports the cross slide and compound rest. The apron is fastened to thesaddle, and houses the automatic feed mechanisms. The cross slide is mounted on top of the saddle,and can be moved either manually or automatically across the longitudinal axis (Z-axis) of thespindle. This provides the lathe’s X-axis, which is the diameter the workpiece is machined to. Thecompound rest holds the tool post, which supports the cutting tool. Mounted on top of the crossslide, the compound rest can be swiveled to any angle in the horizontal plane. This is useful whencutting angles and short tapers on the workpiece.ProceduresProficiency in lathe operations involves more than simply “turning” metal. Quality work can beproduced on the lathe if the job is planned in advance. There are two main categories of proceduresto be followed when machining parts on a lathe: the preliminary operations, and the machiningoperations.Preliminary Operations-Cleaning- The first, (and last), procedure in any machining operation. Without clean equipment andtools, the accuracy of the finished product diminishes quickly. The accuracy, durability, andlongevity of the equipment and tools depend on being kept clean. In today’s high tolerances inengineering, cleanliness is critical.Holding the workpiece- There are several types of holding devices used on the engine lathe. Themost common is the three-jaw chuck (see figure). This chuck permits all three jaws to worksimultaneously, automatically centering round or hexagonal shaped pieces. Each jaw only fits withthe particular groove in the exact chuck it was made for, so the jaws are not interchangeablebetween chucks. The advantages of this type of chuck are that it is very versatile, quick set-up, largerange of sizes, and uniform holding pressure on the workpiece. The disadvantage is that is the leastaccurate of the holding devices in the Student Shop. The three-jaw chuck only has an accuracy of
between +0.005” to +0.010”, depending upon its condition. The second type of chuck is the four-jawchuck, (see figure). This is also called the independent chuck because each of its jaws operatesindependent of the other three. This permits odd shaped work to be held and centered about afeature. The advantages are that it is versatile, provides a secure hold o the workpiece, large rangeof sizes, and has extremely accurate centering method. The four-jaw chuck is accurate to +0.0005”.The main disadvantage is the long process necessary to center the workpiece, requiring a high levelof in the use of a dial indicator. A third important holding device is the spring collet. This is apopular style due to its ease of use and good accuracy. The spring collet will usually repeat within+0.001”. Disadvantages to the spring collet are limitations to the size of each collet, (+0.005”),restrictive to only round workpieces, and a maximum diameter of 1-1/16”. 3-Jaw Chuck 4-JawChuck Spring ColletTooling- Tools must be clamped securely to the tool post regardless of what type of tool is beingused. It is also recommended to have the cutting tool extended the least amount possible to reducetorque and vibrations induced in the tool when cutting. The tools must be adjusted so that theircutting edge is at the height of the exact center of the workpiece. This Defined as a line runningbetween the center of the headstock and tailstock spindles. Each lathe has a turning, facing andparting tool as part of its tooling accessories.Machine Controls- Many factors must beconsidered when determining the correct speed,(RPM), and feed rates. Some of these are:1. Type of material being machined.2. Desired finish to the workpiece.3. Condition of the lathe.4. Rigidity of the workpiece. Smaller diameters areless rigid.5. Shape and size of the workpiece.6. Size and type of tooling being used.Machining OperationsOnce the set-up is complete, a quick check shouldbe made of the machine settings. Next, the workshould be checked that it is in the holding devicecorrectly. This is done with the machine OFF, FIGURE 7: A STEADY RESTmanually rotate the chuck, seeing if there are anyinterference points or possible inference points. Once this is complete, the machining operationscan being. There are usually two phase to machining, roughing and finishing. The roughingoperation is the process of removing the unwanted material to within about 1/32”, (about 0.030”),of the finished dimension. Roughing speeds are approximately 80% of the finishing speeds.Roughing feed rates are from 0.005” to 0.010”/revolution. Sizes and lengths should be check afterthe roughing operation before going on to the finish operation. Finish operations are used to bringthe workpiece to the required size, length, shape, and surface finish. Depending upon the surface
