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INDUSTRIAL & FERTILIZER MATERIALS

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INDUSTRIAL & FERTILIZER MATERIALS
INDUSTRIAL & FERTILIZER MATERIALS
MATERIALS

Published in: Engineering

INDUSTRIAL & FERTILIZER MATERIALS

  1. 1. A REFRESHER ON INDUSTRIAL & FERTILIZER MATERIALS By Waqas CH
  2. 2. YOUR ASSESSMENT 1 – Iron with temporary magnetic field 2 – Stainless Steel Urea Grade or 25-22-02 5 - a - Austenitic b - Martensitic c - Ferritic d - Duplex 4 - Material which contains by mass more iron than any other material 6 - No 7 – Low Carbon Steel 8 - Copper 9 - Killed Carbon Steel 3 - Yes
  3. 3. MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION METALS NON - METALS NON - FERROUS FERROUSFERROUS MATERIALS
  4. 4. FERROUS METALS ORIGINAL DEFINITION - IRON CONTENTS GREATER THAN 50%. REVISED DEFINITION (1993) - MATERIAL WHICH CONTAINS BY MASS MORE IRON THAN ANY OTHER SINGLE ELEMENT. Cr : 26 max. Ni : 22 max. Mn : 02 max. Si : 1.5 max. Total : 51.5 max. SS 310
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION FERROUS METALS FERROUS METALS CARBON STEEL CAST IRON ALLOY STEEL WROUGHT IRON BASED ON “C” ADDITION
  6. 6. IRON ORE COKE LIME STONE BLAST FURNACE IRON MAKING STEEL MAKING CONTINUOUS CASTING PRODUCTS BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE BILLETS CASTING REHEATING FURNACE PLATES RODS PIPE PIG IRON WROUGHT IRON
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION FERROUS METALS FERROUS METALS CARBON STEEL CAST IRON ALLOY STEEL WROUGHT IRON BASED ON “C” ADDITION
  8. 8. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS ELASTICITY -The property of a material due to which it comes to its original shape after the removal of load is called elasticity. - There is a certain limit of every material upto which it can regain its original shape. This limit is called Elastic Limit. PLASTICITY -The property of a material due to which it is permanently deformed (re-shaped) on the application of load, without any rupture is called plasticity.
  9. 9. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS HARDNESS - It is the property of a material due to which it resists wear, abrasion and indentation. - Also hardness is the property which enables to cut the other material. TOUGHNESS -Ability of material to resist fracture due to sudden shocks (impact loads) or bending/twisting is called toughness.
  10. 10. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STIFFNESS - Ability of a material to resist deformation due to the external forces is called stiffness. BRITTLENESS - The property of a material to easily break up into pieces without deformation is called brittleness. DUCTILITY - Ability of a material to be drawn into wires or undergo elongation without fracture is called ductility.
  11. 11. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STRENGTH - It is the ability of a material to withstand the external forces of different types before undergoing the permanent deformation or fracture - Tensile strength ….. Maximum tension beared per unit area - Compressive strength ….. Maximum compression beared per unit area - Shear strength ….. Maximum shearing force beared per unit area
  12. 12. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS MALLEABILITY - If a material can be rolled or hammered to thin sheet, it's property is called malleability CONDUCTIVITY - Ability of a material to allow the passage of heat or electricity through it, is called its conductivity WELDABILITY - Ability of a material to join by welding
  13. 13. EFFECT OF CARBON ON STEEL Hardness Strength Ductility Weldability Carbon
