Rwh And Ecosystems Unep


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Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An ExChange of

Policies and Learnings

November 25-26, 2008
Davao City

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  • Rwh And Ecosystems Unep

    1. 1. Rainwater Harvesting and Ecosystems Elizabeth Khaka UNEP / Division of Environmental Policy Implementation Regional Conference for Southeast Asia on Rainwater Harvesting in IWRM: An Exchange of Practices and Learning 25-26 November, 2008
    2. 2. Flow <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems services </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystems degradation </li></ul><ul><li>RWH and ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>UNEP ecosystems and RWH initiative </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>ecosystem- ‘a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit. Humans are an integral part of ecosystems’. CBD </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Ecosystems major source of livelihood to billions </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency high in developing countries </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ecosystems S ervices
    6. 6. Provisioning Recreation Regulating
    7. 7. Contribution of ecosystems <ul><li>Flood prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$350 billion at 1994 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recreational value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$304 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reef habitats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$375 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fisheries contributes 16-90% of global protein </li></ul>
    8. 8. Contribution of ecosystems <ul><li>Malaysia mangrove s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$ 35 million a year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thailand coastal protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$ 165 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indonesia mangroves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US$ 86 million </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Ecosystems degradation <ul><li>60% of ecosystem services (the benefits people obtain from ecosystems) were heavily degraded over the last 50 years </li></ul><ul><li> (the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) </li></ul><ul><li>Especially aquatic ecosystems are declining more rapidly than other ecosystems </li></ul>
    10. 10. Framework <ul><li>Ecosystem Services </li></ul><ul><li>Provisioning </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., food, water and fiber) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulating </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., climate regulation and water) </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., spiritual and aesthetic) </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., soil formation) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Basic material for a good life </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Good Social Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of choice and action </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Drivers of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in land use </li></ul><ul><li>Species introduction or removal </li></ul><ul><li>Technology adaptation and use </li></ul><ul><li>External inputs (e.g., irrigation) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Natural physical and biological </li></ul><ul><li>drivers (e.g., volcanoes) </li></ul><ul><li>Ind irect Drivers of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic </li></ul><ul><li>Economic (globalization, trade, </li></ul><ul><li>market and policy framework) </li></ul><ul><li>Sociopolitical (governance and </li></ul><ul><li>institutional framework) </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and Religious </li></ul>
    11. 11. Drivers of Ecosystem Degradation <ul><li>Climate Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent Droughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and Floods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over-exploitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Dams </li></ul></ul>Direct Drivers Indirect Drivers <ul><li>Economic Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sociopolitical Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insensibility of Water Resource Limitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralization of Water Supply </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Climate Change <ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining flora-trees grass </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent Droughts and Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigate floods -detaining </li></ul><ul><li>Drought-detain flood water </li></ul>
    13. 13. Over-exploitation <ul><li>Improve storage </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and community structures </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce over exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Household </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul>
    14. 14. Pollution <ul><li>Pollutant Discharges </li></ul><ul><li>Retaining and detaining urban runoff -reduces the potential for pollutant discharges from overflow </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling non-point source of pollution is an important broader strategy for the protection of surface water quality in urban areas. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Habitat Change <ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents unban floods </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Trees- vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Large Dams </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce reliance on water storage dams can be reduced </li></ul>
    16. 16. Economic Drivers <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Improve production –agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst for development </li></ul><ul><li>Improve access to water and sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce time for fetching water-girl child and school </li></ul><ul><li>Water for sanitation </li></ul>
    17. 17. RWH for Ecosystem Services Provisioning Services Fresh Water Food Timber RWH
    18. 18. RWH for Ecosystem Services Water Regulation Erosion Regulation Natural Hazard Regulation Water Purification Regulating Services RWH
    19. 19. RWH for Ecosystem Services Water Cycling Supporting Services RWH
    20. 20. Conclusions and Recommendations <ul><li>Contributes to ecosystems rehabilitation -addresses drivers of ecosystem degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Plays an important role in ecosystems and human well being </li></ul><ul><li>Link with ecosystems important to avoid over-abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Plan RWH in IWRM. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness creation </li></ul>
    21. 21. UNEP P ublication on RWH & ecosyst e m s <ul><li>Introduction and background </li></ul><ul><li>1a) Introduction, scope </li></ul><ul><li>1b) Background: rainwater harvesting the concept </li></ul><ul><li>1c) Ecosystems framework and human wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>RWH and catchment /watershed management </li></ul><ul><li>2 a). RWH and surface water </li></ul><ul><li>2 b). RWH and ground water recharge </li></ul><ul><li>RWH and agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>3 a). RWH and crop production </li></ul><ul><li>3 b). RWH and livestock production </li></ul><ul><li>3 c). RWH and cash crop production (non food production) </li></ul>
    22. 22. UNEP P ublication on RWH & ecosyst e m s <ul><li>RWH and forestry </li></ul><ul><li>4 a). RWH and forests (incl. aspects on natural and plantation) </li></ul><ul><li>4 b). RWH and agroforestry </li></ul><ul><li>RWH for water supply in rural and urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>5 a) RWH and domestic water supply in rural urban context </li></ul><ul><li>5 b) RWH and industry </li></ul><ul><li>RWH in the future </li></ul><ul><li>7 a) climate change and adaptation: the role of RWH </li></ul><ul><li>7 b) global drivers of change/ ecosystems degradation & water stress </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions and recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>8 a) Synthesis and discussions </li></ul><ul><li>8 b) Policy implications: gaps and pot. ways ahead </li></ul>
    23. 23. Thank You