Adults media use and attitudes report by OFCOM

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Adults media use and attitudes report by OFCOM

  1. 1. Adults’ media use and attitudes report Research Document Publication date: April 2013
  2. 2. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 1 Contents Section Page 1 Executive summary ......................................................................................4 2 Introduction.................................................................................................12 2.1 Background .......................................................................................................12 2.2 Research methodology and analysis.................................................................12 3 Media literacy online – how it fits together..................................................14 3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................14 3.2 Change in media literacy over time ...................................................................15 3.3 Focus: High critical understanding and very confident internet users ...............19 4 Take-up, preference and media use...........................................................21 4.1 Household access to media devices .................................................................22 4.2 Regular media activities ....................................................................................27 4.3 Most-missed media activities.............................................................................32 4.4 Preference for making contact ..........................................................................34 4.5 Internet use, by device ......................................................................................36 4.6 Internet use, by location ....................................................................................41 4.7 Volume of internet use ......................................................................................44 4.8 Radio listening...................................................................................................47 4.9 Devices used to play games and volume of gaming use ..................................49 5 Understanding, attitudes and concerns about media..................................52 5.1 Awareness of the main source of media funding...............................................53 5.2 Regulation of media content..............................................................................54 5.3 Online content regulation ..................................................................................56 5.4 Protection against inappropriate or offensive media content.............................57 5.5 Trust in news, by media type.............................................................................59 5.6 Concerns about media, among users................................................................60 6 Using the internet .......................................................................................66 6.1 Confidence in aspects of using the internet ......................................................68 6.2 Websites visited ................................................................................................69 6.3 Online activities undertaken ..............................................................................73 6.4 Public and civic involvement .............................................................................84 6.5 Content creation and social networking ............................................................88 6.6 Frequency of visiting social networking sites.....................................................92
  3. 3. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 2 6.7 Number of friends or contacts on social networking sites .................................94 6.8 Uses of social networking sites .........................................................................95 6.9 Trust in social networking site content...............................................................97 6.10 Data privacy on social networking sites.............................................................98 6.11 Understanding how search engines operate...................................................100 6.12 Privacy concerns when posting information online..........................................102 6.13 Personal details prepared to provide online ....................................................105 6.14 Attitudes towards sharing personal information online....................................107 6.15 Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online...108 6.16 Security concerns when entering personal details online................................111 6.17 Attitudes towards shopping online...................................................................112 6.18 Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features...................113 6.19 Attitudes towards online passwords ................................................................115 6.20 Attitudes towards data privacy when purchasing online..................................116 6.21 Website terms and conditions/ privacy statements .........................................117 6.22 Experience of ‘negative’ online events in the past 12 months.........................118 6.23 Online copyright infringement..........................................................................120 7 Use of mobile phones...............................................................................122 7.1 Profile of smartphone users ............................................................................122 7.2 Activities undertaken at least weekly using a mobile phone............................124 7.3 Mobile phone users’ experience of ‘negative’ events......................................130 7.4 Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures or safety features ...130 8 Newer users of the internet.......................................................................133 8.1 Incidence of newer users within the online population ....................................134 8.2 Profile of new users.........................................................................................134 8.3 Volume of internet consumption and types of internet use..............................135 8.4 Websites visited ..............................................................................................139 8.5 Confidence as an internet user........................................................................140 8.6 Understanding of how search engines operate...............................................141 8.7 Privacy concerns when posting information online..........................................143 8.8 Security concerns about providing personal information.................................144 8.9 Attitudes towards sharing personal information online....................................145 8.10 Judgements made about websites..................................................................146 8.11 Security concerns when entering personal details online................................147 8.12 Attitudes towards shopping online...................................................................149 8.13 Awareness of use of online security measures/ safety features......................150 8.14 Attitudes towards online passwords ................................................................152
  4. 4. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 3 8.15 Experience of negative online events in the past 12 months ..........................153 9 ‘Narrow’ users of the internet....................................................................154 9.1 Defining breadth of use and Narrow users......................................................155 9.2 Volume and location of internet use ................................................................158 9.3 Websites visited ..............................................................................................159 9.4 Confidence as an internet user........................................................................160 9.5 Understanding how search engines operate...................................................162 9.6 Privacy concerns about sharing information online.........................................164 9.7 Security concerns about providing personal information.................................165 9.8 Attitudes towards sharing personal information online....................................166 9.9 Judgements made about websites..................................................................167 9.10 Security concerns about sharing information online........................................168 9.11 Attitudes towards shopping online...................................................................169 9.12 Awareness and use of online security measures/ safety features...................171 9.13 Attitudes towards online passwords ................................................................172 9.14 Experience of negative online events in the past 12 months ..........................174 10 Non-users of the internet ..........................................................................175 10.1 Internet take-up and intention to get access at home......................................175 10.2 Demographic profile of internet users and non-users......................................177 10.3 Proxy use of the internet by non-users............................................................178 10.4 Reasons for not intending to get internet access at home ..............................179 10.5 Interest in internet functions among non-users ...............................................181
  5. 5. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 4 Section 1 1 Executive summary UK adults are spending more time online There has been a significant increase in the self-reported volume of internet use since 2011. Overall estimated weekly volume of use of the internet among users has increased to an average of just under 17 hours per week (16.8 vs. 15.1 hours in 2011). Over half (53%) of UK adults now use a mobile phone to go online, rising to 86% among smartphone users, and more than one in ten use a tablet computer (16%), games console/ player (16%), or a portable media player (12%), all significant increases since 2011. On average, UK adult internet users claim to visit 19 websites in a typical week. There are considerable differences between demographic groups; for example, those over 75 estimate that they visit on average seven websites and ‘narrow users’1 six. This compares to people in AB households, and men, who estimate that they visit on average 27 and 24 respectively. Some 22% UK adult internet users say they visit fewer than five websites in a typical week. Smartphone growth continues, increasing mobile phone affinity Smartphone ownership among UK adults rose from 44% to 54% in 2011. The fastest growth was among the 16-24s (+15 percentage points), with significant growth also seen among the 35-44s (+13 percentage points) and the 55-64s (+11 percentage points); all of these are significant increases since 2011. Although television remains the media activity that is most likely to be missed by all adults (43%), this is not the case for 16-24s; they are twice as likely to say they would miss their mobile phone than any other medium. And adults with a smartphone (irrespective of age) are as likely to miss their mobile phone as their television (30%) – this is unchanged since 2011. Smartphone users are more likely to carry out a variety of online activities, at least weekly, compared both to non-smartphone users, and to smartphone users in 2011. The most significant increases in use since 2011 are: ‘features such as maps or satellite navigation to get where you want to go/plot a route to a destination’ (+15 percentage points), followed by ‘send or receive emails’ and ‘send or receive photo messages’ (+12 percentage points). Older users drive continued growth in social networking In 2012 just under two in three (64%) adult internet users said they had a social networking profile, a significant increase on 59% in 2011. This growth has been driven by users aged 55-64, 35% of whom now have profiles, compared to 24% in 2011. There has been no significant growth among any other age group since 2011. Seven in ten (72%) of those with a social networking profile claim to visit social networking websites at least daily. Half claim to visit sites more than once a day, with just under one in ten (9%) visiting more than ten times a day. 1 ‘Narrow’ users are defined as those ever carrying out 1-6 of the 18 types of online activity we ask about, and account for two in ten of all internet users (18% vs. 21% in 2011).
  6. 6. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 5 On average, we found that UK adults with a social networking profile have 237 friends or contacts on their main social networking site, and this figure varies considerably with age. For example, those aged 16-24 claimed to have 352 friends, compared to 161 among those aged 35-44 and 126 among those aged over 45. But despite this increase in use, trust in social networking sites is lower than in 2011, with 43% of UK adult internet users disagreeing that they trust what they read or see when they visit social networking sites, an increase from 35% in 2011. This attitude is shown across almost all age groups. Security and safety habits are mixed While overall levels of concern about the internet have stayed at the same rate as 2011, specific concerns about security have increased; those saying they are concerned about security/fraud online have gone up from 21% to 25% since 2011. Around half of all internet users say they have experienced spam/ unwanted emails (52%), with around a quarter experiencing a computer virus (25%) or receiving an unsolicited email directing them to a website which encouraged them to provide personal details (26%). Three in four (75%) smartphone users say they use a screen lock, with 50% stating they have PIN protection for their SIM card. This is higher than for non-smartphone users, where these features are used by 40% and 20% respectively. However, password security remains a challenge - more than half (55%) of internet users claim to use the same passwords for most websites. A quarter (25%) of users said they had problems remembering passwords, with this being more likely among users aged 55-64 (33% ) and less likely among 16-24s, and C2s (both 18%). A similar proportion of users (26%) said they tended to use easy-to-remember passwords like birthdays or names. There has been an increase in understanding of how search engines operate The numbers who understand how search engines are funded has risen from 23% in 2005 to 36% in 2012, and the numbers who understand how search engine results pages operate has risen from 50% in 2010 to 60% in 2012. The increase in understanding about funding is apparent across almost all age and socio-economic groups, although the increase in understanding how search engines operate appears only among the under-45s. Increase in the number of people who believe the internet is regulated UK adults are now more likely than in 2011 to think that internet content is regulated (44% vs. 40%). This compares to 84% who believe that television content is regulated, 73% for radio, 42% for gaming and 29% for mobile phone content, none of which have changed since 2011. Forty-four per cent of UK adults think that programmes, or clips of programmes shown on broadcasters’ websites (such as the BBC website or the ITV website), are regulated. While this is a decrease since 2011 (48%), it is substantially greater than in 2007 (27%). Three in ten (30%) of UK adults also think that the content shown on sites like YouTube and home- made videos by the general public is regulated, a rise since 2007 (12%). This belief in internet content regulation is likely to have an impact both on people’s behaviour online and their perceptions of online content.