finish desired, feed rates are generally between 0.001” to 0.005”/revolution. The main differencebetween roughing and finishing cuts is the depth of cut. Depth of cut refers to the distance thecutter has been fed, or advanced, into the workpiece surface. The depth of cut, like feed rates, variesgreatly with the machining conditions. Material, hardness, speed, and total material needed to beremoved all play a part in figuring the depth of cut amount. Roughing depth of cuts are greater, ordeeper than finishing depth of cuts, which are finer or shallower. All cuts, whether roughing orfinishing, should be made from right to left. Traveling towards the chuck as oppose to away from itoffers the greatest rigidity and therefore the greatest safety.Safety;The lathe can be a safe machine, but only if the student is aware of the hazards involved. In themachine shop you must always keep your mind on your work in order toavoid accidents.Distractions should be taken care of before machining is begun. Develop safe working habits in theuse of safety glasses, set-ups, and tools. The following rules must be observed when working on thelathes in the Student Shop:1. No attempt should be made to operate the lathe until you understand the proper procedures forits use and have been checked out on it.2. Dress appropriately. Remove all watches and jewelry. Safety glasses or goggles are a must.3. Plan out your work thoroughly before starting.4. Know where the location of the OFF switch is.5. Be sure the work and holding device are firmly attached.6. Turn the chuck by hand, with the lathe turned OFF, to be sure there is no danger of striking anypart of the lathe.7. Always remove the chuck key from the chuck immediately after use, and before operating thelathe. Make it a habit to never let go of the chuck key until it is out of the chuck and back in itsholder.8. Keep the machine clear of tools. Tools must not be placed on the ways of the lathe.9. Stop the lathe before making any measurements, adjustments, or cleaning.10. Support all work solidly. Do not permit small diameter work to project too far from the chuck,(over 3X’s the work’s diameter), without support.12. If the work must be repositioned or removed from the lathe. Move the cutting tool clear of thework to prevent any accidental injuries.13. You should always be aware of the direction of travel and speed of the carriage before youengage the automatic feed.14. Chips are sharp. Do not attempt to remove them with your hand when they become “stringy”and build up on the tool post or workpiece. Stop the machine and remove them with plies.
15. Stop the lathe immediately if any odd noise or vibration develops while you are operating it. Ifyou cannot locate the source of the trouble, get help from the instructor. Under no circumstanceshould the lathe be operated until the problem has been corrected.16. Remove sharp edges and burrs from the work before removing it from the lathe.17. Use care when cleaning the lathe. Chips sometimes get caught in recesses. Remove them with abrush or short stick. Never use a floor brush to clean the machine. Use only a brush, compressed air,or a rag. SHAPERShaper with boring bar setup to allow cutting of internal features, such as keyways, or even shapesthat might otherwise be cut with wire EDM. A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linearrelative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath.Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical. (Addingaxes of motion can yield helical toolpaths, as also done in helical planing.) A shaper is analogous to aplaner, but smaller, and with the cutter riding a ram that moves above a stationary workpiece,rather than the entire workpiece moving beneath the cutter. The ram is moved back and forthtypically by a crank inside the column; hydraulically actuated shapers also exist.TypesShapers are mainly classified as higher, draw-cut, horizontal, universal, vertical, geared, crank,hydraulic, contour and traveling head. The horizontal arrangement is the most common. Verticalshapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined (same ideaas in helical planing). The vertical shaper is essentially the same thing as a slotter (slottingmachine), although technically a distinction can be made if one defines a true vertical shaper as amachine whose slide can be moved from the vertical. A slotter is fixed in the vertical plane.Small shapers have been successfully made to operate by hand power. As size increases, the mass ofthe machine and its power requirements increase, and it becomes necessary to use a motor or othersupply of mechanical power. This motor drives a mechanical arrangement (using a pinion gear, bullgear, and crank, or a chain over sprockets) or a hydraulic motor that supplies the necessarymovement via hydraulic cylinders. PLANER (METALWORKING)A planer is a type of metalworking machine tool that uses linear relative motion between theworkpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analogous to that ofa lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical. (Adding axes of motion can yieldhelical toolpaths; see "Helical planing" below.) A planer is analogous to a shaper, but larger, andwith the entire workpiece moving on a table beneath the cutter, instead of the cutter riding a ramthat moves above a stationary workpiece. The table is moved back and forth on the bed beneath thecutting head either by mechanical means, such as a rack and pinion drive or a leadscrew, or by ahydraulic cylinder.Linear planingThe most common applications of planers and shapers are linear-toolpath ones, such as:
