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  1. 1. COPD<br />Chronic ObstructivePulmonaryDisease<br />
  2. 2. Chronic- lasting medical condition, or one that has developed slowly<br />Obstructive- preventing movement<br />Pulmonary- L.W. PULMO= “LUNGS”<br />Disease-abnormal condition<br />
  3. 3. COPD<br />ChronicObstructivePulmonaryDisease<br />•Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease<br />•Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease<br />•Chronic Airflow Limitation<br />
  4. 4. • refers to chronic bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a limitation of the flow of air to and from the lungs causing shortness of breath<br />•is a progressive disease that makes it hard to breathe. <br />• "Progressive" means the disease gets worse over time. <br />
  5. 5. Overview<br />In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following:<br /><ul><li>The airways and air sacs lose their elastic quality.
  6. 6. The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.
  7. 7. The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed.
  8. 8. The airways make more mucus than usual, which tends to clog them. </li></li></ul><li>
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Normal Lungs and Lungs With COPD <br />
  11. 11. Signs and Symptoms<br /><ul><li>Cough with mucus
  12. 12. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity
  13. 13. Fatigue
  14. 14. Frequent respiratory infections
  15. 15. Wheezing
  16. 16. Since the symptoms of COPD develop slowly, some people may be unaware that they are sick.</li></li></ul><li>Causes & Risk Factors<br /><ul><li>Cigarette smoking
  17. 17. Respiratory infections
  18. 18. Occupational exposure – coal mining, gold mining,
  19. 19. Lung Irritants-Air pollution, Chemical fumes, dust, etc
  20. 20. Genetic risk factors- Alpha 1 –antitrypsin deficiency</li></li></ul><li>
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Mode of Transmission<br />The disease isn't passed from person to person—you can't catch it from someone else.<br />Methods. Prevention. Control<br />* Preventive measures <br /><ul><li>To quit smoking
  23. 23. Avoid occupational exposure to chemical fumes and dust.
  24. 24. Avoid strenuous exercises.
  25. 25. Avoid cold weather (cold dry air).
  26. 26. Making sure no one smokes in your home
  27. 27. Reducing air pollution by eliminating fireplace smoke and other irritants</li></li></ul><li>Life style changes and home remedies <br />•Clear your airways by gentle coughing/ drinking plenty of water<br />•Breathe through nose instead of your mouth when you ate outside<br />•Eat healthy foods<br />•Proper breathing exercises<br />
  28. 28. Program for Prevention<br />* Treatments & Medications<br />There is no cure for COPD. However, there are many things you can do to relieve symptoms and keep the disease from getting worse.<br /><ul><li>Inhalers (bronchodilators) to open the airways, such as ipratropium (Atrovent)</li></ul>tiotropium (Spiriva),<br />formoterol (Foradil) or<br />salmeterol (Serevent)<br />
  29. 29. <ul><li>Inhaled steroids to reduce lung inflammation</li></ul> In severe cases or during flare-ups, you may need to receive steroids by mouth or through a vein (intravenously).<br />•Eat a healthy diet with fish, poultry, or lean meat, as well as fruits and vegetables. If it is hard to keep your weight up, talk to a doctor or dietitian about getting foods with more calories.<br /><ul><li>Lung transplant for severe cases</li></li></ul><li>Screening Procedure<br />* Tests and diagnosis<br /><ul><li>Complete blood count
  30. 30. Chest x-ray
  31. 31. Pulmonary function test- spirometry
  32. 32. Sputum examination
  33. 33. CT chest </li>