Vaddoctoral 1


Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vaddoctoral 1

  1. 1. ippines is either tropical rainforest, tropical savanna or tropical monsoon, or humid subtropical (in higher-altitude areas) characterized by relatively high temperature, oppressive humidity and plenty of rainfall. There are two seasons in the country, the wet season and the dry season, based upon the amount of rainfall.[1] This is dependent as well on your location in the country as some areas experience rain all throughout the year (see Climate Types). Based on temperature, the seven warmest months of the year are from March to October; the winter monsoon brings cooler air from November to February. May is the warmest month, and January, the coolest.[2] Weather in the Philippines is monitored and managed by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (known locally by itsacronym, PAGASA). Rainfall The summer monsoon brings heavy rains to most of the archipelago from May to October. Annual average rainfall ranges from as much as 5,000 millimetres (196.9 in) in the mountainous east coast section of the country, to less than 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. Monsoon rains, although hard and drenching, are not normally associated with high winds and waves. At least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines can be traced to tropical cyclones, while the southern islands receiving less than 10 percent of their annual rainfall from tropical cyclones. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168 millimetres (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio City.[3] Temperature[edit] The average year-round temperature measured from all the weather stations in the Philippines, except Baguio City, is 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). Cooler days are usually felt in the month of January with temperature averaging at 25.5 °C (77.9 °F) and the warmest days, in the month of May with a mean of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F).[1] Elevation factors significantly in the variation of temperature in the Philippines. In Baguio City, with an elevation of 1,500 m (5,000 ft) above sea level, the mean average is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) or cooler by about 4.3 °C (15 °F). In 1915, a one-year study was conducted by William H. Brown of the Philippine Journal of Science on top of Mount Banahaw at 2,100 m. (6,900 ft) elevation. The mean temperature measured was 18.6 °C (65.5 °F), a difference of 10 °C (21.6 °F) from the lowland mean temperature.[4]
  2. 2. Typhoons[edit] Main article: Typhoons in the Philippines The Philippines sit astride the typhoon belt, and the country suffers an annual onslaught of dangerous storms from July through October. These are especially hazardous for northern and eastern Luzon and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas regions, but Manila gets devastated periodically as well.[citation needed] Bagyó is the local term to any tropical cyclone in the Philippine Islands.[3] From the statistics gathered by PAGASA from 1948 to 2004, around an average of 20 storms and/or typhoons per year enter the PAR (Philippine Area of Responsibility) - the designated area assigned to PAGASA to monitor during weather disturbances. Those that made landfall or crossed the Philippines, the average was nine per year. In 1993, a record 19 typhoons made landfall in the country making it the most in one year. The least amount per year were 4 during the years 1955, 1958, 1992 and 1997.[5] PAGASA categorises typhoons into four types according to wind speed. Once a tropical cyclone enters the Philippine Area of Responsibility, regardless of strength, PAGASA gives it a local name for identification purposes by the media, government, and the general public.[6] • Tropical Depressions have maximum sustained winds of between 55 kilometres per hour (30 kn) and 64 kilometres per hour (35 kn) near its center. • Tropical Storms have maximum sustained winds of 65 kilometres per hour (35 kn) and 119 kilometres per hour (64 kn). • Typhoons achieve maximum sustained winds of 120 kilometres per hour (65 kn) to 185 kilometres per hour (100 kn),[7] • Super typhoons having maximum winds exceeding 185 kilometres per hour (100 kn).[8] Deadliest storm[edit] The deadliest typhoon to impact the Philippines was Typhoon Uring (Thelma) in November 1991, in which 5,080 lives were lost from its resultant flooding and over 1,200 went missing.[5][9] Strongest typhoons[edit] The highest wind velocity recorded for a typhoon that crossed the Philippines was recorded in Virac on November 30, 2006 when Typhoon Reming (Durian) had a peak gust of 320 km/h (198 mph).[5] Climate types[edit]