• Generating accurate flat surfaces. (While not as precise as grinding, a planer can remove atremendous amount of material in one pass with high accuracy.)• Cutting slots (such as keyways).• It is even possible to obviate wire EDM work in some cases. Starting from a drilled or cored hole, aplaner with a boring-bar type tool can cut internal features that dont lend themselves to milling orboring (such as irregularly shaped holes with tight corners).Helical planingAlthough the archetypal toolpath of a planer is linear, helical toolpaths can be accomplished viafeatures that correlate the tools linear advancement to simultaneous workpiece rotation (forexample, an indexing head with linkage to the main motion of the planer). To use todaysterminology, one can give the machine other axes in addition to the main axis. The helical planingidea shares close analogy with both helical milling and single-point screw cutting. Although thiscapability existed from almost the very beginning of planers (circa 1820), the machining of helicalfeatures (other than screw threads themselves) remained a hand-filing affair in most machineshops until the 1860s, and such hand-filing did not become rare until another several decades hadpassed. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINEA horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in ahorizontal direction. There are three main types — table, planer and floor. The table type is the mostcommon and, as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type. A horizontal boringmachine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. Typically there are 3 linearaxes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives thepart towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross-traversing X axis and a vertically-traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated,its centre line is the B axis. Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machinesused for roughing out large components but there are high-precision models too. Modern machinesuse advanced CNC control systems and techniques. Charles DeVlieg entered the Machine Tool Hallof Fame for his work upon a highly precise model which he called a JIGMIL. The accuracy of thismachine convinced the USAF to accept John Parsons idea for numerically controlled machine tools. MILLING MACHINEA milling machine is a machine tool used to machine solid materials. Milling machines are oftenclassed in two basic forms, horizontal and vertical, which refers to the orientation of the mainspindle. Both types range in size from small, bench-mounted devices to room-sized machines.Unlike a drill press, which holds the workpiece stationary as the drill moves axially to penetrate thematerial, milling machines also move the workpiece radially against the rotating milling cutter,which cuts on its sides as well as its tip. Work piece and cutter movement are precisely controlledto less than 0.001 in (unknown operator: ustrong mm), usually by means of precision groundslides and leadscrews or analogous technology. Milling machines may be manually operated,mechanically automated, or digitally automated via computer numerical control.Milling machinescan perform a vast number of operations, from simple (e.g., slot and keyway cutting, planing,drilling) to complex (e.g., contouring, die sinking). Cutting fluid is often pumped to the cutting siteto cool and lubricate the cut and to wash away the resulting swarf.
Types and nomenclatureMill orientation is the primary classification for milling machines. The two basic configurations arevertical and horizontal. However, there are alternate classifications according to method of control,size, purpose and power source.Mill orientationVertical millIn the vertical mill the spindle axis is vertically oriented. Milling cutters are held in the spindle androtate on its axis. The spindle can generally be extended (or the table can be raised/lowered, givingthe same effect), allowing plunge cuts and drilling. There are two subcategories of vertical mills: thebed mill and the turret mill.• A turret mill has a stationary spindle and the table is moved both perpendicular and parallel tothe spindle axis to accomplish cutting. The most common example of this type is the Bridgeport,described below. Turret mills often have a quill which allows the milling cutter to be raised andlowered in amanner similar to a drill press. This type of machine provides two methods of cuttingin the vertical (Z) direction: by raising or lowering the quill, and by moving the knee.