Fire & safety training


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Fire & safety training

  2. 2. Fire Training objective Life Saving- Guest, Staff, Comfort and Safety.• Protect Property Equipment and Asset. EVACUATION
  5. 5. What is FIRE?-Fire is a chemical reaction of 3 elements. Need all three components to start a fire. Fire extinguishers remove one or more of the components. 5
  6. 6. What is FIRE? (Contd….) The “Fire Triangle” identifies the three components of any Fire: –Fuel paper, wood, flammable gas, energized electrical equipment, etc... –Energy (heat), sufficient to support combustion. Often referred to as the ignition source. –Oxidizer (air) IF ANY ONE OF THESE IS MISSING, A FIRE CANNOT CONTINUE. 6
  8. 8. Types of Fire Class Fire Type Materials involved Wood, paper, cloth, trash etc… A General Flammable Flammable solvents, liquids, Oils, B Liquids Greases, Paints etc… 1. Electrical Energized electrical equipment C 2. Flammable and All flammable gases Gases D Water reactive Chemicals, D Metals Combustible metals etc… 8
  9. 9. Class A - Wood, paper, cloth, carpets, trash, plastics Solid combustible materials that are not metals. (Class A fires generally leave an Ash.)Class B - Flammable liquids: gasoline, oil, petrol, diesel, grease, acetone Any non-metal in a liquid state, on fire. This classification also includes flammable gases. (Class B fires generally involve materials that Boil or Bubble.)Class C – Flammable Gases: Methane, Propane or your Domestic LPG Gas cylinders, it would be considered a class C fire.Class D - Metals: potassium, sodium, aluminum, magnesium Unless you work in a laboratory or in an industry that uses these materials, it is unlikely youll have to deal with a Class D fire. It takes special extinguishing agents (Metal-X, foam) to fight such a fireClass E – Electrical Started Fire
  10. 10. Stages of Fire Initial Stage Blaze Stage(0 Seconds to 10 Minutes) (Over 10 Minutes) TIME FACTOR Incipient Stage Blaze Stage Class A 0 -10 Minutes Over 10 Minutes Class B 0 -1 Minutes Over 1 Minute Class C 0 - 30 Seconds Over 30 Seconds Class E Leads To a Fire in Another Class of Fire
  13. 13. Common Causes of Fire• Carelessness:* Disposal of cigarette butts in a trash bag.• Smoking in bed at night.• Leaving cigarettes burning in ash trays.• Gas Stoves, Electric heaters left switched on and unattended.• Hazardous storage of flammable materials.• Cables and wires under carpets.• Broken wiring, Leakage in electric wire• Faulty electric switch• Electrical appliances left switched onIgnorance: Inadequate fire prevention KnowledgeAccident : Electrical Short circuits etc.Sabotage:
  14. 14. Possible Fire Risk in Office Premises Electrical fire risk due to short circuit or overload Mal function of appliances leading to electrical fire Carelessly discarded cigarette butts Overheating of electrical appliances – Electric Stove, Oven Malfunction of AC Plant LPG leakage Photocopier toner UPS and EPABX battery
  15. 15. Possible Fire Risk in Residences Electrical fire risk due to short circuit or overload Mal function of appliances leading to fire Carelessly discarded cigarette butts, aggarbatti Overheating of electrical appliances Malfunction of Air conditioners LPG leakage, overheating of geysers Storage of inflammable / combustible goods Small mishaps in kitchens due to cooking OIL overheated
  16. 16. How to act in the event of Fire Person Discovering Fire please remain calm and do the following:• Call your emergency number IMMEDIATELY. state your name and give the exact location of the fire. If a phone is not available, press and activate the nearest fire alarm.* If it is safe to do so, remain at the fire spot to direct the floor and use available means to extinguish or contain the fire.* DO NOT ENTER A SMOKE FILLED AREA ALONE, or without protection.* NEVER LET A FIRE GET BETWEEN YOU AND THE WAY OUT/ EXIT.* If you are notified of a fire, check with your immediate supervisor.* Always remain calm, Do not shout Fire… Fire….• If it is necessary to leave the building, follow the exit signs, DO NOT use elevator.• If fire is out of control then call fire brigade number.
