Learners Chapter I

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Learners Chapter I

  1. 1. Classmanagement<br />Ms. Vicky treviño<br />August, 2011<br />LEARNERSCHAPTER I<br />
  2. 2. REASONS FOR LEARNING A NEW LANGUAGE<br />Movinginto a target languagecommunity.<br />Tooperatesuccessfullywithinthatcommunity<br />
  3. 3. REASONS…<br />EAP = Englishforacademicpurposes.<br />ESP = Englishfor a specificpurposeorspecialpurposes.<br />Legal, tourism, banking, nursinglanguage.<br />Business English<br />
  4. 4. REASONS<br />Itwillbeuseful in internationalcommunication and travel.<br />GENERAL ENGLISH<br />
  5. 5. DIFFERENT CONTEXTS FOR LEARNING<br />EFL = English as a foreignlanguage<br />Use Englishwhen travelling orcommunicatingwithotherpeoplefromwhatever country.<br />
  6. 6. CONTEXTS<br />ESL = English as a secondlanguage<br />People living in the target languagecommunity, e.g. Scottish English, southernEnglishfromEngland, AustralianEnglish, TexanEnglish, etc.<br />
  7. 7. CONTEXTS<br />ESOL = EnglishforSpeakers of OtherLanguages<br />Forinternationalcommunication.<br />
  8. 8. SCHOOLS AND LANGUAGE SCHOOLS<br />Schools as part of thecurriculum, informationtechnology (IT).<br />Languageschools = smallclass, studentschoosetostudy.<br />Motivation.<br />
  9. 9. LARGE CLASSES AND ONE-TO-ONE TEACHING<br />Preference<br />
  10. 10. WORK<br />Thesizeaffectshowweteach.<br />Pairworkorgrupwork<br />Largeclasses = more interaction<br />One-to-one = specificneeds<br />
  11. 11. IN-SCHOOL AND IN-COMPANY<br />In-school: conformto syllabus.<br />In-company: teachernegotiateclasscontentwithstudents and company.<br />
  12. 12. REAL AND VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT<br />Real = traditional.<br />Virtual = internet<br />Motivation<br />
  13. 13. LEARNER DIFFERENCES<br />Age<br />Children: 2 to 14<br />Veryyounglearners: 2 to 5<br />Young learners: 5 to 9<br />Adolescence: 12 to 17<br />Young adults: 16 to 20<br />Adults: 21 --<br />
  14. 14. CHILDREN<br />Don’tfocus.<br />Takeinformationallaround.<br />Kinesthetic<br />Short attentionspam<br />Lesseffectivetolearngrammar rules.<br />Respondwellto individual teacherattention.<br />Pleasedtoreceiveteacher’sapproval.<br />Remarkablefacilitytobecomecompetentspeakers.<br />Forgetlanguageseasily.<br />
  15. 15. ADOLESCENTS<br />Greatercapacityforabstractthought.<br />Intellects are kicking in.<br />Enormouspotentialforcreativethought.<br />Passionatecommitmenttothingswhichintereststhem.<br />Searchforidentity<br />Needforself-esteem.<br />Peer groupratherthanteacherapproval.<br />
  16. 16. ADULTS<br />Widerrange of experiences<br />More disciplined<br />Responsible<br />Have a clearunderstanding of whythey are learningthings.<br />Iftheyhadnegativelearningexperiences = nervous<br />Strongviewsaboutteachingmethods<br />
  17. 17. TEACHING STRATEGIES<br />Youngerchildren: games, songs, puzzles.<br />Adolescents: peer groupactivities, theirchoice of topics.<br />Adults: inspiringconfidence and cooperation<br />
  18. 18. LEARNING STYLES<br />Neuro-LinguisticProgramming (NLP)<br />Students are influencedby visual stimuli. <br />See = remember<br />
  19. 19. LEARNING STYLES<br />Otherlearners, are affectedbyauditory input.<br />
  20. 20. LEARNING STYLES<br />Kinesthetic: physicalactivity<br />
  21. 21. HOWARD GARDNER MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES<br />
