INTRODUCTION• This introduction is designed to determine the water level especially in a water tank.• As the level increases from the base from the tank the number of glowing LEDS increases subsequently.• Amount of water present in a water tank can be easily measured.• A direct measurement using float with pulley.
OBJECTIVESThis circuit has a number of practical uses in daily life. • Now no need to go on roof to check the water level • Can be used to measure underground storage of water. • Water level indicator works to maintain a constant level.( Used in different plants and industries) • Alarm starts ringing as soon as tank full. it helps to check and wastage of water by warning the person when the tank in about to brim. • It can also be used to calculate incoming and outgoing water in large reservoirs. • It is used to predict the arrival of floods.The direct measurement using the float with pulley is to show the feedforward of the process • It is the substitute for the indirect measurement • It will also use to compare the measurement of the two method to conclude which one is not working properly.
OPERATIONCircuit operations • When any wire is dipped in water that wire will be connected to wire common through water , establishing a negative voltage across the base of transistor. Current begins to flow from collector. In this way LEDs will glow. • After any successive connections of wires with common respective LEDs will glow according to desired position in the tank. And when the last probe of the buzzer will connected to the common or negative, then there will be sound from the buzzer so it’s indicated that water attained maximum level and after this water will flow over.Float operations • When the water increases the floating elements it will raise according to the height of the water then a counterweight is hanging outside to indicate the water level by leaning a linear scale.
Transistor A1015• This is key element in circuit. It is used as switch.• The important property of this Transistor is this transistor give output from collector only when its base voltage is at some negative voltage emitter potential than its emitter.• As describe before, Transistor A1015 can only be turned on if base is at low voltage than emitter. In order to set the voltage below 12V we put 1k ohm resistor, setting base to some low voltage.
Bridge Rectifier• Bridge rectifier is actually a bridge of diodes 1n4007.this is used to convert 12V Ac from step down transformer to 12V dc which is used to supplied to circuit.
LEDs• Light emitting diodes, placed in circuit to show the level per liter in the tank. These diodes are operated at 1.5V
470 Ohm Resistors• 470 ohm resistors are installed in the circuit because LED is operated at 1.5V and we are having 4.7V in the circuit. So in order to decrease the voltage across LED we placed 470 ohm in series.
1k Ohm Resistor• 1k ohm is connected to the base of transistor which is the load of the transistor. So the base is expose to the process to be connected in the other open connectors which all negative.
Transformer• It’s the opposite of the above, and would be used to run for example a 110v product in a country with a 220v mains supply.
WHOLE SYSTEM PROCESS MATERIALS• List and uses of every process materials• Tank - it will holds the water to be measure• ½ diameter Pipe including elbow, ball valve - Pipe (fluid conveyance), a hollow cylinder following certain dimension rules.• Float with pulley- this float has an indicator and a counterweight. The indicator slides up and down on the outside of the tank and the counterweight are contained inside it. Only the float is in contact with the liquid.• Water level indicator circuit – it will makes the process to run.• Illustration board with linear scale measurement – it will show the actual level measurement of the water inside the tank.• Power Supply – to supply reduced amount of electricity.• Pump – A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries.• Wires – Connection.• Stand - to hold the tank.