  17. 17. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMSEARLY WARNING SYSTEMFire Alarm & Smoke Detection systemHeat / Gas Leak Detector Fire Extinguishers – Portable type
  18. 18. Fire Protection System:• Smoke / Heat Detectors• Break Glass Stations (Raising Alarm)• Fire Hose Reels• Portable Fire Extinguishers• Fire Exit Doors• Fire panel board (in Control Room)• Drencher System.• Sprinkler System.
  19. 19. FIRE PREVENTIONPrevention is always better than Control. To pre prevent the Fire accidents we have to eliminate the common Fire Hazards of the work areHeat generating appliances.Static Electricity and Short circuits.Non-Flame proof equipments.Storage and handling of flammables/combustibles.Open flames and Hot surfaces.Exothermic reactions leads to explosions.Vehicles and equipment and other unsafe acts & conditions. 19
  20. 20. FIRE PREVENTION (contd…) Fire can be prevented by considering the following issues Flame proof equipment Good housekeeping Proper Ventilation Anti Static measures Personnel awareness Work procedures Safe work practices Right tools 20
  21. 21. Remember the Following1. Portable fire extinguishers are suitable for small fires. i.e. The fires are in the incipient stage.2. Portable fire extinguishers can be handled by any work place personnel, who had aware in its handling.3. If the Fire is large leave it to ERT members (Firefighting), they can control the fire by using Fire hydrant / Other appropriate measures.4. All new entrants should be instructed in Fire safety awareness and emergency evacuation plans. 21
  22. 22. Different Type of Fire Type of fire Used for class of In HDFC Extinguishers Fire SLI. Available 1 ABC (Powder based) All X Classes(Versatile) 2 DCP(Powder based) B , C Classes X 3 CO2 (Gas based) B , C Classes &  Electrical Fire 4 WCO2 (Water based) A Class Only  5 AFFF(Foam based) B Class Only X
  23. 23. FIRE FIGHTING MEDIA SAND Absorbs Fuel Smothers BLANKETING Jackets Asbestos Blankets BEATING OUT Fire Beaters
  24. 24. FIRE FIGHTING MEDIA DRY CHEMICAL POWDER Decomposing and releasing CO2 Smothering Cutting chain reaction Heat absorption by powderExample : Sodium bicarbonate, Potassium bicarbonate, Urea based potassium bicarbonate, Mono Ammonium phosphate..
  25. 25. Different Kinds of ExtinguishersThe 4 most common fire extinguishers: – All Purpose Water – Carbon Dioxide – Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical – Dry PowderEach kind of extinguisher has a specific use
  26. 26. All Purpose Water • Use on CLASS A fires • Pressurized water • Pressure gauge present
  27. 27. Carbon Dioxide • Use on CLASS B and CLASS C fires • Hard, plastic nozzle • No pressure gauge
  28. 28. Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical • Use on CLASS A, CLASS B, and CLASS C fires • Fine powder under pressure • Pressure gauge present
  29. 29. Fire Extinguishers - Foam• Cream body (Old type) or Red Body with Cream label• Suitable for Class A and B Fires.• Not suitable for use on fires involving electricity• Extinguishes by cooling and sealing the surface of a burning liquid
  30. 30. Fire Extinguishers - Powder• Blue body (Old type) or Red body with blue label.• Best on Class B fires but safe to use on any type of fire.• Works by chemically interfering with the combustion reaction
