REPORTER: Mrs. Victoria O. Superal
• It is the world’s second –largest country by area
• Type of government: Federal Parliamentary Democracy and
Constitutional Monarchy. Canada is a federation, which means
powers are shared between federal and provincial governments.
• Head of Government: Prime Minister. Queen Elizabeth II is Canada's
official head of state, and is represented in Canada by the Governor
• It has 10 provinces and 3 territories as of 1999.
• The ten provinces are Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New
Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince
Edward Island, Quebec and Saskatchewan
• The three Territories are Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Yukon
• The provinces are considered to be co-sovereign divisions and each
province has its own “Crown” represented by the lieutenant
governor, whereas the territories are not sovereign, but simply parts
of the federal realm, and have a commissioner.
EDUCATION IN CANADA
• The main languages are English and French and these are
official languages at Federal level making it a bilingual nation.
• Canada generally has 190 school days in the year, officially
starting from September to the end of June.
• The curriculum is designed to elicit development and quality of
people’s cognition through the guiding of accommodations of
individuals to their natural environment and their changing
• There is no federal department of education and no integrated
national system of education. Within the federal system of
shared powers, Canada's Constitution Act of 1867 provides
that "In and for each province, the legislature may exclusively
make laws in relation to Education."
EDUCATION IN CANADA
• In the 13 jurisdictions-10 provinces and 3 territories,
departments or ministries of education are
responsible for the organization, delivery and
assessment of education at the elementary and
secondary levels, for technical and vocational
education, and for postsecondary education.
• Some jurisdictions have two separate departments or
ministries, one having responsibility for elementary-
secondary education and the other for postsecondary
and skills training.
• Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the
curriculum is overseen by the province. Education is
generally divided into primary education, followed by
secondary education and post-secondary.
• Education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every
province in Canada, except for Manitoba, Ontario and
New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18, or as
soon as high school diploma has been achieved.
• All jurisdictions have some form of pre-elementary
(kindergarten) education, operated by the local
education authorities and offering one year of pre-
grade1, non-compulsory education for five years old.
• Depending on the jurisdiction, kindergarten may be
compulsory or pre-school classes may be available
from age four or even earlier.
• The intensity of the programs varies, with full-day
and half-day program, depending on the school
• The ages for compulsory schooling vary from one jurisdiction
to another, but most require attendance in school from age 6
to age 16. In some cases compulsory schooling starts at 5, and
in others it extends to age 18 or graduation from secondary
• In most jurisdictions, elementary schools cover six to eight
years of schooling.
• Elementary curriculum emphasizes the basic subjects of
language, mathematics, social studies, science, health and
physical education, and introductory arts; some jurisdictions
include second-language learning.
• It covers the final four to six years of compulsory education.
In the first years, students take mostly compulsory courses,
with some options. The proportion of options increases in the
later years so that students may take specialized courses to
prepare for the different entrance requirements of post-
• Vocational and academic programs are offered within the
same secondary schools; in others, technical and vocational
programs are offered in separate, dedicated vocational
Separate and Private Schools
• The establishment of separate educational systems and
private educational institutions vary from jurisdiction to
jurisdiction. Three jurisdictions provide for tax-supported
separate school systems that include both elementary and
• These separate school systems allow religious minorities to
receive education in acordance with the tenets of their faiths,
some of whom have constitutionally protected rights in this
• It is available in both government-supported and private
institution, which offer degrees, diplomas, certificates and
attestations depending on the nature of the institution and
the length of the program.
• Universities and university colleges focus on degree programs
but may also offer some diplomas and certificates, often in
professional designations. University degrees are offered at
three consecutive levels. Students enter at the bachelor's
level after having successfully completed secondary school or
the two-year cegep program in Quebec.
• Bachelor's degrees normally require three or four years of full
time study, depending on the province and whether the
program is general or specialized.
• A master's degree typically requires two years of study after
the bachelor's degree.
• Doctoral degree-three to five years of additional study and
research plus dissertation are the normal requirements.
School Management and Organization
• Each provinces has its own Ministry of Education,
which is run by an elected Minister of Education. The
Ministry sets standards, determines curricula and
allots funding to the state schools in the provinces,
as well as oversees the teacher certification process
and the provision of school support services.
• Provinces typically organize their school system
around locally elected school boards. Local school
boards are elected bodies, and work in conjunction
with the provincial government.
• Teachers had four or five years of post
• They are licensed by the provincial and
territorial departments or ministries of
• Secondary school teachers have a subject
specialization in the course they teach.
• Public funding for education comes either
directly from the provincial or territorial
government or through a mix of provincial
transfers and local taxes collected either by
the local government or by the boards with
• The Ministries of Education in several
Canadian provinces actively encourage
increased parent involvement in schools. In
Ontario, the ministry supports Parent
Involvement Committees (PICs) and small
grants called Parent Reaching Out Grants
(PROs), which are used to "identify barriers to
parent engagement" and to find local
solutions to engage parents in schools.
Technology in Canadian Education
• Canada is home to some of the modern and technology
advanced cities are few and far between. What is in between
them usually vast expanses of wilderness, farmland, prairies,
and mountains. And water. Those elements make traveling
very far to school just too much of an ordeal for many
Canadian school children.
• Fortunately, putting technology in Canadian education system
to work has had the effect of erasing some of that distance.
Students on Baffin island cannot realistically commute to
schools in Victoria or Toronto every day but they can gain
remote access to the classes and activities in those cities. And
they can share what they know about their life at the top of
the world with children in those southern cities.
• The use of technology in Canadian education may be best
appreciated by students in the secondary and post-secondary
phases of their education. It's these students thinking more
about life after graduation and what to do for career that may
benefit the most vocational or advanced learning
opportunities that most small towns and villages simply
• Canada certainly isn't getting any smaller but using tehnology
in Canadian education has made it possible to bring students
and educational opportunities closer together in ways never