  3. 3. There are four recognized climate types in the Philippines, and they are based on the distribution of rainfall (See the Philippine Climate Map). They are described as follows:[1] • Type I. Two pronounced season: dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. • Type II. No dry season with a pronounced rainfall from November to January. • Type III. Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet during the rest of the year. • Type IV. Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. Representative cities Humidity[edit] Relative humidity is high in the Philippines. A high amount of moisture or vapor in the air makes hot temperatures feel hotter. This quantity of moisture is due to different factors - the extraordinary evaporationfrom the seas that surrounds the country on all sides, to the different prevailing winds in the different seasons of the year, and finally, to the abundant rains so common in a tropical country. The first may be considered as general causes of the great humidity, which is generally observed in all the islands throughout the year. The last two may influence the different degree of humidity for the different months of the year and for the different regions of the Archipelago.[12] In the cooler months, even though the rains are more abundant in the eastern part of the Philippines, owing to the prevailing northeasterly winds, the humidity is lesser than in the western part where a dry season prevails. From June to October, although the rains are quite general throughout the Archipelago, the rains are more abundant in the western part of the Philippines, which is more exposed to the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds; hence the humidity of the air is greater there than in the eastern part of the Archipelago. The least comfortable months are from March to May where temperature and humidity attain their maximum levels.[citation needed] Seasons[edit] PAGASA divides the climate of the country into two main seasons--rainy and dry--with the dry season further subdivided into two: Using temperature and rainfall as bases, the climate of the country can be divided into two major seasons: (1) the rainy season, from June to November; and (2) the dry season, from December to May. The dry season may be subdivided further into (a) the cool dry season, from December to February; and (b) the hot dry season, from March to May.[13]
  4. 4. Graphically the seasons can be represented this way: Month Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Rainfall DRY RAINY Temperature COOL HOT Key: Yellow-Dry; Green-Rainy; Blue-Cool; Red-Hot The months of April and May, the hot and dry months [13] when schools are on their long, between-years break, is referred to as summer while in most of the Northern Hemisphere those months are part ofspring.[citation needed] NATURAL RESOURCES About the Philippines Bodies of Water The Philippines boast of many different kinds of natural water forms, such as bays, rivers, lakes falls, gulfs, straits, and swamps. Because it is made up of islands, the country's coastline, if laid end-to-end, would measure around 17.5 thousand kilometers. The Philippines is blessed with excellent natural harbors for ports like Manila Bay. Other excellent harbors with port potentials are found in Ilocos, Pangasinan, Visayas, and Mindanao. The three largest rivers in the country are the Cagayan River in Northern Luzon, the Rio Grande de Mindanao, and theAgusan River, also in Mindanao. Also noteworthy in terms of size are the Agno, Pasig, Angat Pampanga, and Bicol rivers in Luzon. Most popular among tourist is the famous underground river in Palawan. Aside from rivers, the country also abounds with lakes. Easily the most famous is the heart-shaped Laguna de Bay. Other famous lakes are Taal in Batangas, Sampaloc in Laguna, Buhi and Bulusan in Bicol, Naujan in Mindoro oriental, and Lanao and Mainit in Mindanao. Generating power for the Nation’s growth are the magnificent waterfalls that serve as tourist attractions, as well. The biggest is waterfalls is the Maria Cristina falls, it can be found in the North Western part of Lanao province in Mindanao, while the most popular is Pagsanjan falls in Laguna, where tourist came in droves. Natural Resources The Philippines is rich in natural resources. It has fertile, arable lands, diverse flora and fauna, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits. About 30% ofthe land area of the country was determined be geologically prospective by the Philippine Mines and Geo- Sciences Bureau. But Only 1.5% of country's land area is covered with mining permits. Despite the rich natural resources of the Philippines, the government is restricting its exploitation. A logging ban is imposed on many areas of the country and only in select areas are "sustainable logging" allowed. However illegal logging and small-scale illegal mining