  31. 31. Fire Extinguishers -Carbon Dioxide• Black body (Old type) or red body with black label (New type)• Best on Class B and C fires but safe to use on any type of fire• Safe to use on fires involving electricity• Extinguishes by reducing oxygen levels and cooling
  32. 32. Fire Extinguishers - Blanket• Any colour body or label but they are usually red or white• For use on any type of fire but best on small contained class B fires and people on fire.• Extinguishes by asphyxiating
  33. 33. Different Type of Fire Type of fire Used for class of In HDFC Extinguishers Fire SLI. Available 1 ABC (Powder based) All X Classes(Versatile) 2 DCP(Powder based) B , C Classes X 3 CO2 (Gas based) B , C Classes &  Electrical Fire 4 WCO2 (Water based) A Class Only  5 AFFF(Foam based) B Class Only X
  34. 34. • Types of fire Extinguisher:1) Water type2) CO2 type3) Dry chemical Powder type4) water with foam type
  36. 36. Parts of a Fire ExtinguisherExtinguisher- Dry chemical powder
  37. 37. Parts of a Fire Extinguisher
  38. 38. Parts of a Fire ExtinguisherCO2 Fire Extinguisher
  39. 39. Different Kinds of Fire ExtinguishersThe 4 most common fire extinguishers:  Water Type  Mechanical Foam  Dry Chemical Powder  Carbon DioxideEach kind of extinguisher has a specific use 39
  40. 40. Applications of Fire Extinguishers Suitability of ExtinguishersFire Class Water M/F ABC DCP CO2 SandClass A    - - -Class B      -Class C      -Class D    (Spl.   Grade)Note: X- means can be used on Small surface fires. 40
  42. 42. P.A.S.S. Method Pull the pin This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher
  43. 43. P.A.S.S. Method Aim at the base of the fire Aiming at the middle will do no good. The agent will pass through the flames.
  44. 44. P.A.S.S. Method Squeeze the handle This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent
  45. 45. P.A.S.S. Method Sweep side to side Cover the entire area that is on fire. Continue until fire is extinguished. Keep an eye on the area for re-lighting.
  46. 46. How to use a Fire Extinguisher Remember this easy acronym when using an extinguisher - P.A.S.S. Pull the pin. Aim the nozzle. Squeeze the handle. Sweep side to side at the base of the fire. 47
  47. 47. Major FiresFire Hydrant System - Pressure in the System: 7.0 Kg/Cm2 - Water Reservoir Capacity: 2 times than pump capacity - Main Pump: 273 m3/Hr - Diesel Engine Pump (Stand by): 273 m3/Hr - Jokey Pump: 10 m3/Hr # Single Hydrants, # Water monitors, # Water Sprinklers, # Mobile Foam Monitors # Different nozzles 48
  48. 48. Major Fires (Contd.)Fire Suppression System- FM 200 (or) Carbon dioxide- DCP flooding system- Water Sprinklers- Foam spray system etc... 49
  49. 49. Major Fires (Contd.)Mutual aid/ External Help - Fire Tenders - External Agencies - External Experts - Regulatory Authorities etc... 50
  50. 50. FLASH POINT Lowest temperature at whicha liquid produce enoughvapour to give a momentaryflash by an ignition source. Flash point temperature varywith each flammable orcombustible liquid.
  51. 51. FIRE POINTLowest temperature at which vapour are fast enoughto support afire
  52. 52. EXPLOSIVE LIMITS Explosive limits are those concentrations of a flammable vapour or gas in air below or above which combustion or flame propagation does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. LEL – Low Explosive Limit UEL – Upper Explosive Limit
  53. 53. AUTO IGNITION TEMPERATURELowest temperature at which a solid, liquid or gas will cause selfsustained combustion without an external source of ignition.
