New words• Service line – линия подачи• Sideline – боковая линия игрового поля• Server – подающий• Receiver – принимающий• Deuce – равный счет 40:40• Advantage – счет «больше»
New words• Love – ноль• At love – всухую, не дав заработать ни очка• By two to love – со счетом 2:0• Love all – сухая ничья• Break point – серия удачных ударов• Tie – break – дополнительная игра для выявления победителя• Foot fault – потеря подачи из-за неправильного положения ног подающего
Tennis is a sport played betweentwo players (singles) or betweentwo teams of two players each(doubles). Each layer uses astrung racquet to strike a hollowrubber ball covered with felt overa net into the opponents court.The modern game of tennisoriginated in the United Kingdomin the late 19th century as "lawntennis". Tennis is an Olympicsport and is played at all levels ofsociety at all ages. The rules oftennis have changed very littlesince the 1890s. Tennis enjoysmillions of recreational playersand is also a hugely popularworldwide spectator sport,especially the four Grand Slamtournaments: the AustralianOpen, the French Open,Wimbledon, and the US Open.
Tennis as the modern sport can be dated to twoseparate roots. Between 1859 and 1863, MajorHarry Gem and his friend Augurio Pereradeveloped a game that combined elements ofrackets and the Basque ball game pelota, whichthey played on Pereras croquet lawn inBirmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along withtwo local doctors, they founded the worlds firsttennis club in Leamington Spa. The Courier of July23, 1884 recorded one of the first tennistournaments, held in the grounds of ShrublandHall.In December 1873, Major Walter CloptonWingfield designed and patented a similar game —which he called sphairistike, and was soon knownsimply as "sticky" — for the amusement of hisguests at a garden party on his estate ofNantclwyd, in Llanelidan, Wales. According tosome tennis historians, modern tennis terminologyalso derives from this period, as Wingfieldborrowed both the name and much of the Frenchvocabulary of real tennis and applied them to hisnew game.
•The first championships at Wimbledon in London were played in 1877.It culminated a significant debate on how to standardize the rules. Therewere different rules at each club. The ball in Boston was larger than theone normally used in NY. On May 21, 1881, the United States NationalLawn Tennis Association(now the United States Tennis Association) wasformed to standardize the rules and organize competitions.• The U.S. National Mens Singles Championship, now the US Open, wasfirst held in 1881 at Newport, Rhode Island.•The U.S. National Womens Singles Championships were first held in1887.•Tennis was also popular in France, where the French Open dates to1891. Thus, Wimbledon, the US Open, the French Open, and theAustralian Open (dating to 1905) became and have remained the mostprestigious events in tennis. Together these four events are called theMajors or Slams.•The Davis Cup, an annual competition between mens national teams,dates to 1900.The analogous competition for womens national teams, the Fed Cup,was founded as the Federation Cup in 1963 to celebrate the 50thanniversary of the founding of the ITF.
EQUIPMENT RACQUETThe tennis racquetcomprises a handle and neckjoining a roughly circularframe that holds an array oftightly pulled strings. For thefirst century of the moderngame, racquets were ofwood and of standard size,and strings were of animalgut. Beginners need only aracquet and balls.
EQUIPMENT TENNIS BALLTennis balls are of hollowrubber with a felt coating.Traditionally white, thepredominant color wasgradually changed to OpticYellow in the latter part ofthe twentieth century toallow for improvedvisibility.
EQUIPMENT MISCELLANEOUSRacket handles may be customized with absorbent materials to improve the players grip. Players often use sweat bands on their wrists to keep their hands dry as well. Finally, although the game can be played in a variety of shoes, specialized tennis shoes have wide, flat soles for stability and a built-up front structure to avoid excess wear.
COURTTennis is played on a rectangular, flatsurface, usually grass, clay, ahardcourt of concrete and/or asphaltand occasionally carpet. The court is78 feet long, and its width is 27 feetfor singles matches and 36 ft fordoubles matches. Additional clearspace around the court is required inorder for players to reach overrunballs. A net is stretched across thefull width of the court, parallel withthe baselines, dividing it into twoequal ends. The net is 3 feet 6 incheshigh at the posts and 3 feet high inthe center. The modern tennis courtowes its design to Major WalterClopton Wingfield.
LINESThe lines that delineate the width ofthe court are called the baseline(farthest back) and the service line(middle of the court). The shortmark in the center of each baselineis referred to as either the hashmark or the center mark. Theoutermost lines that make up thelength are called the doublessidelines. The area between adoubles sideline and the nearestsingles sideline is called the doublesalley. All the lines are required to bebetween 1 and 2 inches in width.
Play of a single pointThe players start on opposite sides of the net. One player is designated theserver, and the opposing player is the receiver. Service alternates betweenthe two halves of the court. For each point, the server starts behind hisbaseline, between the center mark and the sideline. The receiver may startanywhere on their side of the net. A game is won by the first player to havewon at least four points in total and at least two points more than theopponent. The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiarto tennis: scores from zero to three points are described as "love", "fifteen","thirty", and "forty" respectively. If at least three points have been scoredby each player, and the scores are equal, the score is "deuce". If at leastthree points have been scored by each side and a player has one more pointthan his opponent, the score of the game is "advantage" for the player inthe lead. During informal games, "advantage" can also be called "ad in" or"ad out", depending on whether the serving player or receiving player isahead, respectively. A break point occurs if the receiver, not the server, hasa game point.
Play of a single pointIn tournament play, the chair umpire announces theend of the match with the well-known phrase "Game,set, match" followed by the winning persons orteams name. In most professional play and someamateur competition, there is an officiating headjudge or chair umpire, who sits in a raised chair toone side of the court. The umpire has absoluteauthority to make factual determinations. Theumpire may be assisted by line judges, whodetermine whether the ball has landed within therequired part of the court and who also call footfaults. There also may be a net judge who determineswhether the ball has touched the net during service.