  5. 5. continues is many areas. In July 2012, President Benigno Aquino III ordered a stop to all mining activities in all (78 areas) protected and eco-tourism sites. A positive step in the right direction to protect the natural resources of the Philippines. Our Land The Philippines’ primary source of livelihood is its fertile land. Rich, wide plains suitable for farming are found in the Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, South western Bicol, Panay, Negros, Davao, Cotabato, Agusan and Bukidnon. The country ‘s six major crops are rice, corn, sugarcane, coconut, abaca and tobacco. Except for rice and corn, all these products are exported, along with bananas and pineapples. Our Forests The Philippines also boasts of wide tracts of lush, green forests. In fact, almost half of the country’s total land area is forested. Sixty percent of these forests are found in Mindanao. Mineral resources Except for petroleum and a number of metals, mineral resources abound in Philippine soil. The country’s mineral deposits can be classified into metals and non-metals. Our metal deposits are estimated at 21.5 billion metric tons, while non-metal deposits are projected at 19.3 billion metric tons. Nickel ranks first in terms of deposits and size, it is found in Surigao del Norte, Davao, Palawan, Romblon and Samar. Iron is found in Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Camarines Norte and Cotabato. While copper in Zambales, Batangas, Mindoro, Panay and Negros. Among non-metal deposits, the most abundant are cement, lime, and marble. Other non-metals include asbestos, clay, guano, asphalt, feldspar, sulfur, talc, silicon, phosphate, and marble. Fishery Resources With its territorial waters measuring as much as 1.67 million square kilometers and located in the worlds fishing center, the Philippines is definitely rich in marine resources. Of the 2,400 fish species found in the country. 65 have good commercial value. Other marine products include corals, pearls, crabs and seaweeds. Some of the countries best salt water fishing area’s are found in Sintangki Island in Sulu Estancia in Bohol, Malampaya in Palawan, Lingayen Gulf in Pangasinan, San Miguel lake in Camarines Norte, Bantayan Channel in Cebu, and the seas of Quezon and Sorsogon. On the other hand, among our biggest fisher water fishing areas are Laguna de Bay, Bombon Lake in Batangas, Bato Lake in Canmarines Sur, Naujan Lake in Mindoro and Mainit lake in Agusan del Norte. Continue to Early Filipinos www.philippine-history.orG POPULATION Philippines is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. It ranks in the top 20 most populated countries in the world.
  6. 6. We based our figures below according to the estimate of the Commission on Population (POPCOM) of the Philippines and the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA), a US Government agency responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior US policymakers. The real-time projected population of the Philippines according to the Commission on Population (POPCOM) is: We must also be aware of the total number of un Read more: _philippines_2012/5-1-0-3004#ixzz2YphzJsuL Almost 104 million people are living in the Philippines. Compared to the population of other countries, Philippines ranks as the 12th most populated country in the world and China as being the undisputed no. 1 most populated country. Interesting Facts About the Philippine Population Other demographical information provided by the CIA (based on 2012 estimate) are the following: • 34.6% of people in the Philippines is composed of 0 to 14 years old (17,999,279 male and 17,285,040 female) • 61.1% of people in the Philippines is composed of 15-64 years old (31,103,967 male and 31,097,203 female) • 4.3% are 65 years old and over (1,876,805 male and 2,471,644 female) • Population growth rate is 1.873% (2012 estimate), which makes the Philippines ranks as the 63rd country with highest population growth rate in the world. • Manila is the most populated city in the Philippines with 11.449 million people. Next is Davao City with 1.48 million people, Cebu City with 845,000 people and Zamboanga City with 827,000 people (based on 2009 estimated population) Major Ethnic Groups in the Philippines The population of the Philippines is mainly composed of ten major ethnic groups: 1. Tagalog 2. Cebuano 3. Ilocano 4. Bisaya 5. Hiligaynon or Ilonggo