• In the bed mill, however, the table moves only perpendicular to the spindles axis, while thespindle itself moves parallel to its own axis. Turret mills are generally considered by some to bemore versatile of the two designs. However, turret mills are only practical as long as the machineremains relatively small. As machine size increases, moving the knee up and down requiresconsiderable effort and it also becomes difficult to reach the quill feed handle (if equipped).Therefore, larger milling machines are usually of the bed type. Also of note is a lighter machine,called a mill-drill. It is quite popular with hobbyists, due to its small size and lower price. A mill-drillis similar to a small drill press but equipped with an X-Y table. These are frequently of lower qualitythan other types of machines.Horizontal millA horizontal mill has the same sort of x–y table, but the cutters are mounted on a horizontal arbor(see Arbor milling) across the table. Many horizontal mills also feature a built-in rotary table thatallows milling at various angles; this feature is called a universal table. While endmills and the othertypes of tools available to a vertical mill may be used in a horizontal mill, their real advantage lies inarbor-mounted cutters, called side and face mills, which have a cross section rather like a circularsaw, but are generally wider and smaller in diameter. Because the cutters have good support fromthe arbor and have a larger cross-sectional area than an end mill, quite heavy cuts can be takenenabling rapid material removal rates. These are used to mill grooves and slots. Plain mills are usedto shape flat surfaces. Several cutters may be ganged together on the arbor to mill a complex shapeof slots and planes. Special cutters can also cut grooves, bevels, radii, or indeed any section desired.These specialty cutters tend to be expensive. Simplex mills have one spindle, and duplex mills havetwo. It is also easier to cut gears on a horizontal mill. Some horizontal milling machines areequipped with a power-take-off provision on the table. This allows the table feed to besynchronized to a rotary fixture, enabling the milling of spiral features such as hypoid gears.
INDEXING HEADAn indexing head, also known as a dividing head or spiral head, is a specialized tool that allows aworkpiece to be circularly indexed; that is, easily and precisely rotated to preset an gles or circulardivisions. Indexing heads are usually used on the tables of milling machines, but may be used onmany other machine tools including drill presses, grinders, and boring machines. Common jobs fora dividing head include machining the flutes of a milling cutter, cutting the teeth of a gear, millingcurved slots, or drilling a bolt hole circle around the circumference of a part.The tool is similar to a rotary table exceptthat it is designed to be tilted as well asrotated. Most adjustable designs allow thehead to be tilted from 10° below horizontalto 90° vertical, at which point the head isparallel with the machine table. Theworkpiece is held in the indexing head inthe same manner as a metalworking lathe.This is most commonly a chuck but caninclude a collet fitted directly into thespindle on the indexing head, faceplate, orbetween centers. If the part is long then itmay be supported with the help of an FIGURE 8: INDEXING PLATESaccompanying tailstock.Manual indexing headsCross-section of an indexing head Interchangeable indexing plates Indexing is an operation ofdividing a periphery of a cylindrical workpiece into equal number of divisions by the help of indexcrank and index plate. A manual indexing head includes a hand crank. Rotating the hand crank inturn rotates the spindle and therefore the workpiece. The hand crank uses a worm gear drive toprovide precise control of the rotation of the work. The work may be rotated and then locked intoplace before the cutter is applied, or it may be rotated during cutting depending on the type ofmachining being done. Most dividing heads operate at a 40:1 ratio; that is 40 turns of the handcrank generates 1 revolution of the spindle or workpiece. In other words, 1 turn of the hand crankrotates the spindle by 9 degrees. Because the operator of the machine may want to rotate the partto an arbitrary angle indexing plates are used to ensure the part is accurately positioned.Direct indexing plate: Most dividing heads have an indexing plate permanently attached to thespindle. This plate is located at the end of the spindle, very close to where the work would bemounted. It is fixed to the spindle and rotates with it. This plate is usually equipped with a series ofholes that enables rapid indexing to common angles, such as 30, 45, or 90 degrees. A pin in the baseof the dividing head can be extended into the direct indexing plate to lock the head quickly into oneof these angles. The advantage of the direct indexing plate is that it is fast and simple and nocalculations are required to use it. The disadvantage is that it can only be used for a limited numberof angles. A dividing head mounted on the table of a small milling machine. The direct indexingplate and center are visible facing the camera. An interchangeable indexing plate is visible on theleft side. Interchangeable indexing plates are used when the work must be rotated to an angle notavailable on the direct indexing plate. Because the hand crank is fixed to the spindle at a known
