Icmpc 12 earworm talk- Lassi Liikkanen

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Icmpc 12 earworm talk- Lassi Liikkanen

  1. 1. From characterization to understanding involuntary musical imagery Lassi “Al” LiikkanenICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Helsinki Institute for26.7.2012. Information Technology Aalto University & University of Helsinki Finland
  2. 2. Congratulations! C t l ti ! For all present in the world’s first scientific assembly on research on involuntary musical imagery, or earworms.Wishing a great start for INMIresearchers!Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial 2
  3. 3. This talk: • Music in Mind 2007 study – Background – Central findings • Work in progress and future work p gUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 3 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  4. 4. Music in Mind 2007: Findings published • Liikkanen L (2012) Musical Activities L. Predispose to Involuntary Musical Imagery. Psychology of Music 40(2) 236-256. 236 256. – ICMPC 2008 • Liikkanen L (2012) Inducing involuntary L. musical imagery: an experimental study. Musicae Scientiae 16(2) 217 234 217-234. – ESCOM 2009Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 4 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  5. 5. MiM 2007: background • Design inspired by Kellaris 2001 2001, 2003 and Bennett, 2003 • Intention to replicate in a g generalizable way yUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 5 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  6. 6. MiM 2007: study concept • Web-based data administration and Web based collection • “Experiential” web survey designUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 6 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  7. 7. Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial 7
  8. 8. MiM 2007: recruitment • 3 months online 3 record store online, certificates raffled • From university, through email referencingg – Before FacebookUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 8 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  9. 9. Results: Participants N % Music listening frequency N % All respondents 12519 4.9 % Never 38 0.3 % Qualified respondents 11910 95.1 % Seldom 10 0.1 % Monthly or less frequent 183 1.5 15% Sex Weekly, not daily 1678 14.1 % Women 8144 68.4 % Daily, < 2 hours 3437 28.9 % Men 3766 31.6 % Daily, 2-6 h 5269 44.2 % Daily > 6 h 1295 10.9 % Age Average g g 27.8 years y St. Dev. 8.48 years Activities: playing, singing or composing music Never 4250 35.7 % Age groups (N=11904) Seldom 190 1.6 % < 25 y 4822 40.5 % Monthly or less frequent 1521 12.8 % 25 - 30 y 4154 34.9 % Weekly, not daily y y 3173 26.6 % 31 - 40 y 1892 15.9 % Daily, < 2 hours 2015 16.9 % > 40 y 1036 8.7 % Daily, 2-6 h 700 5.9 % Daily > 6 h 61 0.5 % Handedness (N=11887) Right 10633 89.5 % Length of active musical training in the past Left 818 6.9 % None 3767 31.6 % Ambidexterous 436 3.7 % < 1 year 2264 19.0 % 1-3 years 2931 24.6 % University staff or students 3795 31.9 % 4-10 years 1242 10.4 % Hearing defect, neurological 910 7.6 % 10-15 years 558 4.7 % disorder, CNS medication >15 years 1148 9.6 %Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 9 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  10. 10. Part I: Characterizing • How common is INMI what INMI, influences its frequency and what is the experience alike?Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 10 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  11. 11. Frequency of INMI experiences 35% 91% of respondents  Men (N=3766) * 30% at least weekly dents Women (N=8144) of all respond 25% 20% 33% 33% 33% 32% 15% Proportion o 27% 24% * 10% 5% * 7% 5% 3% 2% 0% 0% 0% Several times a day Every day Weekly Monthly More seldom NeverUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 11 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  12. 12. What influences INMI frequency? Partial correlations Variable ρ p N Practice activity 0.233 < .001 11904 Listening activity 0.188 < .001 11899 Length of musical practice * 0.036 .001 8608 Age -0.099 < .001 11899 Self-assessed musicality 0.148 < .001 2968 Ease of foreign pronounciation 0.119 < .001 2968 Portable music player 0.022 >.05 2968 *excluding musicians Controlling for music practice, listening, length of practice, and age groupUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 12 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  13. 13. Phemenology 100% Non‐musician female 90% Musician female 80% ndendts Non‐musican male 70% Musician male of all respon 60% 50% 91% 92% 91% 91% 40% 79% 77% 76% 75% 80% 80%Proportion o 69% 70% 30% 49% 20% 34% 31% 33%P 25% 10% 16% 16% 9% 0% Unfamiliar, novel  Unfamiliar, novel Instrumental music  Music sang in native  Music sang in foreign  Familiar, previously  Instrumental music Music sang in native Music sang in foreign Familiar, previously music (N=2967) (N=11845) language (N=11855) language (N=11857) head music (N=2970) Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 13 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  14. 