  7. 7. 6. Bikolano 7. Waray 8. Kapampangan 9. Muslims (Moros) 10. Lumad According to CIA, Tagalog is the largest ethnic group which allocates 28.1% of the total population. References: • • Read more: _philippines_2012/5-1-0-3004#ixzz2Ypi5wJlm Population 103,775,002 (July 2012 est.) Age structure 0-14 years: 34.3% (male 18,175,763/female 17,452,488) 15-24 years: 19.1% (male 10,107,717/female 9,753,268) 25-54 years: 36.6% (male 19,065,843/female 18,941,091) 55-64 years: 5.6% (male 2,663,592/female 3,102,247) 65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,948,152/female 2,564,841) (2012 est.) Median age total: 23.1 years male: 22.6 years female: 23.6 years (2012 est.) Population growth rate 1.873% (2012 est.) Birth rate 24.98 births/1,000 population (2012 est.) Death rate 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.) Net migration rate -1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.) Urbanization urban population: 49% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Major cities - population MANILA (capital) 11.449 million; Davao 1.48 million; Cebu City 845,000; Zamboanga 827,000 (2009)
  8. 8. Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.) Infant mortality rate total: 18.75 deaths/1,000 live births male: 21.21 deaths/1,000 live births female: 16.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.) Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.94 years male: 68.99 years female: 75.03 years (2012 est.) Total fertility rate 3.15 children born/woman (2012 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate less than 0.1% (2009 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS 8,700 (2009 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths fewer than 200 (2009 est.) Sanitation facility access improved: urban: 80% of population rural: 69% of population total: 76% of population unimproved: urban: 20% of population rural: 31% of population total: 24% of population Major infectious diseases degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009) Nationality noun: Filipino(s) adjective: Philippine Ethnic groups Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
  9. 9. Religions Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census) Languages Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 92.6% male: 92.5% female: 92.7% (2000 census) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) total: 12 years male: 12 years female: 12 years (2008) Education expenditures 2.8% of GDP (2008) Maternal mortality rate 99 deaths/100,000 live births (2010) Children under the age of 5 years underweight 20.7% (2003) Health expenditures 3.8% of GDP (2009) Physicians density 1.153 physicians/1,000 population (2004) Hospital bed density 0.5 beds/1,000 population (2006) Obesity - adult prevalence rate 4.3% (2003) Infrastructure in Philippines It is a fact that infrastructure projects are capital-intensive propositions. In many countries, the difficulty of financing both the construction and the operation and maintenance of infrastructure services and facilities directly from government coffers is more of a rule than an exception. In the early 1990s, the Government of the Philippines found itself facing a predicament of declining financial resources and absorptive capacity vis-à-vis the rising demand for more and more infrastructure services and facilities. Twelve-hour power outages were crippling the economy as government was unable to finance the necessary power plants to meet basic growth in demand.
  10. 10. The quantity and quality of Philippines infrastructure have generally failed to keep pace with the growing demands of the population. In 2002, Phillipines ranked 47th out of 61 countries and territories in terms of infrastructure. In 2006, its ranking fell to the 56th place. Power In terms of access to electricity, the Philippines perform quite adequately. By 2002, 89.1 per cent of the population had access to electricity. This scenario has improved further to 93.7 per cent by the end of 2005.However the country faces problems with the quality of the service. Transmission and distribution losses in the country have been a major bottleneck for infrastructure development. Telecommunications Access to fixed telephone lines is also quite low in the Philippines although this is mitigated by the substantially higher level of access to mobile phones. Fixed line access was at 4 lines per 100 people at the end of 2005.The density of mobile subscribers stood at 41.3 percent at the end of 2005. Water and Sanitation Access to quality water sources is relatively high at 85 per cent of the population in 2002.But on the flip side, infrastructure coverage has not kept up with the population growth and the national average is not a true reflection of the disparity in access across regions. Access to improved sanitation facilities, was at 73 per cent in 2002. Roads Philippines compares favorably in terms of road density at 2.5 kilometers/1000 people in 2001, with its regional neighbors. However, the national data fails to indicate the large regional variations in road density in the country. Metro Manila ranks lowest in terms of kilometers per population with 0.5 km per 1000 people. The quality of the road network, measured in terms of the length of paved roads per sqkm stood at 0.06 km/sq km in 2002.