  7. 7. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 6 Four in ten internet users are ‘critically aware’ and similar numbers are very confident / broad users Forty-two per cent of the internet population overall can be defined as ‘critically aware’2 . Separately, users with high levels of use and confidence3 make up 39% of internet users. Analysis of these types of user shows us that the various elements of media literacy tend to go together – the more people go online, the more they are likely to be critically aware, confident, risk aware, and so on. They are also more likely to encounter negative experiences, but among these types of user such experiences do not hinder further use and activity. Both newer, and narrow, internet users claim to spend less time online and visit fewer websites Both these groups are likely to be more cautious in most of their online activities, and carry out fewer activities, than internet users as a whole. Both newer4 and narrow internet users have a far lower estimated weekly volume of use (8.9 and 6.6 hours respectively) compared to 16.8 hours among all internet users, and they carry out fewer activities online. Both these groups are more likely only to visit websites they have visited before. Just under half (49%) of newer internet users estimate that they visit fewer than five websites in a typical week, with narrow users estimating that they visit on average six websites in the same period. This compares to the average of 19 websites among all internet users. Twice as many newer users than established users say that they never share personal information online (26% vs. 12%) and they are less likely to say they would make a judgement about a website (74% vs. 82%). Narrow users are more likely than all internet users to say that security concerns prevent them entering personal details for the following activities: shopping online (14% vs. 6%), using government websites (11% vs. 5%) and banking online (21% vs. 10%). The majority of non-users continue to cite ‘lack of interest’ as their main reason for not going online One in seven UK adults do not have the internet at home and do not intend to get access in the next 12 months. This level of non-use is unchanged since 2011 (15% in both 2011 and 2012). Those over 65 are the most likely not to have home access to the internet (56% of 65-74s and 28% of 75+ currently have internet access, compared to 79% of all adults) and are more likely to say they do not intend to get access (38% for 65-74s and 67% among over-75s). The reasons most often cited for not intending to get the internet continue to be ‘lack of interest’ (85%), followed by cost (23%) and reasons relating to ownership / availability, for example not having a computer (19%). 2 We took five core questions that relate to critical understanding in the survey, and created a group of those who responded in a particular way to at least four of them – see page 18 for details. 3 We define this group as those who consider themselves to be very confident internet users, and say they ever carry out between 11 and 18 activities out of a possible 18. 4 Newer users are defined as those who first started using the internet up to five years ago, with those who first started using the internet five or more years ago defined as more established users.
  8. 8. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 7 Table of figures Figure 1: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: 2005 - 2012 ............ 15 Figure 2: Levels of overall concern by media platform: 2005 - 2012 .................................... 17 Figure 3: Measures of critical understanding: 2005 - 2012...................................................19 Figure 4: Household take-up of key platforms: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 .... 22 Figure 5: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by age: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ......................................................................24 Figure 6: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by socio- economic group: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012................................. 25 Figure 7: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by age: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................26 Figure 8: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by socio-economic group: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ......................................................................27 Figure 9: Regular media activities (1-5 of 10): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..... 28 Figure 10: Regular media activities (6-10 of 10): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 . 29 Figure 11: Regular media activities, by age: 2012................................................................30 Figure 12: Regular media activities, by socio-economic group: 2012................................... 31 Figure 13: Most-missed media activity among all UK adults : 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................32 Figure 14: Most-missed media activity, by age: 2012...........................................................33 Figure 15: Most-missed media activity, by socio-economic group and gender: 2012........... 34 Figure 16: Preferred communication method for making contact: 2005, 2009, 2010 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................36 Figure 17: Key measures of internet access and use: 2012.................................................37 Figure 18: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................38 Figure 19: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device used: 2012 ....................................................................................................................39 Figure 20: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by age and device usage group: 2012 .........................................................................................................40 Figure 21: Devices used in the home to visit internet websites, by socio-economic group and device used: 2012 ........................................................................................41 Figure 22: Where the internet is used by UK adults: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................42 Figure 23: Where the internet is used by UK adults, by age: 2012....................................... 43 Figure 24: Where the internet is used by UK adults, by gender and socio-economic group: 2012 .........................................................................................................43 Figure 25: Where the internet is used by users: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 .. 44 Figure 26: Volume of internet use per week: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....... 45 Figure 27: Volume of internet use per week, by age: 2012 ..................................................46 Figure 28: Volume of internet use per week, by socio-economic group and gender: 2012 .. 47 Figure 29: Where radio is listened to by UK adults, by age: 2012 ........................................ 48 Figure 30: Where radio is listened to by UK adults, by gender and socio-economic group: 2012 .........................................................................................................48 Figure 31: Ways of playing games at home or elsewhere: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................50 Figure 32: Online gaming: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012........................................................50 Figure 33: Volume of gaming per week: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 and by age, socio-economic group and gender......................................................................51 Figure 34: Awareness of the main source of funding for television programmes, radio stations and websites: 2012................................................................................54
  9. 9. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 8 Figure 35: Belief that TV and radio content is regulated: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 .............................................................................................................55 Figure 36: Belief that internet, mobile phone, gaming content is regulated: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ................................................................................56 Figure 37: Belief that online content is regulated: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012.......... 57 Figure 38: Platform content – users must be protected from inappropriate or offensive content: 2010, 2011 and 2012.............................................................................58 Figure 39: Agreement with statement: “When I watch TV news / listen to radio news / visit news websites / read newspapers I tend to trust what I hear / read or see”: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 .......................................................................60 Figure 40: Concerns about platforms among users: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................61 Figure 41: Concerns about the internet among users: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012............. 62 Figure 42: Concerns about television among users: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012................ 63 Figure 43: Concerns about mobile phones among users: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....... 64 Figure 44: Concerns about gaming among users: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012................... 65 Figure 45: Confidence as an internet user: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012.................... 69 Figure 46: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ......................................................................70 Figure 47: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ...............................................71 Figure 48: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week, by age: 2012 . 72 Figure 49: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week, by gender, socio-economic group and location of internet use: 2012................................... 73 Figure 50: Individual uses of the internet, by activity group: 2012 ........................................ 74 Figure 51: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..........................................................................................75 Figure 52: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by age: 2012......... 76 Figure 53: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socio- economic group and gender: 2012......................................................................77 Figure 54: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week: 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by age: 2012.......................................................................................79 Figure 55: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by socio- economic group and gender: 2012......................................................................80 Figure 56: Individual internet activities ever undertaken: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 .............................................................................................................82 Figure 57: Top ten individual online activities ever undertaken, by frequency: 2012............ 83 Figure 58: Public/ civic online activities ever undertaken, by frequency: 2012 ..................... 84 Figure 59: Agreement with statement: “I consider myself to be involved in the local community”: 2012................................................................................................86 Figure 60: Agreement with statement: “I consider myself to be involved in political or campaigning issues”: 2012..................................................................................87 Figure 61: Experience of, and interest in, content creation (1 to 4 of 7): 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..........................................................................................89 Figure 62: Experience of, and interest in, content creation (5 to 7 of 7): 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..........................................................................................90 Figure 63: Set up own social networking site profile, by age: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................91 Figure 64: Set up own social networking site profile, by gender and socio-economic group: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ...........................................................92 Figure 65: Frequency of visiting any social networking sites: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ....................................................................................................................93 Figure 66: Frequency of visiting any social networking sites, by age, socio-economic group and gender: 2012......................................................................................93
