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Philippineswwii 110516221426-phpapp01


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Philippineswwii 110516221426-phpapp01

  1. 1. Philippines: World War II By: Patrick Blanco
  2. 2. Japanese Plans • Planned to occupy Philippines as part of their plan of “Great East Asia War” • Had 3 objectives: – Prevent use of Philippines as an advance base of American Forces – To acquire staging areas and supply bases to enhance operations – To secure communication lines from Japanese Home Island
  3. 3. Japanese Invasion • Japan launched surprise attack on December 8, 1941 • Just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor • Aerial bombardment was followed by landing of ground troops
  4. 4. Commonwealth Of The Philippines • Invaded by Japan in December 1941 • Shortly after Japan’s declaration of war with United States • Commonwealth government exiled from 1942-1945 under Japanese occupation
  5. 5. US Defenses • Recalled MacArthur to active duty • Named him commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) • USAFFE formed Philippine Army’s 1st Regular Division, 2nd Constabulary Division, and 10 mobilized reserve division
  6. 6. USAFFE • Or U.S. Army Forces in the Far East • On July 31, 1941, the Philippine Department had 22,532 assigned • Half of whom were Filipino • MacArthur recommended the reassignment of the department commander, Maj. Gen. George Grunert in October 1941 • MacArthur organized USAFFE into 4 commands: – The North Luzon Force • Activated in Dec 3, 1941 • Under Major Gen. Jonathan Wainwright – The South Luzon Force • Activated in Dec 13, 1941 • Under Brig. Gen. George M. Parker Jr – The Visayan-Mindanao Force • Under Brig. Gen. William Sharp – USAFFE’s Reserve Force • Under MacArthur’s direct control
  7. 7. Mobilization • Mobilization plans called for induction of the ten reserve divisions between 1 September and 15 December 1941 • The most crucial equipment shortfalls were in rifles and divisional light artillery – MacArthur requested 84,500 M1 Garand rifles to replace the World War I Enfields
  8. 8. Defeat and Retreat • US and Filipino suffered two defeats from Battle of Bataan and Battle of Corregidor • US and Filipino surrendered to the Japanese and takes as POWs • The defeat was the beginning of three and a half years of harsh treatment for the Allied survivors • Including the Bataan Death March • And the prison camps, “Hell Ships” used for labor in mines and factories • MacArthur ordered to retreat in Australia • Famous last words were “I came out of Bataan and I shall return”
  9. 9. US in the Philippines • Under the command of General Douglas MacArthur • Suffered many ground and naval losses • Resupply from US of ground forces is impossible • MacArthur forced to leave
  10. 10. Philippine Resistance • Opposed by underground and guerilla activity • Philippine guerilla movement continued to grow • Filipinos joined various groups and vowed to fight the Japanese
  11. 11. Guerilla Forces • Formed throughout the archipelago during invasion of Japanese • Gathered and smuggled important military intelligence to US Army • Built stashes of arms and explosives, assisting the US Army
  12. 12. Hukbalahap • “Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon” which means “People’s Army Against the Japanese” • Military arm Communist Party of the Philippines • Formed to fight the Japanese occupation • Under the leadership of Luis Taruc
  13. 13. Return of MacArthur • Returned well supplied of information late in 1944 • It has been said that in his return, he knew what every Japanese lieutenant ate for breakfast • MacArthur's Allied forces landed on the island of Leyte on October 20, 1944 with Osmeña • Fighting was fierce, particularly in the mountains of northern Luzon • Japanese had to retreat
  14. 14. Japan’s last resort • Used Philippines as the final line of defense • Kamikaze corps created to defend Philippines • Guerilla forces averted a big disaster for Japanese
  15. 15. Philippine’s Aftermath • Filipino-American resistance lasted for 3 months • An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed • A large proportion during the final months of the war, and Manila was extensively damaged • The valor of the Filipino and American soldiers is celebrated • April 9th in the Philippines, Valor Day or “Araw ng Kagitingan”
  16. 16. Bibliography • • 06/04/09/world-war-ii-in-the- philippines/#comments • ation_of_the_Philippines • of_the_Philippines_during_World_War_II