ratio (commonly 40:1) then dividing plates mounted at the handwheel can be used to create finerdivisions for precise orientation at arbitrary angles. These dividing plates are provided in sets ofseveral plates. Each plate has rings of holes with different divisions. For example, an indexing platemight have three rows of holes with 24, 30, and 36 holes in each row. A pin on the hand crankengages these holes. Index plates with up to 400 holes are available. Only one such plate can bemounted to the dividing head at a time. The plate is selected by the machinist based on exactly whatangle he wishes to index to.Brown and Sharpe indexing heads include a set of 3 indexing plates. The plates are marked #1,#2 and #3, or "A", "B" and "C". Each plate contains 6 rows of holes. Plate #1 or "A" has 15, 16, 17,18, 19, and 20 holes. Plate #2 or "B" has 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, and 33 holes. Plate #3 or "C" has 37, 39,41, 43, 47, and 49 holes.Some manual indexing heads are equipped with a power drive provision. This allows the rotation ofthe dividing head to be connected to the table feed of the milling machine instead of using a handcrank. A set of change gears is provided to select the ratio between the table feed and rotation. Thissetup allows the machining of spiral or helical features such as spiral gears, worms, or screw typeparts because the part is simultaneously rotated at the same timeit is moved in the horizontaldirection. This setup is called a "PTO dividing head". NUMERICAL CONTROLNumerical control (NC) refers to theautomation of machine tools that are operatedby abstractly programmed commands encodedon a storage medium, as opposed to controlledmanually via handwheels or levers, ormechanically automated via cams alone. Thefirst NC machines were built in the 1940s and1950s, based on existing tools that weremodified with motors that moved the controlsto follow points fed into the system onpunched tape. These early servomechanismswere rapidly augmented with analog anddigital computers, creating the moderncomputer numerical control (CNC) machine FIGURE 9: A SIEMENS CNC MACHINEtools that have revolutionized the machiningprocesses.In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aideddesign (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce acomputer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machinevia a postprocessor (for specific controller), and then loaded into the CNC machines for production.Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools-drills, saws,etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number ofdifferent machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that movethe component from machine to machine.
TRANSMISSION SHOP - U N D E R P O O R N A K O L A G A N I ( I I T K HA R A G P U R ) ( 0 5 - 0 7 - 2 0 1 1 TO 1 1 - 0 7 - 2 0 1 1 )Transmissions available: 1. Model No. HD-785-2 transmission (85 ton dumper) 2. Model No. BD-335X transmission (410 hp dozer) 3. Model No. CLVT-750 transmission (35 ton dumper) 4. Model No. Bh-85-1 transmission (Rear dumper)Details covered: 1. Clutch combinations 2. Valve combinations 3. Pressure oils used 4. Fitting, engaging and disengaging of clutches 5. PTO housing 6. Testing parameters for HD-785 7. Fluid coupling and torque converterBD355X BULL DOZERSALIENT FEATURES 1. BEML BS6D170-1 diesel engine: Turbo charged engine for superb fuel economy and generous power to weight ratio for powerful dozing. 2. Torqueflow transmission: Smooth and responsive power shift with single-lever control for instant speed and directional changes. 3. Pilot operated hydraulic system: Offers FIGURE 10: OVERHAULING A HD-785 TRANSMISSION effortless fine control of blade through joy stick 4. Operator Comfort: Conveniently located arm chair steering control for enhanced operator comfort. 5. Electronic Monitoring System: Intrdouction of state of the art electronic monitoring system, fitted with cluster gauges. 6. Steering clutch & Brakes: Track-roller frames are made of high tensile steel for maximum rigidity. The blade incorporates high-tensile steel at all key points to improve outstanding resistance to wear