  10. 10. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 9 Figure 67: Friends or contacts listed on main social networking site, by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ...............................................................................94 Figure 68: Social networking site uses: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ......................... 95 Figure 69: Social networking site uses: 2012 .......................................................................96 Figure 70: Agreement with statement: “When I visit social networking sites like Facebook I tend to trust what I read or see”: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012............................................................98 Figure 71: Privacy of information shown on social networking site profiles, by age: 2012 ... 99 Figure 72: Search engine users’ attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: 2009-2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 .......................................................................................................101 Figure 73: Search engine user actions when looking for general information: 2012 .......... 102 Figure 74: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online: 2011 and 2012 ........... 103 Figure 75: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online, by age: 2012............... 104 Figure 76: Personal details prepared to enter online (1-3 of 5): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..................................................................................................106 Figure 77: Personal details prepared to enter online (4-5 of 5): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ..................................................................................................107 Figure 78: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, by age: 2012 ............... 108 Figure 79: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ..................................................................................................................109 Figure 80: Types of judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012...............................................110 Figure 81: Security concerns when entering personal details online, by type of online activity: 2012 .....................................................................................................112 Figure 82: Attitudes towards shopping online, by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ..................................................................................................................113 Figure 83: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home (1-3 of 6): 2011 and 2012 .........................................................................................114 Figure 84: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home (4-6 of 6): 2011 and 2012 .........................................................................................115 Figure 85: Attitudes towards online passwords: 2012 ........................................................116 Figure 86: Agreement with statement: “People who buy things online put their privacy at risk”: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 .......................................................................................................117 Figure 87: Awareness of, and reaction to, website terms and conditions/ privacy statements: 2011 and 2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ..................................................................................................................118 Figure 88: Experience of negative types of online activity: 2011 and 2012 ........................ 119 Figure 89: Attitudes towards online copyright infringement: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by age: 2012...............................................................................................120 Figure 90: Attitudes towards online copyright infringement: 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, and by socio-economic group and gender: 2012 .............................................. 121 Figure 91: Age and socio-economic group profile of mobile phone users, and smartphone / non-smartphone users: 2012 ......................................................123 Figure 92: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week (1-9 of 18): 2009- 2012 ..................................................................................................................125 Figure 93: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week (10-18 of 18): 2009- 2012 ..................................................................................................................126 Figure 94: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users compared to those with another type of mobile phone: 2012............................ 127 Figure 95: Mobile phone activities carried out at least once a week by smartphone users: 2011 and 2012 ..................................................................................................128 Figure 96: Top ten mobile phone activities ever undertaken, by frequency of use: 2012... 129
  11. 11. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 10 Figure 97: Experience of potentially negative types of mobile phone activity: 2012........... 130 Figure 98: Awareness and use of mobile phone security measures/ safety features: 2012132 Figure 99: Age and socio-economic group profile of internet users by newer and more established users: 2012 ....................................................................................135 Figure 100: Volume of internet use per week by newer and more established users: 2012 ..................................................................................................................136 Figure 101: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week by newer and more established users: 2012 ...........................................................................137 Figure 102: Individual internet activities carried out at least once a week, by newer and more established users: 2012 ...........................................................................138 Figure 103: Visits to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, by newer and more established users: 2012........................................... 139 Figure 104: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week by newer and more established internet users: 2012 .......................................................140 Figure 105: Confidence as an internet user in 2012: newer and more established users .. 141 Figure 106: Search engine users’ attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search, newer and more established users: 2012 ...................... 142 Figure 107: Use of search engines, newer and more established users: 2012 .................. 143 Figure 108: Personal details prepared to enter online, newer and more established users: 2012........................................................................................................145 Figure 109: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, newer and more established internet users: 2012 .......................................................................146 Figure 110: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online, newer and more established users: 2012 .........................................................147 Figure 111: Security concerns when entering personal details online: newer and more established users: 2012 ....................................................................................148 Figure 112: Attitudes towards shopping online, newer and more established internet users: 2012........................................................................................................149 Figure 113: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: newer and more established users (1-3 of 6): 2012.......................................... 150 Figure 114: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home: newer and more established users (4-6 of 6): 2012.......................................... 151 Figure 115: Attitudes towards online passwords, newer and more established internet users: 2012........................................................................................................152 Figure 116: Experience of negative types of online activity, newer and more established users: 2012........................................................................................................153 Figure 117: Breadth of use of the internet: 2009-2012, by age: 2012 ................................ 156 Figure 118: Breadth of use of the internet: by gender, socio-economic group and by newer and more established internet user: 2012 .............................................. 157 Figure 119: Volume of internet use per week, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012.... 158 Figure 120: Visit to websites not visited before, in most weeks when the internet is used, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012...........................................................159 Figure 121: Estimated number of different websites visited in a typical week: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012 ........................................................................160 Figure 122: Confidence as an internet user, Narrow users: 2012 ...................................... 161 Figure 123: Search engine users’ attitudes towards the accuracy or bias of the websites returned by a search: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2011........................ 162 Figure 124: Use of search engines, newer and more established users: 2012 .................. 163 Figure 125: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online (1-4 of 9), Narrow users: 2012........................................................................................................164 Figure 126: Privacy concerns relating to putting information online (5-9 of 9), Narrow users: 2012........................................................................................................165 Figure 127: Personal details prepared to enter online, Narrow users: 2012....................... 166 Figure 128: Attitudes towards sharing personal information online, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012.............................................................................................167
  12. 12. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 11 Figure 129: Judgements made about a website before entering personal details online: Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012...........................................................168 Figure 130: Security concerns when entering personal details online, Narrow users: 2012 ..................................................................................................................169 Figure 131: Attitudes towards shopping online, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012 . 170 Figure 132: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home by Narrow users (1-3 of 6): 2012 ...........................................................................171 Figure 133: Security measures/ safety features installed on PC/ laptop used at home by Narrow users (4-6 of 6): 2012 ...........................................................................172 Figure 134: Attitudes towards online passwords, Narrow, Medium and Broad users: 2012 ..................................................................................................................173 Figure 135: Experience of any negative types of online activity, Narrow users: 2012........ 174 Figure 136: Internet take-up and intentions: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 ...... 176 Figure 137: Internet take-up and intentions, by age and socio-economic group: 2012 ...... 177 Figure 138: Demographic profile of all UK adults, users and non-users of the internet: 2012 ..................................................................................................................178 Figure 139: Proxy use of the internet in the past year among non-users: 2009-2012, and by age, gender and socio-economic group: 2012 ............................................. 179 Figure 140: Stated reasons for not intending to get home internet access in the next 12 months: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012............................................. 180 Figure 141: Interest in internet functions among non-users, (1-4 of 11): 2009 – 2012 ....... 181 Figure 142: Interest in internet functions among non-users, (7-11 of 11): 2009 – 2012 ..... 182
  13. 13. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 12 Section 2 2 Introduction 2.1 Background The promotion of media literacy is a responsibility placed on Ofcom by Section 11 of the Communications Act 2003. Under Section 14 (6a) of the Act we have a duty to make arrangements for the carrying out of research into the matters mentioned in Section 11 (1). Our media literacy research informs three of Ofcom’s strategic priorities: to maintain audience confidence in broadcast content; to promote opportunities to participate; and to contribute and implement public policy as defined by Parliament. Media literacy enables people to have the skills, knowledge and understanding they need to make full use of the opportunities presented by communications services. Media literacy also helps people to manage content and communications, and to protect themselves and their families from the potential risks associated with using these services. Ofcom’s definition of media literacy is: “the ability to use, understand and create media and communications in a variety of contexts”. This report is designed to give an accessible overview of media literacy among adults aged 16 and over, and is based in one wave of research conducted in autumn 2012. Where possible, within the overall sample of adults, demographic analysis is conducted by age, by gender and by household socio-economic group. The key objectives of this research are: • to provide a rich picture of the different elements of media literacy across the key platforms of the internet, television, radio, and mobile phones; and • to identify emerging issues and skills gaps that help to target stakeholders’ resources for the promotion of media literacy. 2.2 Research methodology and analysis This report draws on research from the Media Literacy Tracker 2012 with adults aged 16 and over. Comparisons are made between this research and the Media Literacy Audit surveys conducted in 2005 and in 2007, and the Media Literacy Audit Trackers conducted in 2009, 2010 and 2011. These reports can be found at www.ofcom.org.uk/medialiteracyresearch. Media Literacy Tracker with adults: 2012 A quantitative survey comprising 1,805 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with interviews conducted from September to November 2012.
