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Lets go to the rainforest and find out what its like, the types of vegetation & its soil
Equatorial Ecosystem Hot all year Wet all year High annual rainfall over 2000mm Wide biodiversity Plants love the heat & h...
Characteristics of vegetation in the rainforest Tall straight trunks  no side branches  Aerial roots of  epiphytes absorb ...
A  Discontinuous  Canopy of tree Crowns of the  Tallest trees 40 – 50m ( Emergent) B  25 – 40m  Continuous layer of  Main ...
Latosol Soil Characteristics Precipitation > evapotranspiration Rapid leaching Soil colour – red or yellowish red colour O...
Human impact on Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>Before clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Rain intercepted </li></ul><ul><li>Organic ...
Amazon Basin in Brazil <ul><li>Government encouraged development into the basin: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic  </li></ul><ul...
Amazon Rainforest Groups of people against forest removal Groups of people in favour of  forest removal Hunters & collecto...
Sustainable uses <ul><li>Native groups have lived in the forest for 1000’s of years. By hunting, gathering and collecting ...
Management <ul><li>Making a survey of the area’s resources before using them </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting only a few trees ...
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Ecosystems Revision

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GCSE Geography revision for ecosystems

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Ecosystems Revision

  1. 1. Lets go to the rainforest and find out what its like, the types of vegetation & its soil
  2. 2. Equatorial Ecosystem Hot all year Wet all year High annual rainfall over 2000mm Wide biodiversity Plants love the heat & humidity Trees are evergreen Trees have thin barks – no need for protection against the cold
  3. 3. Characteristics of vegetation in the rainforest Tall straight trunks no side branches Aerial roots of epiphytes absorb moisture from the air Shallow spreading root system Buttress roots Thick, waxy surface of leaves protects against hot sun, heavy rain, and strong winds
  4. 4. A Discontinuous Canopy of tree Crowns of the Tallest trees 40 – 50m ( Emergent) B 25 – 40m Continuous layer of Main canopy C 10 -25m Discontinuous under Canopy of D Layer of shrubs & Young trees E Herb layer with Ferns 6m+ high 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
  5. 5. Latosol Soil Characteristics Precipitation > evapotranspiration Rapid leaching Soil colour – red or yellowish red colour Organic materials and minerals are washed downwards
  6. 6. Human impact on Tropical Rainforest <ul><li>Before clearance </li></ul><ul><li>Rain intercepted </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter decays quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients released </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients taken up by the trees </li></ul><ul><li>After Clearance </li></ul><ul><li>All rain reaches the surface </li></ul><ul><li>No trees left to supply nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients already in the soil are washed out </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surface runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Increased soil deposited into the rivers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Amazon Basin in Brazil <ul><li>Government encouraged development into the basin: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>to make money from exporting minerals & using them in factories </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of bauxite, gold & copper in the Amazon Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce population pressure along the east coast </li></ul><ul><li>To give landless peasants the opportunity to own land </li></ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><li>To gain international prestige from big road building & HEP projects </li></ul>
  8. 8. Amazon Rainforest Groups of people against forest removal Groups of people in favour of forest removal Hunters & collectors Shifting cultivators Rubber tappers Logging companies Miners Cattle ranchers Farmers from the east Collectors of forest products
  9. 9. Sustainable uses <ul><li>Native groups have lived in the forest for 1000’s of years. By hunting, gathering and collecting natural products. Made use of the forest to provide food, medicines & tools </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber tappers – exploit natural forest products as long as they don’t over exploit </li></ul>
  10. 10. Management <ul><li>Making a survey of the area’s resources before using them </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting only a few trees per hectare </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting down only fully grown trees </li></ul><ul><li>Replanting those cut down </li></ul><ul><li>Checking the work is done according to the plans </li></ul>

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