7. Sturdy construction: High tensile steel blades of different configurations available for varying types of working conditions and applications . The work attatchment is sturdy in construction to withstand adverse ground conditions. 8. Sprockets: Bolt-on type segmented sprocket permits quick on site replacement. Special grooved type floating seals and unique dust seals provide extended undercarriage life. 9. Reduced noise levels: Radiator, fuel tank, floor frame and the cabin are mounted on anti- vibration rubber cushions to isolate vibration and to reduce noise levels.Flywheel power (net): 310kW (416HP) @ 2000 r/minOperating mass (with straight tilt dozer): 43850 kgTorque converter:In modern usage, a torque converter isgenerally a type of hydrodynamic fluid couplingthat is used to transfer rotating power from aprime mover, such as an internal combustionengine or electric motor, to a rotating drivenload. The torque converter normally takes theplace of a mechanical clutch in a vehicle with anautomatic transmission, allowing the load to beseparated from the power source.It is usually located between the enginesflexplate and the transmission. The keycharacteristic of a torque converter is its abilityto multiply torque when there is a substantialdifference between input and output rotationalspeed, thus providing the equivalent of areduction gear. Some of these devices are alsoequipped with a temporary locking mechanismwhich rigidly binds the engine to thetransmission when their speeds are nearly equal,to avoid slippage and a resulting loss of FIGURE 11: TORQUE CONVERTER CUT-AWAYefficiency. By far the most common form oftorque converter in automobile transmissions is the device described here. However, in the 1920sthere was also the pendulum-based Constantinesco torque converter. There are also mechanicaldesigns for continuously variable transmissions and these also have the ability to multiply torque,e.g. the Variomatic with expanding pulleys and a belt drive.Usage• Automatic transmissions on automobiles, such as cars, buses, and on/off highway trucks.• Forwarders and other heavy duty vehicles.• Marine propulsion systems.
• Industrial power transmission such as conveyor drives, almost all modern forklifts, winches,drilling rigs, construction equipment, and railway locomotives.FunctionTorque converter elementsA fluid coupling is a two element drive that is incapable of multiplying torque, while a torqueconverter has at least one extra element—the stator—which alters the drives characteristics duringperiods of high slippage, producing an increase in output torque.In a torque converter there are at least three rotating elements: the impeller, which is mechanicallydriven by the prime mover; the turbine, which drives the load; and the stator, which is interposedbetween the impeller and turbine so that it can alter oil flow returning from the turbine to theimpeller. The classic torque converter design dictates that the stator be prevented from rotatingunder any condition, hence the term stator. In practice, however, the stator is mounted on anoverrunning clutch, which prevents the stator from counter-rotating with respect to the primemover but allows forward rotation.Modifications to the basic three element design have been periodically incorporated, especially inapplications where higher than normal torque multiplication is required. Most commonly, thesehave taken the form of multiple turbines and stators, each set being designed to produce differingamounts of torque multiplication. For example, the Buick Dynaflow automatic transmission was anon-shifting design and, under normal conditions, relied solely upon the converter to multiplytorque. The Dynaflow used a five element converter to produce the wide range of torquemultiplication needed to propel a heavy vehicle. Although not strictly a part of classic torqueconverter design, many automotive converters include a lock-up clutch to improve cruising powertransmission efficiency and reduce heat. The application of the clutch locks the turbine to theimpeller, causing all power transmission to be mechanical, thus eliminating losses associated withfluid drive.Operational phasesA torque converter has three stages of operation:• Stall. The prime mover is applying power to the impeller but the turbine cannot rotate. Forexample, in an automobile, this stage of operation would occur when the driver has placed thetransmission in gear but is preventing the vehicle from moving by continuing to apply the brakes.At stall, the torque converter can produce maximum torque multiplication if sufficient input poweris applied (the resulting multiplication is called the stall ratio). The stall phase actually lasts for abrief period when the load (e.g., vehicle) initially starts to move, as there will be a very largedifference between pump and turbine speed.• Acceleration. The load is accelerating but there still is a relatively large difference betweenimpeller and turbine speed. Under this condition, the converter will produce torque multiplicationthat is less than what could be achieved under stall conditions. The amount of multiplication willdepend upon the actual difference between pump and turbine speed, as well as various otherdesign factors.