  14. 14. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 13 Media Literacy Tracker with adults: 2011 A quantitative survey comprising 1,823 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with interviews conducted from September to October 2011. Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: 2010 A quantitative survey comprising 2,117 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with 1,063 interviews conducted from April to May 2010 and 1,054 interviews conducted from September to October 2010. Media Literacy Audit Tracker with adults: 2009 A quantitative survey comprising 1,824 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over, with 812 interviews conducted from April to May 2009 and 1,012 interviews conducted from September to October 2009. The report was published in 2010. Media Literacy Audit survey: 2007 A quantitative survey comprising 2,905 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over from October to December 2007. The report was published in 2008. Media Literacy Audit survey: 2005 A quantitative survey comprising 3,244 in-home interviews with adults aged 16 and over from June to August 2005. The report was published in 2006. Where possible, we have included findings from 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Some questions, however, have not featured in every year in which the research has been conducted. Comparisons are generally made between the 2012 and 2011 findings rather than the long-term trends, as detailed below. Significance testing Significance testing at the 95% confidence level was carried out, and any findings detailed in this report have been found to be significant to a 95% confidence level. This means that where findings are commented on, there is only a 5% or less probability that the difference between the samples is by chance. Statistically significant findings between 2011 and 2012 are indicated in the figures in the report by circles or arrows. In addition to reporting on differences over time, we look at adults in the different age groups and socio-economic groups and compare these to all adults interviewed in 2012, to see if there are any significant differences within these sub-groups. We also report on differences between men and women. Take-up figures The take-up figures in this report give useful information to contextualise people’s media literacy-related behaviour and attitudes. Official all-UK Ofcom take-up figures based on a larger survey can be found in the annual CMR (Communications Market Report) published in the summer of each year5 . 5 www.ofcom.org.uk/cmr12
  15. 15. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 14 Section 3 3 Media literacy online – how it fits together 3.1 Introduction Since we started tracking media literacy in 2005, the media landscape has changed significantly, particularly in terms of online take-up. Internet take-up has increased from 54% of UK households in 2005 to 79% in 2012, and mobiles and other portable devices have changed our ability to be online in a variety of ways. This first section explores how some key elements of online media literacy have changed over this period. Media literacy can be defined in many ways, with a variety of attitudes and behaviours forming its constituent parts. We have taken five core areas that we feel cover many of the parameters of media literacy in the online environment, and examined how these measures have changed over time. These core areas are as follows: Use – what people say they do online; Security/risks – the extent to which people think about or take action about personal security online, and whether they take risks or experience negative online activities; Concerns – how concerned people are about a range of online issues; Confidence – levels of self-confidence in using the internet; Critical understanding – levels of understanding about the internet, including checks and judgements on websites. We are also interested in the relationships between some of these areas, namely those between use and attitudes: • Are people with critical understanding more or less likely than those without to be engaged and active internet users? • Do people who use the internet a lot, and are confident in using it, have different attitudes and different levels of understanding to people who don’t use it as much? The following analysis is not intended to be definitive. Rather, its purpose is to generate discussion, with our findings providing a springboard for further exploration and development. We base our analysis on data that are available for a period of at least three years; a two- year time span is insufficient to represent trends. And as some questions were introduced in different survey years, or have been modified during the period, our 2012 analysis may be based on comparisons with data from 2005, 2007, 2009 or 2010.
  16. 16. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 15 3.2 Change in media literacy over time Use over time People’s regular use of the internet has changed over time. Activity levels for some activities have expanded rapidly, but others have increased more slowly; some activities have barely changed since 2007. Figure 1: Types of internet activities carried out at least once a week: 2005 - 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Sending and receiving emails 70% 74% 75% 79% 79% 80% General surfing/ browsing the internet - - - - 73% 80% Looking at social networking sites - 19% 35% 45% 53% 55% Finding information for your work/ job/ studies 52% 48% 36% 45% 46% 42% Banking and paying bills online 31% 26% 26% 33% 36% 39% Looking at news websites 25% 24% 22% 31% 31% 34% Watch online or download short video clips - - 16% 20% 26% 29% Using online chat rooms or Instant Messaging - 22% 27% 30% 30% 27% Listen to or download music online - - 18% 22% 22% 25% Watch online or download TV programmes or films - - 10% 14% 18% 23% Buying and selling things online - - 17% 17% 20% 22% Finding information for your leisure time including cinema and live music 20% 13% 14% 17% 18% 21% Playing games online 10% 12% 13% 15% 16% 19% Looking at job opportunities - - - 16% 16% 16% Send or receive Twitter updates - - - - 7% 14% Downloading software - 12% 11% 11% 13% 14% Listening to radio stations online 16% 13% 10% 15% 11% 13% Making or receiving calls over the internet ( e.g. Skype) - - - 8% 11% 13% Maintaining a website or blog 7% 9% 9% 10% 10% 11% Finding information about public services provided by local or national government 12% 9% 8% 8% 10% 11% Finding information about health related issues - - 7% 9% 9% 10% Finding information for booking holidays - 3% 8% 6% 7% 9% Complete government processes online - - 4% 4% 5% 8% Looking at political/ campaign/ issues websites 4% 4% 4% 6% 3% 6% Doing an online course to achieve a qualification - - - 5% 4% 4% Looking at adult-only websites 2% 2% 1% 2% 2% 3% Online gambling 2% 3% 3% 4% 3% 3% Sign an online petition - - - - 1% 2% Contact a local councillor or your MP online - - - - 1% 1% Visiting dating websites - - - 1% 1% 1%
  17. 17. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 16 Weekly internet activities Some of the activities that people say they do weekly or more often have increased over time: • watching online or downloading TV programmes or films (10% in 2009 to 23% in 2012); • looking at news websites (25% in 2005 to 34% in 2012); • buying and selling things online (17% in 2009 to 22% in 2012); • banking and paying bills (31% in 2005 to 39% in 2012); and • emailing (70% in 2005 to 80% in 2012). With the exception of online TV/film, these increases are relatively modest. For some activities, incidence has remained flat; for example, finding out information about public services has shown no change at a weekly basis (12% in 2005 v 11% in 2012). There are various demographic differences – 55-64s are twice as likely now as they were in 2005 to bank and pay bills online on a weekly basis (37% vs. 18%), while those aged 65+ show no change over time (26% in 2005 vs. 25% in 2012). 16-24s are also more likely to bank and pay bills online than they were in 2005 (30% vs. 17%). This pattern is similar for accessing news sites; the 16-24 and 45-64 age groups show increased consumption patterns. One third (32%) of 16-24s say they access news websites on a weekly basis (19% in 2005); and 31% of 55-64s do this in 2012 compared with 12% in 2005. Most age groups watch or download TV online more often than in 2009, except for those aged 45-54 (14%) and the over-65s (6%). Creative activities There has been an increase since 2007 in creative activities6 such as uploading video (from 10% to 22% in 2012), uploading photos (from 43% to 57%), and contributing comments to blogs (from 19% to 31%), across most ages and socio-economic groups. Social networking has showed the largest increase over time, increasing from 21% in 2007 to 64% in 2012. However, contributing to Wikipedia, and setting up a blog or website, have not increased, and are done by only around 10-15% of internet users. Arguably, these latter activities are for the relatively engaged online users, while the former activities are more informal or leisure-based means of communication. In summary, leisure-based and entertainment activities have seen the biggest increases in regular use, with use relating to transactional activities showing some signs of increase as well. But other types of activities, particularly those related to civic behaviour such as using public services, have remained largely static on a weekly basis, despite the growing imperative for such services to be used. 6 ‘Creative’ activities include making blogs (or online diaries), editing photos and sharing them with friends and uploading short videos to the internet.
