English Pronunciation Speech Organs

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ENGLISH SPEECH ORGANS CONSONANTS

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English Pronunciation Speech Organs

  1. 1. TEACHING ENGLISH CONSONANTS VICTOR GAO ZHEJIANG EDUCATION INSTITUTE
  2. 2. Place of Articulation 双唇 齿龈 软腭
  3. 3. The speech organs 双唇 齿龈 软颚
  4. 4. <ul><li>说话时 </li></ul><ul><li>如果吞咽食物 </li></ul><ul><li>或喝水 </li></ul><ul><li>就可能会 </li></ul><ul><li>呛入气管 </li></ul><ul><li>造成危险 </li></ul>声门 食道
  5. 5. 齿龈 上齿 双唇 软腭 声门 口腔 咽腔 鼻腔 硬腭 声带
  6. 6. Places of articulation
  7. 7. Places of articulation
  8. 8. Places of articulation 舌尖 舌端 舌前 唇 声带
  9. 9. Places of articulation
  10. 10. Places of articulation
  11. 11. Vocal tract structures relevant for speech nasal cavity 鼻腔 oral cavity 口腔 Pharynx 咽腔
  12. 12. Vocal tract structures relevant for speech <ul><li>Upper articulator </li></ul><ul><li>Lower articulator </li></ul>
  13. 13. State of the glottis 声门状态 (laryngeal setting)
  14. 14. Other consonant parameters: oral vs. nasal 辅音所涉及的器官
  15. 15. Alveolar ridge Hard palate Velum Tip Blade Front Back root 舌体与硬腭的对应
  16. 16. <ul><li>Divisions of the palate </li></ul><ul><li>The alveolar ridge ( AV ) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard palate ( HP ) </li></ul><ul><li>Soft palate ( Velum ) </li></ul><ul><li>U vula ( U ) </li></ul>硬腭的划分 AR HP V U
  17. 17. Some more terms to remember <ul><li>Divisions of the palate </li></ul><ul><li>The alveolar ridge (AV) </li></ul><ul><li>Hard palate (HP) </li></ul><ul><li>Soft palate (Velum) </li></ul><ul><li>Uvula </li></ul>齿龈 硬腭 软颚 小舌
  18. 18. <ul><li>Tip (apex) </li></ul><ul><li>Blade (lamina) </li></ul><ul><li>Front of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>Root </li></ul>Sagittal section of the tongue T B F B R 舌体的划分
  19. 19. Some terms to remember <ul><li>Tip (apex) </li></ul><ul><li>Blade (lamina) </li></ul><ul><li>Front of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Back </li></ul><ul><li>Root </li></ul>Sagittal section of the tongue 舌尖 舌端 舌前 舌后 舌根
  20. 20. The supralaryngeal vocal tract <ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul><ul><li>Palate (the roof of the mouth) </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Mandible (lower jaw) </li></ul>the three cavities Articulators (passive or active) NB: the pharynx can also act as an articulator
  21. 21. 发音方式的区分 <ul><li>Plosive (stop) </li></ul><ul><li>Fricative </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul><ul><li>Affricate </li></ul>Airflow constriction
  22. 22. Sagittal section of the vocal tract text ©J.J. Ohala, September 2001 肺 气管 喉 / 声门 咽腔 鼻腔 支气管 口腔
  23. 23. 发音器官图 齿龈 上齿 双唇 软腭 声门 口腔 咽腔 鼻腔 硬腭 声带
  24. 24. 发音器官 Speech Organs 双唇 上齿 齿龈 齿龈后 / 硬颚前 软腭 小舌 咽腔 声门
  25. 25. 发音器官 双唇 上齿 齿龈 齿龈后 / 硬颚前 软腭 小舌 咽腔 声门 硬腭
  26. 26. Description of English consonants
  27. 28. Places of articulation
  28. 29. Places of articulation
  29. 31. The three cavities: 1) Pharynx cavity 2) Oral cavity 3) Nasal cavity
  30. 32. The three cavities: 1) 咽腔 2) 口腔 3 ) 鼻腔
  31. 34. Places of articulation
  32. 35. Vocal Tract
  33. 36. Places of articulation
  34. 37. The Vocal tract <ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Larynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glottis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul>
  35. 38. Places of articulation
  36. 39. 小舌 硬腭 软腭 Look at me! 软骨 软骨
  37. 40. This is my speech organs .
  38. 41. 声门声带振动示意图 [UCLA Phonetics Lab demo]
  39. 42. The larynx viewed from above Arytenoid cartilage Vocal folds Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Cricoid cartilage Glottis
  40. 43. 声门示意图
  41. 44. Larynx and vocal folds <ul><li>The Larynx (voice box): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A structure made of cartilage and muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Located above the trachea (windpipe) and below the pharynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the vocal folds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vocal Folds (vocal cords) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two bands of muscle and tissue in the larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds produced when the vocal folds are vibrating are said to be voiced, those produced when the vocal folds are apart are voiceless </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. 鼻音效果示意图 <ul><li>Nasal cavity anatomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nose is composed of two nasal cavities, or spaces, separated by a middle wall, which is called the nasal septum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sinuses are are air-filled cavities behind the nose in the cheeks and forehead. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. Oral-nasal process <ul><li>Oral sounds: The soft palate is raised so there is a velic closure. </li></ul><ul><li>Nasal sounds: The soft palate is lowered so air escapes from nose. </li></ul>[From: Dan Jurafsky slide]
  44. 47. Rules for English consonant allophones <ul><li>18. Velar stops become more front before front vowels ( cap, kept, kit, key, gap, get, give, geese ). </li></ul><ul><li>19. The lateral /l/ is velarized (transcribed as / ɫ/) when after a vowel or before a consonant at the end of a word ( fill / fi ɫ/) </li></ul>
  45. 48. 辅音描述
  46. 49. text ©J.J. Ohala, September 2001 Places of articulation 肺 气管 声门 支气管
  47. 50. 爆破音 / t , d /
  48. 51. 发音器官示意图
  49. 52. 摩擦音 / s, z /
  50. 53. 辅音的描述
  51. 54. 爆破音 / p, b /
  52. 56. 发音器官图
  53. 57. 发音器官图
  54. 58. 声门描述
  55. 59. 辅音的描述
  56. 60. 英语辅音
  57. 61. 主要的发音部位示意 <ul><li>1. Bilabial (made with two lips) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Labiodental (made with lower lips and upper teeth) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dental (made with tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth). </li></ul>
  58. 62. 主要的发音部位示意 <ul><li>4. Alveolar (made with tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Palato-alveolar (tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge). </li></ul>
  59. 63. 主要的发音部位示意 <ul><li>6. Retroflex (tongue tip and the back of alveolar ridge). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Palatal (front of the tongue and hard palate). </li></ul>
  60. 64. 主要的发音部位示意 <ul><li>8. Velar (back of the tongue and hard palate). </li></ul><ul><li>9.Uvular </li></ul><ul><li>10. Pharyngeal </li></ul><ul><li>11. glottal </li></ul>

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