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Second Language Acquisition

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Second Language Acquisition

  1. 1. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PART I VICTOR GAO ZHEJIANG EDUCATION INSTITUTE
  2. 2. Krashen's Five Hypotheses <ul><li>The Acquisition/ Learning Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Input Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Affective Filter Hypothesis   </li></ul><ul><li>The Monitor Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>The Natural Order Hypothesis </li></ul>
  3. 3. Combined model of acquisition and production
  4. 4. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Comprehensible input i+1 LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS INPUT LISTENING SOUND READING WORDS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITIING WORDS KNOWLEDGE COMPETENCE HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  5. 5. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INPUT AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
  6. 6. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
  7. 7. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS COMPREHENSIBLE INPUT READING WORDS
  8. 8. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS
  9. 9. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
  10. 10. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL
  11. 11. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL
  12. 12. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL
  13. 13. Dick Allwright’s Hypothesis <ul><li>Incubation Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The language you learnt today will disappear in tomorrow’s performance until sometime later </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Interlanguage Hypothesis <ul><li>Foreigner’s second language learning </li></ul>Foreigner Native Speaker First language Inter language Second language
  15. 15. Interlanguage Hypothesis <ul><li>Foreigner’s second language learning </li></ul>Foreigner Native Speaker First language Inter Language Second Language
  16. 16. Interlanguage Hypothesis <ul><li>Foreigner’s second language learning </li></ul>First language Interlanguage Second language Foreigner Native Speaker
  17. 17. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS Finely Tuned INPUT = i+1 Roughly Tuned AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  18. 18. <ul><li>Selective learner </li></ul>
  19. 19. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS Finely Tuned INPUT = i+1 Roughly Tuned AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  20. 20. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS OUTPUT
  21. 21. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS ANXIETY CONTROL INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITING WORDS
  22. 22. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITING WORDS knowledge FIXED PHRASES KNOWLEDGE-COMPETENCE HYPOTHESIS
  23. 23. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITING WORDS knowledge FIXED PHRASES Meaning vs grammar hypothesis INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  24. 24. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT = i+1 READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITING WORDS grammar meaning Meaning vs grammar hypothesis INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  25. 25. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Comprehensible input i+1 LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS INPUT LISTENING SOUND READING WORDS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUND WRITIING WORDS KNOWLEDGE-COMPETENCE HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  26. 26. Combined model of acquisition and production
  27. 27. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS WHAT INPUT? AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS WHAT OUTPUT?
  28. 29. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INPUT READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS SPEAKING SOUND OUTPUT
  29. 30. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS SPEAKING SOUND OUTPUT
  30. 31. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS LISTENING SOUND INPUT READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS SPEAKING SOUND OUTPUT
  31. 32. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INPUT READING WORDS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS SPEAKING SOUND WRITING WORDS OUTPUT LISTENING SOUND
  32. 33. NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>Common L2 order of difficulty for grammatical morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>1 plural &quot; -s &quot; &quot;Book s “ </li></ul><ul><li>2 progressive &quot;-ing &quot; &quot;John go ing “ </li></ul><ul><li>3 copula &quot; be &quot; &quot;John is here“ </li></ul><ul><li>4 auxiliary &quot; be &quot; &quot;John is going“ </li></ul><ul><li>5 articles &quot; the/a &quot; &quot; The books“ </li></ul><ul><li>6 irregular past tense &quot;John went “ </li></ul><ul><li>7 third person &quot; -s &quot; &quot;John like s books“ </li></ul><ul><li>8 possessive &quot; s &quot; &quot;John ’s book&quot; </li></ul>
  33. 34. NATURAAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS <ul><li>Natural Order of Grammar </li></ul>1 Plural+s 2 V-ing 3 Be here 5 The/a 7 likes 9 4 Be doing 6 went 8 John’s 10
  34. 35. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE BLACK BOX INPUT HYPOTHESIS AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS MONITOR HYPOTHESIS Comprehensible input i+1 LANGUAGE ACQUSITION HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS INPUT LISTENING SOUNDS READING WORDS OUTPUT SPEAKING SOUNDS WRITIING WORDS KNOWLEDGE COMPETENCE HYPOTHESIS INCUBATION HYPOTHESIS INTERLANGUAGE HYPOTHESIS
  35. 36. The Natural Approach <ul><li>General premises </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is 'the ability to communicate with native speakers of the target language' </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension precedes production – the Silent Period </li></ul><ul><li>Production 'emerges' </li></ul>
  36. 37. The Natural Approach <ul><li>General premises </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition activities are central, though some Monitoring may be useful for some people sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>Lower the Affective Filter : they won't learn if their affective barrier is too high </li></ul><ul><li>Speech emerges in stages. Group work encourages speech. Speech emergence is characterized by grammatical errors. </li></ul>
  37. 38. 有效的和低效的外语学习比较 在课堂学习阶段,积极的学习活动很少 具体划分、充分利用各种活动 期望学生在没有学好该语言前,就使用该语言而不犯错误 期望学生在达到外语目标之前,能理解该语言 注重训练和语法 以大量交际活动为特色 遵循课程的安排,不考虑学生的期望和要求 满足学生的期望和要求 以教师为中心 以学生为中心 低效的外语学习 有效的外语学习
  38. 39. 有效的和低效的外语学习比较 依赖规定的课本并严格遵守其内容及程序 利用多种设备 , 包括计算机及其他技术 学生的本国语为教学语言 外语为教学语言学生的本国语为教学语言 在造作和乏味的情景中强调语言结构和词汇 通过可信、有吸引力的上下文引出语言 教师期望学生安静而听话地学习 , 不得四处走动 在互动交流活动中借助体态语、目光接触、手势的运用支持外语沟通 注重教师对全班的教学 最大程度地与学生互动 低效的外语学习 有效的外语学习
  39. 40. 有效的和低效的外语学习比较 忽略语言的国际化价值,只注重语言结构和考试 增加学生的多元文化意识和国际化思考 暗示学生要把外语看作是一门学问和知识 鼓励学生在课外交流中使用外语 强调不断地改正错误 语言的使用不具威胁性和危险性 , 而是得到支持 强调孤立狭义的正确答案 课堂活动鼓励创造性及发散性思考和沟通 把外语文学作品作为翻译练习来使用 让学生感受并且欣赏外语文学作品中精华 低效的外语学习 有效的外语学习

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