  14. 14. WROUGHT IRON COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - CONTAINS SMALL AMOUNT OF SLAG (SiO2) - CARBON CONTENTS LESS THAN 0.08 % CARBON USES - EASILY WELDABLE - LOW STRENGTH , MALLEABLE AND DUCTILE - CURRENTLY WROUGHT IRON IS NOT PRODUCED DUE TO HIGH MANUFACTURING COST - MODERN WROUGHT IRON PRODUCTS ARE ACTUALLY MADE FROM LOW CARBON STEEL
  15. 15. CARBON STEEL CARBON STEEL IS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO: ITS TREATMENT FOR DEOXIDIZATION ITS CARBON CONTENTS TYPE OF STEEL FOR WHICH: - CARBON CONTENTS ARE < 2% - NO ALLOYING ELEMENT IS ADDED EXCEPT CARBON
  16. 16. CARBON STEEL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CARBON CONTENTS CARBON STEEL LOW CARBON STEEL MEDIUM CARBON STEEL HIGH CARBON STEEL CARBON CONTENTS < 0.3 % CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.3 % AND 0.6% CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.6 % AND 2.0%
  17. 17. EFFECT OF CARBON ON MICROSTRUCTURE Low Carbon Steel Medium Carbon Steel High Carbon Steel Cast Iron
  18. 18. LOW CARBON STEEL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - LESS THAN 0.3 % CARBON GENERAL USES - GRADES HAVING CARBON B/W 0.1 % TO 0.3 % ARE HEAT TREATABLE - EXCELLENT FORMABILITY AND WELDABILITY - SHEETS MANUFACTURING, PIPING AND PRESSURE VESSEL COMPONENTS
  19. 19. LOW CARBON STEEL USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT - LOW, MEDIUM AND HIGH PRESSURE STEAM/CONDENSATE - PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR - COOLING WATER, INSTRUMENT AIR, FUEL GAS, NATURAL GAS - LIQUID AMMONIA (HIGH TEMPERATURE) - LOAD BEARING STRUCTURES AND SHEETS LOW CARBON STEEL GRADES  API 5L GRADE B  ASTM A - 105  ASTM A - 234
  20. 20. MEDIUM CARBON STEEL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.3% TO 0.6% GENERAL USES - HEAT TREATABLE - GOOD BALANCE BETWEEN STRENGTH AND DUCTILITY - MANUFACTURING OF GEARS, CRANKSHAFT ETC.
  21. 21. HIGH CARBON STEEL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.6% TO 2.0% GENERAL USES - LOW DUCTILITY - HIGH STRENGTH - HIGH STRENGTH WIRES AND SPRINGS - POOR WELDABILITY AND FORMABILITY
  22. 22. CARBON STEEL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO DEOXIDIZATION TREATMENT CARBON STEEL CAPPED STEEL SEMI KILLED STEEL KILLED STEEL NO DEOXIDIZER IS ADDED DEOXIDIZERS ARE ADDED IN SMALL QUANTITY DEOXIDIZERS ARE ADDED IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY RIMMED STEEL MOLTEN STEEL IS CAPPED TO STOP RIMMING ACTION
  23. 23. KILLED CARBON STEEL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - CARBON STEEL WITH INCLUSION OF SILICON OR ALUMINUM GENERAL USES - INCREASED STRENGTH DUE TO HOMOGENOUS MICRO STRUCTURE - PRESSURE VESSEL, PIPING ETC. USES AT FERTILIZER PLANT - PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR LOW TEMPERATURE LIQUID AMMONIA - DIFFICULT WELDING AS HEAT TREATMENT IS INVOLVED
  24. 24. CAST IRON COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 2% AND 5% GENERAL USES - MELTING TEMPERATURE BELOW CARBON STEEL - POOR WELDABILITY AND DUCTILITY - EXCELLENT FLUIDITY (REQUIRED FOR CASTING PURPOSE) - SILICON INCLUSION BETWEEN 1% AND 3% - MANUFACTURING OF PUMPS, TURBINES, COMPRESSORS AND GEAR BOX CASINGS
  25. 25. CLASSIFICATION FERROUS METALS FERROUS METALS CARBON STEEL CAST IRON ALLOY STEEL WROUGHT IRON BASED ON “C” ADDITION
  26. 26. ALLOY STEELS ALLOY STEEL LOW ALLOY STEEL HIGH ALLOY STEEL ALLOYING ELEMENT UP TO 8.0% ALLOYING ELEMENT GREATER THAN 8.0% CORROSION RESISTANT HEAT RESISTANT WEAR RESISTANT Cr-Mo Alloy
  27. 27. Cr – Mo STEELS GENERAL USES - PRESSURE VESSEL, PIPING AT HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPOSITION - Cr UPTO 2.25% AND Mo UP TO 1.25% MECHANICAL PROPERTIES - HIGH STRENGTH AT TEMPERATURES UP TO 650 0 C - DIFFICULT WELDING AS HEAT TREATMENT IS INVOLVED ALLOYING EFFECT - Cr INCREASES CORROSION RESISTANCE - Mo ADDS ELEVATED TEMPERATURE STRENGTH
