feed aditives, their classification, mode of action & use in ruminants
FEED ADITIVES, THEIR CLASSIFICATION, MODE OFACTION & USES IN RUMINANTS Submitted to: Dr. Tanveer Ahmad Submitted by: Muhammad Umar 11-arid-959 DVM 3rd Semester
Feed Additives• Non-nutritive product• Added to feed; to improve the quality of feed to improve the animals’ performance & health• Improve feed quality• Affect characteristics of animal product• Promote growth• control disease• Affect the color of ornamental birds and fish• Fulfill the nutritional needs
Cont …… minimize the incidence of bloat Acidosis reduce liver abscesses control problems of foot rot control parasitic diseases
Classification Feed Additives are divided into five group. Technological additives Improve feed quality hygiene characteristics Sensory additives Improve the palatability of feed Increase the appitite
Cont …… Nutritional additive Provide specific nutrient to animal Zootechnical additives These additives improve the nutrient status of the animal Coccidiostats and Histomonosta They control the intestinal health
Mineral as supplement Ca is necessary in blood coagulation P play role in muscle contraction, energy production and appetite. Mn play role in milk production. Mg involve metabolism of carbohydrate lipid and protein . K,Na and Cl maintain acid:base balance and body fluid .
Vitamins• Vitamin B12 is produced for ruminant animals• Needed for; cell growth energy metabolism wool production• Vitamin A play role in; healthy skin nerve tissue help in building up resistance to infection eyesight.• Vitamin E play role in; normal reproduction• Vitamin K; necessary for the maintenance of normal blood coagulation• Vitamin D is necessary in; normal bone formation
Enzyme as Feed Additives• All enzyme feed additives are considered under the regulation by the FDA.• Enzyme used to remove anti-nutritional factor from feed• increase the digestibility of existing nutrient• They also effect gastrointestinal microflora• on the ruminant animal itself• Motivatethe rumen microbial synthesis of protein and VFA production.• Enzyme play role in fiber digestion.
Mode of Action• Enzyme-mediated alteration of the feed prior to consumption likely has ramifications on ruminal and post-ruminal digestion of nutrients• Enzyme act directly on feed and increases digestive activity through effect on ruminal microorganism• Enzyme remain active in lower digestive track• play role in fiber digestion• Their main role to improve the efficiency of feed utilization in ruminants• reduce waste production
Antibiotics• formation of bacterial cell• causes the bursting of cell• act on gram +ve and –ve bacteria• Example;BacitracinStreptomycinVirginiamycinFlavomycin
Ionophores• transform the microbial fermentation• increase the utilization of feed and gain• Lasalocid and Monensin etc• change the types of fatty acids• increase capture of feed energy• performance improves
Probiotics• Opposite of antibiotics• have a +ve effect on the host• detoxify the harmful metabolites• helpful in improving nutrient availability• Use as milk replacers• increase the growth of beneficial micro-flora• Decrease the growth of pathogenic bacteria
Oligosaccharides• Fermented in the intestine• Nutrient source for lactic acid producing bacteria• Fermented by favorable bacteria• Microbial number may be increased