  54. 54. CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ACCORDING TO FLASH POINTCLASS – A :- Include those with flash point less than 23oCCLASS – B :- Include those with flash point between 23oC and 65oCCLASS – C :- Include those with flash point between 65oC and 93oCEXCLUDED Includes those with flash pointPETROLEUM :- above 93oCPRODUCTS
  55. 55. FLAMMABLE LIQUID Flash point below 38oCCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS Flash point above 38oC
  56. 56. PROPERTISE OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTSSl. PRODUCT NAME AUTO FLASH EXPLOSIVE LIMITNo IGNITION POINT VOL% IN AIR TEMP 0C LEL LEL1 LPG ------ -60 1.9 9.02 NAPHTHA 287.7 -35 1.10 6.03 GASOLENE 257 -43 1.3 6.04 BENZENE 580 -11.1 1.3 7.15 TOLUNE 508 4.4 1.27 7.06 KEROSENE 254 35 0.7 5.07 ATF ------ 38 ------ ------8 JP5 246 60 0.6 4.69 DIESEL 256.6 32 0.7 5.010 LSHS ------ 100 ------ ------11 FO 407 66 ------ ------12 ASPHALT 485 150 Not pertinent Not pertinent13 CRUDE OIL ------ <19 ------ ------
  57. 57. Response at Fire situation Indoor Fire Outdoor Fire AIR AIR FUEL X X FUEL X IGNITION X IGNITION 58
  58. 58. Fire Emergency Response Remember to RACE during a fire R Rescue – rescue clients in immediate danger. Alert – Shout Fire! Fire! (or) Pull fire alarm (or) Dial emergency A phone number. Contain – Close all doors and windows. C Extinguish/ Evacuate – Extinguish small fires, evacuate clients, if appropriate. E 59
  59. 59. IN CASE OF FIRE Do’s RAISE AN ALARM(Normally by operating a break glass call point)Use a Portable Fire Extinguisher to put of FIRELeave the room, closing door behind you, using the nearest FIRE EXITUse the STAIRS an move towards the ground FloorReport to the Fire warden at the pre destined Assembly Point at least 15 feet away from the building Inform the Fire Brigade
  60. 60. IN CASE OF FIRE Don’ts DO NOT PANICDon’t try to use an Extinguisher if you do not know !!!Do not use any Electrical / Electronic EquipmentsDo not congest towards ONE EXIT only, use alternate EXITDo Not use LIFTS / Escalators etc…Do not Re-enter the building
  61. 61. Firefighting Decision CriteriaKnow department emergency procedures and evacuation routes.Know locations of extinguishers in your area and how to use them.Always sound the alarm regardless of fire size.Avoid smoky conditions.Ensure area is evacuated.Don’t attempt to fight unless:  Alarm is sounded.  Fire is small and contained.  You have safe egress route (can be reached without exposure to fire).  Available extinguishers are rated for size and type of fire.Evacuate! If in doubt. 62
  62. 62. Most Fire Deaths are NOT BurnVictims!Causes of Death in Fires - SMOKE  Hydrogen cyanide  Hydro cyanic acid  Carbon monoxide  Other toxic vapors  Trauma (non-burn) 63
  63. 63. Most ImportantOnly fight a fire in the incipient stageNEVER fight a fire if any of the following apply: - Don’t have the proper extinguisher or equipment. - Fire has spread beyond its point of origin. - Your instincts tell you GET OUTWhen NOT to Fight FIRE? - Remember to keep an exit to your back. 64
  64. 64. Classes of Fire - BS EN 2 • A - Free burning materials, paper, wood, plastics etc. • B - Flammable liquids, petrol, meths, solvents etc. • C - Flammable gases, methane, hydrogen etc. • D - Metals, potassium, sodium, magnesium etc. • F - Cooking fats • Electricity can be involved in any class of fire
  65. 65. Fire Prevention• Be mindful of Fire Safety• Don’t block fire exits, call points or extinguishers• No smoking policy• Take care when cooking• Observe good security• Don’t wedge Fire Doors open
  66. 66. Fire Procedure - Fire Alarm• Leave the building immediately• Use the nearest exit• Walk quickly but don’t run closing doors behind you• Do not delay your exit to collect your belongings• Attend the Fire Assembly Point and report to the Fire Warden
  67. 67. Fighting a Fire -Do not fight the fire if : -• It is bigger than a waste paper bin• One extinguisher is not enough• Smoke is affecting your breathing• You cannot see the way out