  28. 28. Cr - Mo STEEL GRADES  A-335 GRADE P11 (PLANT-I KS) Cr – Mo STEELS  A-335 GRADE P22 (PLANT-I KS) USES AT FERTILIZER PLANT - PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR VER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM (KS)
  29. 29. STAINLESS STEEL WHEN Cr CONTENTS ARE GREATER THAN 11.5 %, Cr REACTS WITH ATMOSPHERIC O2 AND FORM THIN PASSIVE Cr-O2 LAYER ON STEEL SURFACE PREVENTING OXIDATION OF Fe CONTENTS Cr–O2 LAYER STEEL
  30. 30. EFFECT OF CHROMIUM
  31. 31. STAINLESS STEEL FERRITIC MARTENSITIC DUPLEX AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL
  32. 32. SCHAFFLER DIAGRAM
  33. 33. COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES GENERAL USES - GOOD WELDABILITY - EXCELLENT CORROSION RESISTANT - FOOD PROCESSING, CORROSIVE SERVICES e.g. UREA, ACID etc. - CAN BE USED AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURE (UP TO 900 0 C) Ni UP TO 30% Cr UP TO 30% C 0.3% AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL - CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT
  34. 34. USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT - ALL PRESSURE UREA SERVICE AND UREA FLUSHING CIRCUIT - PIPING, VALVES AND VESSELS FOR - MDEA, PROCESS GAS, DEMIN WATER AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL AUSTENITIC GRADES  SS- 304  SS- 316  SS- 316L Modified  25 Cr – 22Ni – 02 Mo  SS- 321
  35. 35. CONCEPT OF SENSITIZATION IN STAINLESS STEEL CHROMIUMCARBIDE (Cr23 C6) GRAIN BOUNDARIES CHROMIUM AT HIGH TEMPERATURE (> 750 0 C) Cr REACTS WITH C AND FORMS CrC TO PREVENT SENSITIZATION Ti OR Nb IS ADDED TO FORM TiC OR NbC
  36. 36. COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES GENERAL USES - POOR WELDABILITY - MODERATE CORROSION RESISTANT - SHAFTS, SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, FASTENERS - CAN BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL C 1.2% Cr UP TO 17% Ni 0%
  37. 37. USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT - PUMP SHAFTS, IMPELLERS FOR CORROSIVE SERVICE MARTENSITIC GRADES  SS- 416  SS- 420 MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL  SS- 440  SS- 410
  38. 38. COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES GENERAL USES - POOR WELDABILITY - MODERATE TO GOOD CORROSION RESISTANT - DOMESTIC EQUIPMENTS FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL - CANNOT BE HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT C .3% Cr UP TO 30% Ni 0%
  39. 39. COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTIES GENERAL USES - GOOD STRENGTH : GREATER THAN AUSTENITIC AND OTHER GRADES - GOOD CORROSION RESISTANCE - OFF-SHORE APPLICATIONS, HIGH PRESSURE UREA DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL - GOOD WELDABILITY C .3% Cr UP TO 30% Ni UP TO 8%
  40. 40. USED AT FERTILIZER PLANT - UREA REACTOR (STAMI CARBON PLANTS) DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL - STEMS FOR HIGH PRESSURE UREA VALVES DUPLEX GRADES  HVD-1  FERRALIUM ALLOY
  41. 41. SS – 304 18 Cr – 8 Ni SS - 316 SS - 317 ADD Mo (2%) FOR PITTING RESISTANCE ADD MORE Mo (4%) FOR PITTING RESISTANCE ADD Nb + Ta TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION SS - 347 ADD Ti TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION SS - 321 LOWER C SS - 317L SS - 316L SS - 304L ADD Cr & Ni STRENGTH & CORROSION RESIST. SS – 310 SS - 309 REDUCE Ni TO REDUCE AUSTENITIC STRUCTURE DUPLEX STEEL NO Ni FERRITIC STEEL INCREASE C LOWER Cr MARTENSITIC STEEL