  18. 18. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 17 Security Another facet of media literacy is the ability to keep safe online, and to make an informed choice about the amount and type of personal information to provide to third parties. We have asked the same question since 2007 about whether people are happy to enter various types of personal detail when online. There has been no change in the percentage of internet users who say they would have some concerns but would still carry out the activity, which we categorise as a broadly media- literate response falling between those who say they would be happy to give out personal details, and those who would never do so. For example, in 2007 43% said they would have some concerns but would go ahead with entering their mobile phone number, and this was unchanged in 2012 at 47%. There is a similar trend for entering your home address or home phone number. However, there has been one increase over time – 48% now say they would have concerns but would go ahead with entering their personal email details (from 38% in 2007). About two-thirds of internet users in 2012 (66%) say they use email filters on the PC/ laptop or netbook they use at home, and 59% said they deleted cookies from their web browser. There are few differences by age group, except that those aged 65+ are far less likely to do these things. Concerns Over time, concerns about the internet have decreased substantially – from 70% in 2005 to 52% in 2012. This applies to all age groups except the over-65s, and to all socio-economic groups. This reduction in concerns over time is similar across all platforms. For the internet, this could be linked to increases in online activity, making the online environment more of an integral part of daily life and therefore more familiar. Figure 2: Levels of overall concern by media platform: 2005 - 2012 % of users (variable bases) 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Concerns about the internet overall 70 73 61 54 50 52 Concerns about TV overall 46 55 39 40 39 37 Concerns about mobile overall 42 34 26 24 20 21 Concerns about radio overall 11 14 11 9 8 7 Concerns about gaming overall 30 25 21 25 23 Confidence We ask internet users to rate their levels of confidence in various aspects of using the internet, and at an overall level as an internet user7 . Levels of confidence online have 7 Changes were made to this section of questions in 2011 which we believe have had an impact on the findings reported here. Three aspects of using the internet were removed from the section asking users to rate their levels of confidence: using an internet search engine, starting up the internet, and finding what you want when you go online. The 2010 surveys found that 80% or more of internet users said they were ‘very confident’ with each of these three aspects of using the internet. The removal of these aspects may have had an impact on the levels of confidence reported for the aspects covered in 2011. In particular, it seems likely that the removal of these aspects has affected the response to the question: ‘Overall, how confident are you as an internet user’. Whereas a majority
  19. 19. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 18 remained unchanged since 2011 across all internet users, with just over half (54%) describing themselves as ‘very confident’ as an internet user, compared to 52% in 2011. The lack of growth in overall confidence over the past two years could indicate people’s increased awareness of the rapid appearance of new devices and applications, while their levels of understanding have not kept pace. However, people are now more likely than in 2007 to say they are very confident in ‘using the internet to do creative things’ – 45% vs. 37%. This is also the case among under-45s and those in higher socio-economic groups. This rise could be related to the increased ease of use of various content uploading tools have become easier to use. Critical understanding over time Critical understanding is a core component of online media literacy, and refers here to knowledge about the norms of the internet platform, in terms of how aspects of it are funded and operate, and the person’s judgements about their own online activity. We have a number of measures that combine to indicate a degree of critical awareness – or “savviness” - about the online environment. These measures include: • awareness of how the BBC website is funded (an offline analogy here could be that of public libraries, and people being aware that these are funded through local taxes); • awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded, and awareness of how they operate (given the dominance of search engines for most navigation online, it is important that the basics of its funding models are understood - an offline analogy could be the widespread knowledge of the distinction between TV advertising and editorial broadcasting); and • making any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online, and being careful about sharing personal information on websites or with companies that are trusted (taking steps to validate sites before entering personal details displays due caution in online activity). We can examine most of these measures over time to see the extent of change. • Awareness of how the BBC website is funded – there has been no statistically significant change since 2005 in this measure at an overall level (46% in 2005 v 49% in 2012), nor among nearly all age and socio-economic groups. • Awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded – this measure has risen at an overall level (23% in 2005 vs. 36% in 2012) and among most age and socio- economic groups. • Awareness of how search engines results pages operate – there has been an increase from 50% in 2010 to 60% in 2012, and among younger groups (under-45s) and most socio-economic groups. • Make any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online – there has been a small increase over time at the overall level – 81% made a judgement of internet users had said they were very confident with three aspects of using the internet before answering this question in 2010, but this is not the case in 2011. We have therefore not shown comparisons over time relating to overall confidence as an internet user.
  20. 20. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 19 in 2012 compared to 77% in 2007 – although not for individual age or socio-economic groups. There has been a larger increase among those who make ‘formal’ judgements such as using padlock signs or system messages, from 43% in 2005 to 61% in 2012. Over time, then, online critical understanding reveals a mixed picture. While measures relating to search engine understanding show signs of improvement over time, the overall level of understanding of how they are funded, while improving, remains relatively low. And while four in five say they make judgements about a website, this has barely increased over the past five years. Figure 3: Measures of critical understanding: 2005 - 2012 % of adults/ users (variable bases) 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Awareness of how the BBC website is funded 46 41 44 50 47 49 Awareness of how search engine websites are mainly funded 23 26 28 31 34 36 Awareness of how search engines results pages operate 50 57 60 Make any type of judgement about a website before entering personal details online 77 73 75 79 81 3.3 Focus: High critical understanding and very confident internet users When we compare the internet users who can be defined as ‘critically aware’8 with those that are not, we can see that online critical understanding has a positive relationship with levels of confidence, amount of internet use, and risk-taking, as well as risk-awareness. In other words, those who are critically aware are more likely to do more online, to be aware of risks and to mitigate them through safety techniques, and also more likely to have had negative activities online. They are also more likely to be very confident users than those who aren’t critically aware. But levels of concern are greater among the critically aware group, and attitudes to internet content are different from those who are not critically aware. This group appears to display a rounded online engagement, aware of complexities and concerns but not being put off by them. It is also useful to examine internet users who have high levels of use and confidence online, to see how their levels of knowledge and attitudes compare with those who are less broad 8 We took five core questions that relate to critical understanding in the survey, and created a group of those who had at least four of the following elements of knowledge or habits: aware of how the BBC website is mainly funded; aware of how search engines are mainly funded; aware of how search engines operate; make any type of judgment about a website before entering personal details online; either say they are happy to share personal information but only with websites/companies they trust, or say they think very carefully about sharing their personal information with any website or company even if it is one they trust. Overall, one in five (18%) of internet users had all five elements, and a further 24% had any four, making two in five (42%) of internet users who had at least four – the “critically aware” group. In terms of their profile, this group is more likely to be AB than those who aren’t aware of at least four of these criteria (37% vs. 22%); more likely to be male (54% vs. 44%); more likely to be a broad user (66% vs. 45%) and more likely to have first started using the internet ten years ago or more (69% vs. 52%).
  21. 21. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 20 and confident internet users9 . Like the critically aware group10 , they are more likely to be security-conscious, and more likely to have had experience of negative online activities, than those that are not broad/ confident users. They are also more likely to have experienced any of the negative online activities we asked about. While broad/ confident users are as likely as those who aren’t broad/ confident users to have any concerns about the internet, they are more likely to have specific concerns relating to personal privacy and data privacy. However, they are more likely to say they are happy to enter personal details than those who aren’t broad/confident users. Finally, these broad and confident users are more likely to be critically aware across all the measures, except for understanding how search engines operate. What these analyses of particular types of user show us is that the various elements of media literacy tend to go together – the more people do online, the more they are likely to be critically aware, confident, risk aware, and so on. They are also more likely to encounter negative experiences, but among these types of user such experiences do not hinder further use and activity. 9 We define this group as those who consider themselves to be very confident internet users, and say they ever carry out between 11 and 18 activities out of a possible 18. This group comprises 39% of all internet users, and is compared to those who are not very confident broad users, or medium or narrow users (61% of all internet users). In terms of their demographic profile, this group is more likely to be AB (36% v 24%) and more likely to be aged 16-24 (27% v 12%). They are more likely to be male (53% vs. 45%) and to have first started using the internet ten or more years ago (72% vs. 51%). 10 It is important to note that some 52% of broad/ confident users are also part of the “critically aware” group, so there is a sizeable overlap between the two groups.
  22. 22. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 21 Section 4 4 Take-up, preference and media use This section looks at UK adults’ access to, and personal use of, media devices in their home and elsewhere. One of the core benefits of our media literacy tracker is its ability to show how different media compare to each other in levels of consumption and use over time. As such, this section documents which media are used regularly, which devices adults would miss the most, and which they would prefer to use to make contact in different circumstances. It details the different devices used to go online, and the volume of internet use. Finally, it looks at the devices used to play games and the volume of gaming use. More detail about the use of the internet and mobile phones (including smartphones) can be found in Sections 5 and 6 of the report. Key findings • Take-up of digital television11 , the internet and digital video recorders in the home have all stabilised in 2012. Previously, take-up of the internet showed an increase at each survey. • Television remains popular, continuing to be the medium people say they would miss the most (43%), and watched on a regular basis by over nine in ten (95%) adults of all ages. • The report shows some stark differences by age and socio-economic group in the take-up, use of and attitudes towards other media, in particular mobiles and the internet. • While total mobile phone ownership has remained stable year on year (92%), over half of adults (54%) now use a smartphone, an increase from 44% in 2011. Take-up has increased across younger and older age groups and across all socio-economic groups except ABs. • 16-24s remain the most likely to use a smartphone (86%) and people in this age group are twice as likely as all adults to say they would miss their mobile phone the most (42%). • Smartphones are also affecting how people go online at home. Half of all adults now say they use a mobile phone to go online (53%), up from 45% in 2011. • There has been no change in the proportion of UK adults who go online at home using any device (77%), and the PC/laptop/netbook remains the most popular means of home internet access (74%). However, more adults are now using a variety of devices to go online, with 58% going online via a device other than a PC/laptop/netbook, an increase from 48% in 2011. 11 At the time the interviewing was conducted (September to November 2012) digital switchover was not completed in two UK TV regions (Tyne Tees and Ulster).