  22. 22. In anyclassroomwehave a number of differentindividualswithdifferentlearningstyles and preferences.<br />Homeworkisgoodforeveryone<br />Reading forpleasure as well.<br />Whatisyourlearningstyle?<br />http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm<br />
  23. 23. LEVELS<br />Threebasicdistinctions<br />Beginner: don’tknowthelanguage.<br />Successorfailureiseasytosee. Stressfulforadults. <br />Intermediate: havecertainknowledge of thelanguage.<br />Successislessobvioussincetheyhavealreadyachieved a lot= plateaueffect<br />Advanced: communicatesfluently.<br />Stilldanger of theplateaueffect. Developappropriacy = usingtherightlanguage in therightsituation. Orconnotation= wordswith a negativeor positive tinge. And inference = readingbehindthewords.<br />
  24. 24. LEVELS<br />False beginners: actuallyknowthelanguage, justneedsactivation.<br />Elementary: communicate in a basicway. <br />Pre-intermediate: havenotyetachievedintermediatecompetence.<br />Upper-intermediate: havethecompetence of intermediate plus an extended knowledge of grammaticalconstruction and skill use.<br />
  25. 25. ALTE<br />Association of LangugeTesters of Europe<br />Languagecompetencylevelsforthelearners of a differentlanguage.<br />
  26. 26. ALTE<br />CommonEuropean Framework<br />Students ‘can do’ at variouslevels<br />Rangingfrom<br />A1: beginners, false beginners and elementary<br />A2 pre intermediate<br />B1 intermediate<br />B2 intermediatetoupperintermediate<br />C1 upperintermediate<br />C2 advanced<br />
  27. 27. CAN DO – A1<br />Complete basicforms<br />Write notes<br />Time<br />Dates<br />Places <br />
  28. 28. A2<br />Complete forms<br />Write short simple letters<br />Personal information<br />
  29. 29. B1<br />Writeletters<br />Make notes on familiar orpredictablematters<br />
  30. 30. B2<br />Take notes<br />Write a letterincluding non-standardquestions<br />Ex."But what if you already know the explanation to that question?"<br />
  31. 31. C1<br />Prepare a draft<br />Professional correspondence<br />Takereasonablyaccurate notes<br />Writeanessay<br />Show anhabilitytocommunicate<br />
  32. 32. C2<br />Writelettersonanysubject<br />Full notes of meetings<br />Goodexpression<br />Accuracy<br />
  33. 33. EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL BACKGROUND<br />Homeswhereeducationishighlyvalued.<br />Parental help.<br />Lesssupportivebackground.<br />No backupisoffered<br />Learningby rote<br />Memorizing<br />Learningbydoing<br />Projects and experiments<br />Multilingualclasses<br />Differentmothertongues<br />
  34. 34. MOTIVATION<br />Thedesiretolearnorachievesomething.<br />Extrinsicmotivation= fromtheoutside.<br />Intrinsicmotivation =fromwithinthe individual orinsidetheclassroom.<br />Sustainingmotivation<br />Appropriatelevel of challenge<br />Affect = howthestudentsfeelaboutlearning.<br />Agency = studentstakingresponsibilityforthemselves.<br />Be thedoer in theclass.<br />Encouragingwords and deeds: support and guidance<br />
  35. 35. RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE LEARNING<br />Learnerautonomy<br />Graduallyextendthestudent’s role in learning<br />Monolinguallearners’sdictionary<br />Self-access center<br />Resourceson line tovisit.<br />
  36. 36. HOMEWORK<br />Complete thelearningstyle test in thefollowing link:<br />http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm<br />Researchabout<br />DIFFERENTIATED CLASSROOM<br />Whatisit?<br />What are otherlearnerdifferences?<br />Howshouldtheybemanaged?<br />Write a summaryincludingthesourceorreferences.<br />

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