  42. 42. MATERIAL DESIGNATION SYSTEM - American Society for Testing MaterialsASTM - American Iron and Steel InstituteAISI - Society of Automotive EngineersSAE - Unified Numbering SystemUNS - German StandardsDIN - British StandardsBS - Japanese StandardsJS
  43. 43. AISI/SAE DESIGNATION SYSTEM CLASSIFY MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF COMPOSITION CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL (EXCEPT STAINLESS STEEL) 13 Y 12X CARBON %AGE MATERIAL TYPE PREFIX M OR E Z ADDITION OF ELEMENTS SUFFIX H - Carbon Steel10 - 1% Cr & 0.3% Mo Steel41 - Merchant Quality SteelM - Electric Furnace SteelE - BoronB - LeadL - HardenabilityH
  44. 44. AISI/SAE DESIGNATION SYSTEM STAINLESS STEEL 3 16 No Specific Interpretation MATERIAL TYPE Z Element addition - Austenitic Stainless Steel2 - Austenitic Stainless Steel3 - Low Carbon (<0.03%)L - High Carbon ContentsH - Added NitrogenN - Added CopperCu - Martensitic & Ferritic4
  45. 45. ASTM STANDARDS Ferrous Metals DESIGNATION SYSTEM ASTM A 182 / 182 M - 93b F 304LASTM A 182 / 182 M - 93b F 304L Arbitrary Number Metric System Year of Revision AISI NO CLASSIFY PRODUCTS ON THE BASIS OF MANUFACTURING METHOD MOST WIDELY USED SYSTEM – COVERS ALL DETAILS REQUIRED FOR MATERIAL PROCUREMENT Grade
  46. 46. ASTM STANDARDS DESIGNATION SYSTEM - Corrosion ResistantC - Heat ResistantH - Addition of MolybdenumM - Carbon PercentageDigital No. - PipeP - TubeT - Tube and PipeTP - ForgingF EXAMPLES A 403/A 403M -93 WP304L A 351 Grade HK40 A 336/A 336M-89 Class F22 A 351 Grade CF8M - WroughtW
  47. 47. UNIFIED NUMBERING SYSTEM (UNS) JOINT VENTURE AS ASTM AND SAE TO GENERATE UNIFIED COMPUTER FRIENDLY SYSTEM 1040 1X ELEMENT ADDITION TYPE OF STEEL AISI/SAE NUMBER - Carbon and Alloy steelsG - Cast IronsF - Heat and Corrosion Resistant Steels H - Boron1 - Lead4 - Electric Furnace Steel6
  48. 48. MATERIAL COMPOSITION WHERE TO FIND BLACK BOOK BY CASTII PUBLISHING (PDF FORMAT) KEY TO STEEL (SOFTWARE) ASTM STANDARDS
  49. 49. THE END
  50. 50. Cr – Mo STEELS
  51. 51. C .3% Cr UP TO 30% Ni UP TO 8% C 0.3% Cr UP TO 30% Ni 0% Ni UP TO 30% Cr UP TO 30% C 0.3% C 1.2% Cr UP TO 17% Ni 0%
  52. 52. STAINLESS STEEL CONCEPT OF SENSITIZATION CHROMIUM CARBIDE (Cr23 C6) CHROMIUM DEPLETED LAYER
  53. 53. MATERIAL CLASSIFICATION FERROUS METALS CAST IRON LOW ALLOY STEEL HIGH ALLOY STEEL CARBON STEEL LOW CARBON HIGH CARBON MEDIUM CARBON
  54. 54. STAINLESS STEEL Ni UP TO 30% Cr UP TO 30% C .3% AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL C 1.2% MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEEL Cr UP TO 17% Ni 0% C .3% DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL Cr UP TO 30% Ni UP TO 8% C .3% FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL Cr UP TO 30% Ni 0%
  55. 55. AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL UN-STABILIZED GRADE - SS 304 - SS 316 - 25 Cr – 22 Ni – 2 Mo - 316L + G510 STABILIZED GRADE - SS 321 - SS 347 Cannot Be Used for High Temperature Can Be Used for High Temperature
  56. 56. SS – 304 18 Cr – 8 Ni SS - 316 SS - 317 ADD Mo (2%) FOR PITTING RESISTANCE ADD MORE Mo (4%) FOR PITTING RESISTANCE ADD Nb TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION SS - 347 ADD Ti TO REDUCE SENSITIZATION SS - 321 LOWER C SS - 317L SS - 316L SS - 304L ADD Cr & Ni STRENGTH & CORROSION RESIST. SS – 310 SS - 309 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL
  57. 57. CARBON STEEL CARBON STEEL MEDIUM CARBON STEEL HIGH CARBON STEEL LOW CARBON STEEL CARBON CONTENTS < 0.3 % CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.3 % AND 0.6% CARBON CONTENTS BETWEEN 0.6 % AND 2.0%
  58. 58. OBJECTIVE
  59. 59. CARBON STEEL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CARBON CONTENTS
  60. 60. SHAEFFLER DIAGRAM

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