14. Part I • More results in the POM paper – Comparison to Semantic Involuntary memories – Details about the phenomenologyUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 14 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  15. 15. Part II: Induction experiment • QQuestions: ti 1. Can you evoke INMI experiences y p with an experimental manipulation? 2. 2 Is an earworm just a temporal extension of external stimulus?Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 15 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  16. 16. Greene (1986) J. Exp. Psy: LMC Hypotheses • Recency hypothesis relevant to INMI a) “the most recent” cf the recent cf. recency effect b) Longer term recency ~ repeated musical p primingUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 16 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  17. 17. Experimental method • INMI i d ti using a cued-recall induction i d ll musical imagery task – Variation of musical image scanning task (Halpern, 1988) ( p )Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 17 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  18. 18. Method • 5 song lyric completion tasks • “Obla di, obla da, …” • “Rudolf the red-nosed reindeer…”Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 18 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  19. 19. Experimental Setup • (most-) Recency manipulation: (most ) • Order of song cues • Long-term recency manipulation – 2 sets of song cues: contemporary vs. classics • Controlling for song familiarity – Open ended Open-ended • INMI Probe after a distractor taskUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 19 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  20. 20. Induction results Percent of participants reporting INMI 80.0 % 68.2 68 2 % Cued 70.0 % song 60.0 % Other 49.7 % song 50.0 % None 40.0 % 32.0 % 30.0 % 18.6 % 18.3 % 20.0 % 13.2 % 10.0 10 0 % 0.0 % Exp. 1 Contemporary (N=991) Exp. 2 Classics (N=6524)Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 20 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  21. 21. Recency effect 35% Average hit rate 30% 25% INM probability 20% MI 15% 10% 5% 1 2 3 4 5 Serial positionUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 21 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  22. 22. Central findings from MM2007 in brief: 1. 1 Establishing the wide acknowledgment of the INMI phenomenon 2. Observing some regularities in the g g frequency of INMI * Replicating earlier findingsUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 22 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  23. 23. Central findings cont cont. 3. 3 Witnessing considerable inter- inter individual variation 4. Demonstrating the bias for experiencing contemporary songs p g p y g as INMI 5. 5 Songs causing INMI vary a lotUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 23 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  24. 24. Current and Future workICMPC-ESCOM 201226.7.2012.
  25. 25. ICMPC-ESCOM Proc. paper Proc • Content analysis of MM2007 open ended answers – M S i Silf b Ms. Suvi Silfverberg (MA) • Focusing on implications of g p INMI • 1229 open ended responses open-ended without particular focusUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 25 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  26. 26. INMI and Social life • Categories of findings: • Collective contagion – Intentional & susceptibility • Locus of social attention – UnwantedUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 26 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  27. 27. Read more from the Proceedings • Available from the internetUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 27 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  28. 28. Future work • Earworm clinic in Facebook https://apps.facebook.com/earwormclinic/Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 28 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  29. 29. Future themes • Prevention & coping strategies • Parallels to clinical phenomena • Implications to life outside your head • Theory of How and WhyUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 29 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  30. 30. Theoretical questions: What is it? • Can we reduce it to to… • Expectations? • Mind-pops or ISMs? • Obsessions? • Is it epiphenomenal – What if we could stop it?Understanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 30 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  31. 31. My expectations • To move from characterization to understanding involuntary musical imageryUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 31 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  32. 32. Answer three questions: o What is INMI? o Why is INMI? oHHow t stop INMI? to tUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 32 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial
  33. 33. Thank you! • Lassi Liikkanen@Hiit fi Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial https://apps.facebook.com/earwormclinic/ http://tinyurl.com/INMIworld p yUnderstanding Involuntary Musical Imagery 33 ICMPC-ESCOM 2012 Lassi.Liikkanen@Hiit.fi 27.7.2012 http://hiit.fi/lassial #lassial

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