  68. 68. • Fire Eats Oxygen – Oxygen makes up about 21% of the air we breathe – We need that 21% to survive – Anything less can harm our bodies – The more a fire grows, the more oxygen it takes and the less we have
  69. 69. 25 21% Normal Conditions 20 17% Some muscle impairment-Oxygen in Air (percent) increased breathing 15 12% Dizziness, headache, fatigue 9% Unconsciousness 10 5 6% Death within a few minutes 0
  70. 70. • Why do people die in fires? – Most deaths and injuries are not caused by the flames • excessive heat – temperatures can reach 500 degrees in less than three minutes • inhaling the smoke • lack of oxygen (suffocation)
  71. 71. Temperatures 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 po s s . h e at s t ro k e 49 m i n . to le ra n c e ra pi d ski n bu rn s 2 0 -m i n . to l e ra n ce di ff. bre a th ing - n os e di ff. bre a th ing - m ou th te m pEffects of Heat . lim i t fo r e s ca pe ra pi d u n be a ra b l e sk i n ... LT 4 minu te to l e ra n ce re s p . s ys te m t h re s h ol d
  72. 72. • Most people who die in fires don’t die from the flames • They die from lack of oxygen (suffocation) – fire eats all of the oxygen – the bigger the fire - the more oxygen it takes from us • They die from the heat – fire gets very hot, very quickly – the more fuel a fire has, the hotter it gets • They die from breathing the smoke – things that burn cause toxic (poison) smoke » furniture » carpeting » wallpaper » curtains
  73. 73. • there are three degrees of burns that tell us– First Degree our burn is: how serious • causes redness of the skin and is the least serious– Second Degree • causes red, blistered skin– Third Degree • worst burn and causes white or charred skin
  74. 74. • It is important to treat your burn correctly, no matter what degree it is  Cool the burned area with cool water for at least 10 minutes  Seek medical treatment, if necessary  Never put butter or ice on your burn – the doctor will give you something if needed
  75. 75. • there are 6 different types of burns – scald - caused by hot water, steam or food or liquids – flame - caused when clothing ignites from heat or open flame sources
  76. 76. • there are 6 different types of burns– Electrical - caused by frayed electrical cords, electrical outlets or high tension wires
  77. 77. • there are 6 different types of burns– Contact - caused by touching hot surfaces – Chemical - caused by bleach, drain cleaner or other household cleaning products
  78. 78. • Stop where you are • NEVER RUN!
  79. 79. • Drop to the ground, cover your face with your hands, and• Roll back and forth until the flames are out.
  80. 80. • If the fire is on your sleeves, put your arms at your sides and roll over and over until the fire is out• If you are with someone who catches on fire, tell them not to run, and help them put the fire out by rolling them on the ground or using blankets or water to put out the fire.
  81. 81. • When our smoke alarm sounds, we should GET OUT and STAY OUT. If there is smoke, we should crawl low under the smoke until we are outside.
  82. 82. • Every house should have at least one smoke alarm on their ceiling. It can tell us if there is smoke in our house, even before we can smell it.
  83. 83. • Before opening any doors, we should feel them with the back of our hand. If it feels hot, we should use our second exit.
  84. 84. • we leave our house, we should remember to close the doors behind us to help slow the spread of smoke and give us more time to escape.
  85. 85. • Sometimes the exit signs might not be red - but it means the same thing.
  86. 86. • Look for exit signs in our school, and public buildings like restaurants, theaters, malls and hotels.
  87. 87. • And sometimes the exit sign may have an arrow on it - leading us to another exit to the outside.
  88. 88. • we should never pull a fire alarm unless there really is a fire.