  23. 23. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 22 • Other devices tend to supplement rather than substitute for PC/laptop/netbook access, with less than one in twenty (4%) only using other devices to go online at home. • Eight in ten adults (79%) use the internet on any device in any location, unchanged since 2011. As in 2011, 21% of adults do not use the internet anywhere. This is higher for those in DE socio-economic group (36%), those aged 65-74 (52%) and those aged 75+ (84%). • There has been an increase in the self-reported volumes of internet use per week, with UK adults spending on average 16.8 hours online, compared to 15.1 in 2011. 4.1 Household access to media devices Take-up of the internet within the home has stabilised for the first time Take-up of digital television12 , the internet (PC/laptop/netbook-based access) and digital video recorders (DVRs) remains at similar levels to those found in 2011. Take-up of the internet (PC/laptop/netbook based access) and DVRs has previously shown an increase at each survey from 2007 to 2011. There has been no change in personal use of a mobile phone since 2011. Figure 4: Household take-up of key platforms: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 12 At the time the interviewing was conducted (September to November 2012) digital switchover was not completed in two UK TV regions (Tyne Tees and Ulster). 62 82 54 11 82 85 62 23 89 91 71 35 91 74 45 95 92 79 49 95 92 79 52 91 T1/T2/ IN1/ M1 – Do any of yourTV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1,BBC2,ITV1, Channel4 or S4C and Five?/Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus, V Plus, Freeview Plus or any other similar system?/Do you or does anyone in yourhousehold have access to the internet at home through a computer, laptop ornetbook?/Do you personallyuse a mobile phone? (Promptedresponses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012). Significance testing shows any change between2011 and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 DigitalTV Internet** **(PC/ laptop/ netbook based access) DVRMobile phone* *Personal use 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 20122005 2007 2009 2010 2011 20122005 2007 2009 2010 2011 20122005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012
  24. 24. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 23 Access to media remains lower among older adults and those in DE households As shown in Figures 5 and 6, almost all UK adults (95%) live in a household with a digital television service. Levels of access have not changed since 2011 across any particular age group or socio-economic group. Access to digital television remains lower among adults aged 75 and over, compared to all adults (87% aged 75+ vs. 95% of all adults). Four in five adults (79%) live in a household with access to the internet through a PC, laptop or netbook, as was the case in 2011. While access has not changed since 2011 for any socio-economic group, adults aged 16-24 are now more likely to live in a household with access to the internet through a PC, laptop or netbook (93% vs. 86%). It remains the case that take-up of the internet at home (through a PC/laptop/netbook) is lower among adults aged 65 and over (56% aged 65-74 and 28% aged 75+ vs. 79% of all adults) and among DE households (62% vs. 79%). Just over half of all UK adults live in a household with a DVR, unchanged from 2011 (52%). Since 2011, adults aged 35-44 are more likely to have access to a DVR at home (67% vs. 58%, see Figure 5) and there has also been an increase among adults in C2 households (57% vs. 48%, see Figure 6). It remains the case that take-up of DVRs is lower among adults aged 65 and over (45% aged 65-74 and 24% aged 75+ vs. 52% of all adults) and among DE households (38% vs. 52%).
  25. 25. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 24 Figure 5: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by age: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 24 45 48 49 67 54 53 52 16 37 44 59 58 55 48 49 20 30 46 47 56 44 42 45 11 28 31 39 39 46 30 35 9 16 18 29 29 27 19 23 0 5 7 15 16 10 19 11 87 92 96 97 97 96 96 95 87 94 95 95 95 98 95 95 76 85 90 92 94 92 94 91 68 82 87 92 93 92 91 89 58 69 79 83 90 90 87 82 36 52 60 66 69 68 67 62 28 56 79 84 91 85 93 79 24 57 80 87 88 89 86 79 23 47 73 76 84 87 83 74 21 44 60 79 84 82 84 71 10 35 53 72 79 70 71 62 10 32 49 61 71 66 62 54 Digital television (Household) Internet* (Household) *PC/ laptop/ netbook based access DVR* (Household) Total 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 T1/ IN1/ T2 – Do any of your TV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1, BBC2, ITV1, Channel 4/ S4C and Five?/ Do you or does anyone in your household have access to the internet at home through a computer, laptop or netbook?/ Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus, V Plus, Freeview Plus or any other similar system? (*NB Amended since 2010) (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005, 2905 in 2007, 1824 in 2009, 2117 in 2010, 1823 in 2011, 1805 in 2012, 234 aged 16-24, 236 aged 25-34, 300 aged 35-44, 234 aged 45-54, 262 aged 55-64, 259 aged 65-74, 280 aged 75+ ). Significance testing shows any change between 2011 and 2012 Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to November 2012 2012 75+
  26. 26. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 25 Figure 6: Take-up of digital television, internet and digital video recorder, by socio- economic group: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 More than half of UK adults use a smartphone in 2012 As shown in Figures 7 and 8, more than nine in ten adults (92%) use a mobile phone, with no change since 2011 at an overall level, for any age group or socio-economic group. As with PC/laptop/netbook-based internet access, those aged 65 and over remain less likely to use a mobile phone (80% aged 65-74 and 55% aged 75+ vs. 92% of all adults) as do DEs (84% vs. 92%). More than half of all adults (54%) use a smartphone13 . This represents a ten percentage point increase since 2011 (from 44%). This increase in smartphone use has occurred across three age groups since 2011. The largest percentage point increase in use since 2011 is among those aged 16-24 (86% vs. 71%), followed by 35-44s (71% vs. 58%) and 55-64s (34% vs. 23 %). While most adults aged 65 and over use a mobile phone (as detailed above) these older age groups are much less likely to use a smartphone (12% aged 65-74 and 2% aged 75+ vs. 54% of all adults). 13 The following definition was offered as an explanation of a smartphone. “A smartphone is a phone on which you can easily access emails and download files as well as view websites and generally surf the internet. Popular brands of smartphone include BlackBerry, iPhone and HTC.” 38 57 57 57 52 48 50 61 49 49 46 51 45 24 39 36 43 35 33 9 8 14 14 11 38 35 21 14 23 23 62 78 85 91 79 79 86 93 79 75 79 90 74 48 67 83 86 71 82 26 53 62 79 54 60 54 57 35 62 72 94 95 95 96 95 97 94 96 95 92 89 90 91 86 92 89 91 89 89 52 65 62 71 62 93 92 85 72 82 85 Digital television (Household) Internet* (Household) *PC/ laptop/ netbook based access DVR* (Household) Total AB 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 C1 C2 DE T1/IN1/ T2 – Do any of yourTV sets receive extra channels in addition to BBC1, BBC2,ITV1,Channel4/ S4C and Five?/Do you or does anyonein yourhouseholdhave access to the internetat home through a computer,laptop or netbook?/Do you have a DVR system such as Sky Plus,V Plus,Freeview Plus or any other similar system? (*NB Amended since2010)(Promptedresponses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012,409 AB,536 C1, 356 C2, 504 DE). Significancetesting showsany change between2011and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 2012
  27. 27. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 26 Smartphone use has increased among all socio-economic groups except ABs since 2011, with similar growth among adults in C1 (59% vs. 51%), C2 (51% vs. 41%) and DE (41% vs. 31%) households. While DEs are now more likely than in 2011 to use a smartphone, they continue to be less likely to use one compared to all adults (41% vs. 54%). Figure 7: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by age: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 2 12 34 46 71 75 86 54 9 23 40 58 66 71 44 3 9 27 34 45 52 30 20 55 80 92 97 99 97 98 92 82 93 95 98 97 98 92 77 88 96 98 99 99 91 50 69 92 94 97 98 100 91 93 96 85 34 60 73 88 94 96 94 82 5746 56 42 96 97 82 Mobile phone (Personal use) M1/M2 – Do you personally use a mobile phone?/Is this a Smartphone? ASmartphoneis a phone on which you can easily access emails and download files as wellas view websites and generally surf the internet.Popularbrands of Smartphoneinclude BlackBerry,iPhone and HTC.(Prompted responses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012,225 aged 16-24,252 aged 25-34,294 aged 35-44,228 aged 45-54,281 aged 55-64,253 aged 65-74,280 aged 75+). Significance testing shows any change between2011 and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 Smartphone (Personal use) 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 Total 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 2012 75+
  28. 28. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 27 Figure 8: Take-up of mobile phone and smartphone, by socio-economic group: 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 4.2 Regular media activities Regular use of the internet via a PC/ laptop has not increased for the first time since 2005 We ask respondents about a range of possible media activities to find out which, if any, they regularly do14 . Having asked this question since 2005 we can see whether overall media habits are changing. As shown in Figures 9 and 10, while some media activities have seen a decline in regular use since 2005 (in particular, listening to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player), there are no media activities that are now less likely to be undertaken regularly than they were in 2011. 14 Respondents were not provided with a definition of ‘regularly’. 41 51 59 62 54 41 51 54 44 24 30 43 30 31 21 84 93 94 96 92 94 95 95 92 92 94 94 91 85 94 91 91 91 90 74 83 86 87 82 85 88 86 76 85 90 Mobile phone (Personal use) M1/M2 – Do you personally use a mobile phone?/Is this a Smartphone? ASmartphoneis a phone on which you can easily access emails and download files as wellas view websites and generally surf the internet.Popularbrands of Smartphoneinclude BlackBerry,iPhone and HTC.(Prompted responses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012,415 AB, 539 C1,363 C2, 506 DE). Significance testing shows any changebetween 2011 and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 Smartphone (Personal use) 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 Total AB C1 C2 DE 2012