• Coupling. The turbine has reached approximately 90percent of the speed of the impeller. Torque multiplicationhas essentially ceased and the torque converter is behavingin a manner similar to a simple fluid coupling. In modernautomotive applications, it is usually at this stage ofoperation where the lock-up clutch is applied, a procedurethat tends to improve fuel efficiency. The key to the torqueconverters ability to multiply torque lies in the stator. In theclassic fluid coupling design, periods of high slippage cause FIGURE 12: A CUT-AWAY MODEL OFthe fluid flow returning from the turbine to the impellor to A TORQUE CONVERTERoppose the direction of impeller rotation, leading to asignificant loss of efficiency and the generation of considerable waste heat. Under the samecondition in a torque converter, the returning fluid will be redirected by the stator so that it aids therotation of the impeller, instead of impeding it. The result is that much of the energy in thereturning fluid is recovered and added to the energy being applied to the impeller by the primemover. This action causes a substantial increase in the mass of fluid being directed to the turbine,producing an increase in output torque. Since the returning fluid is initially travelling in a directionopposite to impeller rotation, the stator will likewise attempt to counter-rotate as it forces the fluidto change direction, an effect that is prevented by the one-way stator clutch.Unlike the radially straight blades used in a plain fluid coupling, a torque converters turbine andstator use angled and curved blades. The blade shape of the stator is what alters the path of thefluid, forcing it to coincide with the impeller rotation. The matching curve of the turbine bladeshelps to correctly direct the returning fluid to the stator so the latter can do its job. The shape of theblades is important as minor variations can result in significant changes to the convertersperformance. During the stall and acceleration phases, in which torque multiplication occurs, thestator remains stationary due to the action of its one-way clutch. However, as the torque converterapproaches the coupling phase, the energy and volume of the fluid returning from the turbine willgradually decrease, causing pressure on the stator to likewise decrease. Once in the coupling phase,the returning fluid will reverse direction and now rotate in the direction of the impellor andturbine, an effect which will attempt to forward-rotate the stator. At this point, the stator clutch willrelease and the impeller, turbine and stator will all (more or less) turn as a unit.Unavoidably, some of the fluids kinetic energy will be lost due to friction and turbulence, causingthe converter to generate waste heat (dissipated in many applications by water cooling). This effect,often referred to as pumping loss, will be most pronounced at or near stall conditions. In moderndesigns, the blade geometry minimizes oil velocity at low impeller speeds, which allows the turbineto be stalled for long periods with little danger of overheating.
ENGINE SHOP - U N D E R M R . K R I S H N A M O HA N (FROM 12.07.2011 TO 20.07.2011)Engines available:1) CUMMINS: a) NT-495 (145hp-4 cylinder) b) NT/A-495 c) NT-855 d) NT/A-855 (280 hp-6 cylinder) e) NT-743 f) VT-1710 g) VT/A-1710 h) KT-1150 i) KT/A-1150 j) KT-2300 (900 hp-12 cylinder) k) KT/A-2300 l) KT/A-38C m) KT/A-3067 (1600hp-16 cylinders)2) BEML: a) 6D-170mm (410hp-6 cylinders) b) 6D-140mm (280hp-6 cylinders) FIGURE 13: CRANKSHAFT GRINDING MACHINE3) DDC (Detra Diesel Corp.) a) S-2000 (1200hp-16 cylinders)4) CATERPILLER: a) DITA-3406 (400hp-6 cylinders) b) DITA-3506 (870 hp-8 cylinders) c) CAT-3508 (900 hp-8 cylinders)Topics covered: 1. Cooling system 2. Air system 3. Lubrication system 4. Fuel system 5. Different manifolds 6. Turbocharger and supercharger in details 7. Construction of an air compressor 8. Construction of a water pump 9. Construction of a fuel injector
COOLING SYSTEMSCooling system consists of the following major parts: Air/water Pump Cylinder block Oil cooler Cylinder head Water manifold Thermostat housing AIR SYSTEMSThe air system consists of following important components: Air cleaner Turbocharger After cooler Intake manifold Inlet valve Combustion chamber LUBRICATION SYSTEMSThe lubrication system consists of thefollowing important components: Oil sump Suction pipe Oil pump Oil regulator Oil filter Oil cooler Main gallery Sub gallery Piston cooling nozzle gallery Cylinder head All moving components FIGURE 14: ENGINES KEPT AT CWS JAYANT WORKSHOP Back to sump
FUEL SYSTEMSThe fuel system consists of the following important parts: Fuel tank Fuel filter Fuel pump o Pressure timing pump o Fuel injection pump Fuel manifold Fuel injector nozzle Combustion chamber