TexonomyKingdom Protista Phylum ProtozoaSubphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Mastigophora Genera TrichomonasSpecies T.feotus T.vaginalis T.gallinae
General characteristics Imp. Pathogen in cattle(host) Present in reproductive tract & on the surface of the bull’s penis & prepuce Prevelence was all over the world but now decreasing due to AI Transmitted to cows during coitus Most cows self-cure after developing immunity. Bulls however are permanent carriers and sources of infection
Structure Pear shaped Size 20 x 10 micron meter 3 free flagella anterior (total 4) 1 makes the undulating memberane Microtubules forms tube like axostyle which forms the skeleton & gives shape Axostyle which run from the nucleus down the center of the body and extend from the end of the body. Possess an undulating membrane extend the entire length
Single nucleus is also present Shows jerky movement in the fresh discharge of bull & cow due to the flagella and undulating memberane Type: Mucosoflagellated Protozoa This is a parasite of the reproductive tract of bovines. The parasite is transmitted by coitus
Trichomonas foetus You are not responsible for this parasite!
Sign and symptoms: IN BULL The severity of the disease varies from mild to sever Asymptomatic in bull Inflammed prepuce IN FEMALE Low grade inflammation Severity Poor conception rate
Pathogenesis: Early abortion occurs 1 to 16 weeks after fertilization. If the fetus and all the fetal membranes are not excreted from the cow, the cow may die or become sterile. If the fetus and the membranes are passed the cow may become immune to the parasite Bulls serve as the carries. The parasite can even survive in frozen semen.
LIFE CYCLE Direct: Cattle become infected by direct contact with the trophozoite stage during coitus cysts are not formed Transmission may also occur during artificial insemination Trophozoites multiply by asexual binary fission Uterine discharge, irregular estrus cycles, and permanent sterility can result
Cont.... If bull is infected with trichomonas, animal remain infected for whole life These are present in the perpitual cavity The pathogenic lesions that are associated with small vacuoles in the perpitual cavity They are transmitted from bull to cow by coitus They move from vagina to uterus When it is in uterus it causes LOW GRADE ENDOMATRITIS(heamorhage in
If animal is pragnant abortion may occure In cow-abortion before 4 th month otherwise cow normally recovered The featel memberane retained & it causes ENDOMETRITIS which disturbs the normal cycle due to persistant discharge bcz cow remains in an esterus phase,cervix remains closed when excessive virulent discharge from the female repr.tract due to T.featus PYOMETRA (pus in uterus) or it is infection in uterus
Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on microscopic evaluation of the trophozoite stage A positive diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis requires the isolation of trophozoites 10-15 microns long with 3 anterior flagella and a trailing flagellum, seen by microscopic examination of vaginal mucus or saline washings of preputial or fetal tissues
Treatment and Control By using AI(artificial insemination) technique Anti-protozool drug No treatment for cows(autoimmune) Bulls can be treated, but the antitrichomonal salves used to treat,it takes a lot of time and is expensive To control this parasite bulls that are infected should not be put with a herd of cows
Cont... Infected bulls should be slaughtered, if not valuable Wash uterus with iodine solution with antibodies for desiring of next parturation