  29. 29. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 28 Watching television remains the dominant media activity; there is no change since 2011 in the proportion of adults stating they regularly watch television (both 95%). None of the top five media activities (shown in Figure 9) have changed since 2011, but two of the five activities shown in Figure 10 increased in 2012: watching videos/ DVDs (64% vs. 59%) and using a portable media player (21% vs. 17%). Whereas regular use of the internet via a PC/ laptop/ netbook had previously increased at each wave of the survey since 2005, there has been no change since 2011. Figure 9: Regular media activities (1-5 of 10): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 95 73 50 77 78 97 77 56 69 74 95 78 64 73 75 95 78 67 69 71 95 82 72 74 73 95 84 74 73 71 A1 – Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses,multi-coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012).Significancetesting showsany change between2011and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 Watch television Use a mobile phone Read newspapers / magazines Listen to the radio Go online (via PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet) 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005
  30. 30. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 29 Figure 10: Regular media activities (6-10 of 10): 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 Younger age groups are more likely to regularly undertake a wide range of activities Compared to all adults, as shown in Figure 11, 16-24s and 25-34s are more likely to undertake six of the ten activities regularly: using a mobile phone (93% and 94% vs. 84%), going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (89% and 85% vs. 74%), watching videos/ DVDs (78% and 76% vs. 64%), listening to a portable music device (63% and 58% vs. 36%), playing console/ computer games (60% and 43% vs. 27%) and using a portable media player (40% and 31% vs. 21%). They are less likely than all adults to watch television (91% and 92% vs. 95%) or read newspapers/ magazines (59% and 62% vs. 71%). Sixteen to twenty-four year olds are also less likely than all adults to listen to the radio (62% vs. 73%) Those aged 35-44 are more likely to regularly use a mobile phone (93% vs. 84%), go online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (88% vs. 74%), listen to radio (80% vs. 73%), watch videos/ DVDs (72% vs. 64%) and use a portable media player (29% vs. 21%). None of these activities are less likely to be regularly undertaken by those aged 35-44. Compared to all adults, 45-54s are more likely to regularly listen to radio (80% vs. 73%) and less likely to play console/ computer games (18% vs. 27%). Adults aged 55-64 are more likely to regularly watch television (99% vs. 95%) and less likely to regularly: watch videos/ DVDS (52% vs. 64%), listen to a portable music device (17% vs. 36%), play console/ computer games (11% vs. 27%) and use a portable media player (9% vs. 21%). 66 71 18 21 63 56 25 21 64 50 29 24 13 58 46 28 25 14 59 44 34 25 17 64 45 36 27 21 A1 – Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses,multi-coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012).Significancetesting showsany change between2011and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012 NA NA Watch videos/ DVDs Listen to a portable music device/MP3 player Play console/ computergames Listen to music on a hi-fi/CD/ tape player Use a portable media player 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 2005
  31. 31. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 30 Those aged 65-74 and 75 and over are more likely to regularly read newspapers or magazines (86% and 81% vs. 71%), and those aged 75 and over are more likely to regularly watch television (98% vs. 95%). Both groups are less likely to regularly: use a mobile phone (68% and 41% vs. 84%), go online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (46% and 14% vs. 74%), watch videos/ DVDs (43% and 40% vs. 64%), listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player (38% and 32% vs. 45%), listen to a portable music device (5% and 1% vs. 36%), play console/ computer games (6% and 1% vs. 27%) and use a portable media player (3% and 1% vs. 21%). The overall increase since 2011 in regularly watching videos/ DVDs (shown in Figure 10, 64% vs. 59%) has been driven by an increase among 35-44s (72% vs. 61%) and 45-54s (67% vs. 57%). The overall increase since 2011 in using a portable media player (shown in Figure 10, 21% vs. 17%) has also been driven by an increase among 35-44s (29% vs. 20%). Figure 11: Regular media activities, by age: 2012 Adults in DE households are less likely regularly to undertake half of all the media activities Figure 12 below shows differences in regular media activities undertaken, by socio- economic group. Compared to all adults, those in the DE socio-economic group are less likely to regularly: use a mobile phone (77% vs. 84%), go online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (55% vs. 74%), listen to the radio (64% vs. 73%), listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player (27% vs. 36%) and use a portable media player (15% vs. 21%). They are more likely than all adults to regularly play console/ computer games (32% vs. 27%). 2012 Total 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Watch television 95% 91% 92% 98% 96% 99% 97% 98% Use a mobile phone 84% 93% 94% 93% 87% 84% 68% 41% Go online (via PC/ laptop/netbook/tablet) 74% 89% 85% 88% 79% 70% 46% 14% Listen to the radio 73% 62% 69% 80% 80% 73% 75% 69% Read newspapers/ magazines 71% 59% 62% 72% 72% 78% 86% 81% Watch videos/ DVDs 64% 78% 76% 72% 67% 52% 43% 40% Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player 45% 42% 47% 49% 51% 46% 38% 32% Listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player 36% 63% 58% 41% 31% 17% 5% 1% Play console/ computer games 27% 60% 43% 28% 18% 11% 6% 1% Use a portable media player 21% 40% 31% 29% 17% 9% 3% 1% A1 – Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses,multi-coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (1823 aged 16+,225 aged 16-24,252 aged 25-34,294 aged 35-44,228 aged 45-54,281 aged 55-64,259 aged 65-74,280 aged 75+).Significancetesting showsany difference betweenany age group and alladults aged 16 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012
  32. 32. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 31 Those in the AB socio-economic group are more likely to: use a mobile phone (89% vs. 84%), go online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (87% vs. 74%), listen to radio (82% vs. 73%) and use a portable media player (28% vs. 21%). Those in the C1 socio-economic group are more likely to regularly use a mobile phone (89% vs. 84%) and go online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (83% vs. 74%). There are no differences in regular media activities undertaken, compared to all adults, among adults in the C2 socio-economic group. The overall increase since 2011 in regularly watching videos/ DVDs (shown in Figure 10, 64% vs. 59%) has been driven by the AB socio-economic group (69% vs. 61%). The overall increase since 2011 in using a portable media player (shown in Figure 10, 21% vs. 17%) is not attributable to any particular socio-economic group. Comparing regular media activities by gender (not shown in Figure 12), women are more likely than men to watch television (97% vs. 94%), while men are more likely to: listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player (39% vs. 33%), play console/ computer games (34% vs. 21%) and use a portable media player (24% vs. 19%). There is just one difference between those living in urban or in rural areas; those in urban areas more likely to regularly use a mobile phone (85% vs. 78%). Figure 12: Regular media activities, by socio-economic group: 2012 2012 Total AB C1 C2 DE Watch television 95% 96% 94% 95% 96% Use a mobile phone 84% 89% 89% 82% 77% Go online (via PC/ laptop/netbook/tablet) 74% 87% 83% 69% 55% Listen to the radio 73% 82% 74% 70% 64% Read newspapers/ magazines 71% 74% 72% 72% 66% Watch videos/ DVDs 64% 69% 64% 61% 63% Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD/ tape player 45% 50% 46% 43% 41% Listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player 36% 41% 40% 34% 27% Play console/ computer games 27% 22% 28% 23% 32% Use a portable media player 21% 28% 23% 19% 15% A1 – Which of the following do you regularly do? (Prompted responses,multi-coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (1823 aged 16+,415 AB,539 C1, 363 C2, 506 DE). Significancetesting showsany differencesbetween any socio-economic groupand alladults aged 16+. Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012
