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Sampling in Educational Research Writing

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Sampling in Educational Research Writing

  1. 1. SAMPLING Educational Research Writing Group 6
  2. 2. •In conducting a study, the researcher may study every member of a given population or just representative sample of that population. • For various reasons, a study of a sample of the population is often done instead of complete enumeration. •The process of choosing a representative sample of population is called SAMPLING.
  3. 3. Selecting the Study Population •The information collected in order to answer the objectives of a study is obtained from cases/individuals or objects. EXAMPLE. In the study of Attitudes of Farmers and Landowners towards Land Reform. The attitudes that will be examined are those of farmers and landowners, and they will most likely be the source of information. These cases or individuals are commonly called research subjects or respondents.
  4. 4. •Once the type of cases to be studied has been determined, the researcher must decide next how the cases will be selected. For this purpose, it is important to distinguish between the total population and the sample from which the data will be collected. •The population is composed of elements, each of which is a potential case in study. Depending on the objectives of the study , the available resources and the available time for the study, a researcher may decide whether to study all the available elements or cases in a population or just a sample from the entire population. The usual practice is to select and study a small sample of the total population. This process is called sampling.
  5. 5. The Nature of Sampling (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996) •Sampling is the process of choosing a representative portion of a population or some elements in a population that will represent the entire population. •It is assumed that the characteristics of the chosen elements, called sample, reflect the characteristics of the entire population. In contrast total enumeration or census requires the study of all elements in the population. In the study of sampling, it is important to distinguish the following concepts: population, target population, sampling population, sampling frame and sample.
  6. 6. 1. Population refers to the total number of elements (e.g. items, objects, areas, or individuals) to be studied. For example, in the study of Sexual Attitudes and Practices of Students in Public High Schools in Province A, all students in public high school in the province constitute the study of population. 1. Target Population is the population for which representative information is desired. 2. Sampling Population is the population from which a sample is actually drawn.
  7. 7. 3. Sampling Frame is the list of all elements or sampling units (e.g. items, persons) in a population. The sample is drawn from the sampling frame. 4. Population Elements pertains to an item, an object, an area, or an individual on which data will be taken. It is considered the unit of study. In the example above, a student in a public high school is a population element. 5. Sample refers to an individual, an element or a group of individuals or elements on which information is obtained. The sample is drawn from a population to which research results are generalized.
  8. 8. Why Study a Sample? There are several advantages of studying a sample rather than the total population. Studying a sample is generally cheaper, faster, and yields more accurate results than conducting total enumeration. It is cheaper. Since a sample is smaller than the entire population, collection and processing of data, therefore, costs much less. It is faster. It is definitely quicker to study fewer individuals or elements than an entire population. It is more accurate. Fewer errors are expected in data collection and processing in a study of a sample than in a study of the entire population. It ca yield more comprehensive information. A small sample can be more thoroughly investigated and can yield more comprehensive information than a big population.
  9. 9. Basic Types of Sampling Non-probality Sampling. It is arbitrary (non- random) and is generally subjective. Data gatherers choose sample cases, “as they wish” or “wherever they find them.” Probality Sampling. It is based on the concept of random selection, a procedure that assures that all elements in the population are given an equal chance of being selected as a sample unit.