  89. 89. Exit Route• A continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas)• Consists of three parts: – Exit access – Exit – Exit discharge 90
  90. 90. Exit Routes Basic Requirements• Exit routes must be permanent and there must be enough exits in the proper arrangement for quick escape• Exits must be separated by fire-resistant materials• Openings into an exit must be limited to those necessary to allow access to 91
  91. 91. Exit Discharge• Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside that is large enough to accommodate all building occupants likely to use the exit route• Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be 92
  92. 92. Exit Doors Must Be Unlocked• Must be able to open from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge• Device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted• Must be free of any device or Locked and alarm that could restrict blocked exit emergency use if the device or 93
  93. 93. Side-Hinged Exit Door• Must be used to connect any room to an exit route• A door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or contains high hazard contents 94
  94. 94. Exit Route Capacity and Dimensions• Must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served• Capacity must not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge• Ceiling must be at least 7-½ ft. high with no projection reaching a point less than 6 ft.-8 in. from floor• An exit access must be at least 28 in. wide at all points 95
  95. 95. Minimize Danger to Employees• Exit routes must be free and unobstructed• Keep exit routes free of explosive or highly flammable materials• Arrange exit routes so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard Obstructed exit route area, unless it is effectively shielded• Emergency safeguards (e.g., 96
  96. 96. Exit Marking• Each exit must be clearly visible and marked with an “Exit” sign• Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the door 97
  97. 97. Exit Marking (cont’d)• If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating direction to the nearest exit• The line-of-sight to an 98
  98. 98. Exit Marking (cont’d)Each doorway or passagealong an exit access thatcould be mistaken for an exitmust be marked “Not anExit” or similar designation,or be identified by a signindicating its actual use(e.g., closet). 99
  99. 99. Emergency Action Plan• Describes actions that must be taken to ensure employee safety in emergencies• Includes floor plans or maps which show emergency escape routes• Tells employees what actions to take in emergency situations 100
  100. 100. Fire Prevention PlanThe plan must include:• A list of the major fire hazards and handling, storage, and control procedures• Names or job titles of persons responsible for maintenance of equipment and systems to prevent or control ignitions or fires• Names or job titles of persons responsible for control of fuel source hazards• Training for all employees who have responsibilities in the plan 101
  101. 101. Portable Fire ExtinguishersIf portable fireextinguishers are providedfor employee use, theemployer must mount,locate and identify themso workers can accessthem without subjectingthemselves to possibleinjury. Blocked extinguisher 102
  102. 102. Maintaining Portable Fire Extinguishers• Must maintain in a fully charged and operable condition• Must keep in their designated places at all times except during use• Must conduct an annual maintenance check• Must record the annual maintenance date and retain 103 this record for one year after
  103. 103. Portable Fire Extinguisher Training and Education• Where portable fire extinguishers have been provided for employee use in the workplace, employees must be provided with an educational program on the: – General principles of fire extinguisher use – Hazards of incipient (beginning) stage fire fighting• Employees designated to use extinguishers must receive instruction and hands-on practice in the operation of equipment 104
  104. 104. Common mistake in any Household This could be a common mistake in any household. This is shocking accident happened on 13th May 2012 in Pune. A housewife died due to burns sustained in the kitchen. Her husband too was hospitalized for injuries due to burns while trying to rescue his wife. How it happened?-The gas stove was on and cooking under process. The lady observed some cockroaches near the sink and grabbed a can ofinsect killer and sprayed it near the gas stove, which was on. There was an explosion and in no time the poor woman was covered in flames, sustaining 65% burns. Her husband rushed in, tried to douse the flames and his clothes too caught fire. The husband is still in hospital, in the burns ward, still unaware that his wife was declared dead on arrival. Let us understand:- All insect killer sprays such as "Hit", "Mortein" etc. have highly volatile and inflammable solvents. The atomized Nano spray particles spread extremely rapidly and one spark is enough to ignite this explosive mixture withoxygen present in air. Did the poor lady realize the hazard involved? Apparently not! Please educate your family about this and spread the word around.... who knows you may save more than a life.... all pressurized containers like body spray, insect or mosquito killer and all such like containers are highly inflammable. please read instructions and warnings carefully before using any product . Whether it is anything the given label nd information on the product packet This is being used in all spray like insect sprays, Deodorants, perfumes, air fresheners Etc.these thing cause fire like LPG must be used with caution and away from any source of ignitions like electrical switches, or any naked fire.