  33. 33. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 32 4.3 Most-missed media activities Television continues to be the most-missed medium among adults, with no changes since 2011 To understand how much importance people attach to various media, we asked them15 to say which single media activity they would miss the most if it was taken away. Among adults as a whole, television is typically given as the medium they would miss the most, by around four in ten (43%). One in five adults say they would miss using a mobile phone the most (20%) and around one in six adults say they would miss going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet the most (16%). None of the activities are more or less likely to be chosen, compared to 2011. Four in five adults (80%) would miss either television, the internet or their mobile phone, with less than one in ten adults nominating other media as being missed the most. Figure 13: Most-missed media activity among all UK adults16 : 2005, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 15 This question is asked of all UK adults rather than of users of particular media, in order to be able to capture an overall picture. It is therefore possible that an increase in take-up of a medium could see an increase in mentions for this medium as the most-missed media activity. 16 The categories ‘watch television’ or ‘listen to radio’ do not specify the particular platform being used for these activities. 44 52 50 44 46 43 10 13 11 13 18 20 8 12 15 17 17 16 12 8 9 10 8 8 6 5 4 4 3 4 13 5 3 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 2012 Use a portable media player (2009 onwards) Watch videos/ DVDs Play console/ computer games Listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD or tape player Read newspapers/ magazines Listen to the radio Go online via computer/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet Use a mobile phone Watch television A2 – Which one of these would you miss doing the most? (Prompted responses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (3244 in 2005,2905 in 2007,1824 in 2009,2117 in 2010,1823 in 2011,1805 in 2012). Significance testing shows any change between2011 and 2012 Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012
  34. 34. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 33 16-24s are twice as likely to miss their mobile phone than any other medium There are variances in the most-missed medium, by age (as shown in Figure 14), gender and socio-economic group (as shown in Figure 15). In 2012, 16-24s and 25-34s are more likely than all adults to nominate using a mobile phone as their most-missed activity (42% and 33% vs. 20%). Sixteen to 24s are twice as likely to choose using a mobile phone as any other activity. This age group is also more likely to miss playing console/ computer games (5% vs. 1%). Both 16-24s and 25-34s are less likely to miss watching television (23% and 30% vs. 43%) and listening to radio (2% and 3% vs. 8%). By contrast, adults aged 65 and over are more likely than adults as a whole to say they would miss watching television (64% for 65-74 and 71% for 75+ vs. 43%) and listening to the radio (13% for 65-74 and 14% for 75+ vs. 8%). They are less likely to say they would miss using a mobile phone (2% for 65-74 and 1% for 75+ vs. 20%) or miss going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (6% for 65-74 and 2% for 75+ vs. 16%). Figure 14: Most-missed media activity, by age: 2012 Men and ABs are more likely to miss going online, while C2s and DEs are more likely to miss watching television Men are more likely than women to say they would miss going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (19% vs. 14%). In previous surveys, women have been more likely than men to say they would miss watching television, but this trend is not continued in 2012. Adults in the AB socio-economic group are less likely to say they would miss watching television (37% vs. 43% of all UK adults) and more likely to say they would miss going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (23% vs. 16%). Adults in the C1 socio-economic group do 43 23 30 39 46 58 64 71 20 42 33 22 14 7 16 20 19 21 19 13 8 3 6 12 13 14 4 3 4 10 65 6 11 4 3 Total 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-74 75+ Use a portable media player Watch videos/ DVDs Play console/ computer games Listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD or tape player Read newspapers/ magazines Listen to the radio Go online via computer/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet Use a mobile phone Watch television A2 – Which one of these would you miss doing the most? (Prompted responses, single coded) Base: All adults aged 16+ (1805 aged 16+, 234 aged 16-24, 236 aged 25-34, 300 aged 35-44,234 aged 45-54, 262 aged 55-64, 259 aged 65-74, 280 aged 75+). Significance testing shows any difference between any age group and all adults aged 16 Source: Ofcom research, fieldwork carried out by Saville Rossiter-Base in September to November 2012
  35. 35. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 34 not differ from all adults regarding the medium they would miss the most. Adults in the C2 and DE socio-economic groups are more likely to miss watching television (52% of C2s and 50% of DEs vs. 43%) with DE adults less likely to say they would miss going online via a PC/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet (11% vs. 16%). Figure 15: Most-missed media activity, by socio-economic group and gender: 2012 4.4 Preference for making contact Further decline in preference for landline phone calls to make contact In this section we look at how people prefer to make contact in a range of everyday circumstances, e.g. booking a holiday or checking their bank balance. For each of five scenarios, we showed respondents a list of six methods and asked them to say which one they would choose to use to make contact17 . The preferred communications methods are shown in Figure 16. It should be noted that the responses shown are for all UK adults, and not solely those with the available technology, in order to be able to capture an overall picture of preferred communication methods across all adults. People’s preferences for a method of communication depend on what communications devices they have access to. As we have seen, demographic groups vary in the extent to which they have access to various devices. Therefore, older people and those in DE households, for example, may be less likely to say that they would choose to make contact via email/websites, as they are less likely to have access to the internet. 17 The communication option ‘meet in person’ was not available as a choice for ‘getting in touch with a friend to arrange to meet.’ These questions were more recently asked in 2010. 43 37 38 52 50 41 46 20 17 23 19 19 18 22 16 23 18 13 11 19 14 8 9 6 8 9 4 4 5 4 3 11 7 3 3 Total AB C1 C2 DE Male Female Use a portable media player Watch videos/ DVDs Play console/ computer games Listen to a portable music device/ MP3 player Listen to music on a hi-fi/ CD or tape player Read newspapers/ magazines Listen to the radio Go online via computer/ laptop/ netbook/ tablet Use a mobile phone Watch television A2 – Which one of these would you miss doing the most? (Prompted responses,single coded) Base:Alladults aged 16+ (409 AB,536 C1, 356 C2, 504 DE, 893 male,912 female.Significancetesting showsany differencebetween any socio-economic groupand alladults aged 16+,between males and females Source:Ofcomresearch,fieldwork carried outby Saville Rossiter-Base in Septemberto November2012
  36. 36. Adults media use and attitudes report 2013 35 Compared to 2010, UK adults are less likely to say they would prefer to make a call using the home / landline phone for four of the five scenarios: getting in touch with a friend to arrange to meet (28% vs. 34%), checking your bank balance (6% vs. 9%), booking a holiday (13% vs. 17%) and contacting the local council to find out about refuse collection (50% vs. 56%). Compared to 2010, UK adults are more likely to prefer to send a text to get in touch with a friend to arrange to meet (41% vs. 34%); this is now the most-preferred method for this scenario. Preferences for ways of getting in touch with a friend to arrange to meet vary considerably across the different demographic groups. Adults aged under 45 are more likely to prefer to send a text (72% of 16-24s, 59% of 25-34s and 49% of 35-44s vs. 41% of all adults), while adults aged 55 and over are more likely to prefer to make a call using the home / landline phone (49% of 55-64s, 67% of 65-74s and 87% aged 75+ vs. 28% of all adults). Men are more likely to prefer to make a mobile phone call (31% vs. 24%) while women are more likely to prefer to send a text (46% vs. 37%). There are no differences across the socio- economic groups. Compared to 2010, there is little change in how UK adults prefer to check their bank balance, other than a decline in preferring to make a call using the home / landline phone (6% vs. 9%). Compared to 2005, however, preference for checking this online has almost doubled (39% in 2012 vs. 22% in 2005). Younger adults are more likely to prefer to check online (50% of 25-34s and 52% of 35-44s vs. 39% of all adults), while older adults are more likely to prefer to check in person (64% of 65-74s and 74% of those aged 75 and over vs. 42% of all adults). Preferences for booking a holiday have also not changed to any great extent since 2010, other than a decline in making a call using the home / landline phone (13% vs. 17%). As with checking the bank balance, preference for booking a holiday online has almost doubled since 2005 (44% in 2012 vs. 23% in 2005). Booking a holiday online / by email remains the most-preferred method. UK adults remain relatively unlikely to prefer to make contact with their local council online (15% vs. 13% in 2010), and are now more likely to prefer to make a mobile phone call (22% vs. 17% in 2010). Adults are still most likely to prefer to contact the local council by making a home / landline phone call, despite a decline since 2010 (50% vs. 56% in 2010). As in 2010, all adults were asked to say which method they would prefer to use to complete government processes, such as registering for tax credits, renewing a driving licence, car tax or passport, or completing a tax return. Compared to 2010, UK adults are more likely to prefer to make contact online (43% vs. 35% in 2010), and less likely to prefer to make contact in person (19% vs. 27% in 2010). Unlike the other four circumstances that we asked about, a sizeable minority (17%) would choose to complete government processes by writing a letter.

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