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Dr.Waqas Nawaz
PMAS arid agriculture university rawalpindi pakistan

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  1. 1. 11-arid-948 To11-arid-953
  2. 2. What is Silage? Fodder is packed in airtight condition to preserve its nutritional value, improve its quality and taste and to make it easily digestible This is called silage or pickle of the fodder.
  3. 3. Principle:In this process, green fodder is fermented through special bacteria which can survive without oxygenThe resulting fodder is rendered tasty and easily digestible for animals
  4. 4. Mechanism/Process: The preparation of good quality silage depends on 1-Timely harvesting of fodder, 2-Quantity of air in it at the time of packing 3-Preservation method In this process useful bacteria converts soluble starches into lactic acid It decreases its acidic quality (pH) to 3.0-4.0, which stops the growth of harmful germs Makes the fodder safe for animal consumption If moisture content is high in fodder, wheat straw or crushed cobs of maize can be added for silage making
  5. 5. Steps for Silage Making :Selection of fodderCheck moistureHarvestingChoppingPressingStorage
  6. 6. Selection of fodder:• Silage can be made from all winter and summer fodders• But usually maize, oats, sorghum etc. are considered best for silage making
  7. 7. Cont… Normally fodder with Broad leaves Thick stems Leguminous fodder has less carbohydrates and protein content, they are usually mixed with non leguminous fodder (like maize and sorghum) to make the best and nutritious silage
  8. 8. Harvesting & Check moisture: It is important to determine the right time for harvesting fodder to get the best nutritional value from silage The time to harvest can be determined from the following indications:1. When the plant is fully mature2. Half of the grain in maize is milky3. The fruitful fodder has 50% flowers4. Moisture content is 65-70 %
  9. 9. Chopping of fodder: CHOPPED FODDER
  10. 10. Pressing of chopped fodder:
  11. 11. Storage:
  12. 12. Advantages: A cheap substitute for fodder at the time of fodder shortage Silage makes the fodder more digestible Land is available for the next crop without delay, because all of the fodder is harvested and stored at once Animals get nutritious feed the whole year Expenditure on labour force is decreased considerably
  13. 13. Uses/Applications: The animals like eating silage, but the buffalo may be hesitant in the beginning. In this case, feed it with green fodder or concentrate mixed in the silage, so that it develops a taste for the silage. Then increase its quantity gradually. Give 15 to 20 kilogram silage along with concentrates daily to the lactating animals. Be careful when removing silage from the bunker. Cover it with polythene so that mud or moisture does not spoil the silage.
  14. 14. Cont…
  15. 15. Feed Additives: Their main functions are to either increase nutritional value of silage or improve fermentation so that storage losses are reduced. Silage additives include feedstuffs, urea, ammonia, inoculants and acids.
  16. 16. Types Of Silage Additives: NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN (NPN). Urea and anhydrous ammonia can be added to silages to increase their crude protein (CP) content FEEDSTUFFS. Feeds such as corn, small grains, and molasses can be added to forage MINERALS. Minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, sulfur and magnesium have been added to forage
  17. 17. Cont… ACIDS. Acids are added to forages at ensiling to cause an immediate drop in pH MICROBIAL INOCULANTS. Inoculants are added to forage to increase the number of desirable bacteria present at the time of ensiling.
  18. 18. Remember:1. No additive can replace good silage making techniques, but may improve fermentation and nutritional value of some silages. The response is usually not large